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Yard Waste Management

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Yard Waste Management Presentation 2: The Composting Toolkit Funded by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management Recycling Grants Program Developed by the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Yard Waste Management


1
Yard Waste Management
2
Presentation 2 The Composting Toolkit
  • Funded by the Indiana Department of Environmental
    Management Recycling Grants Program
  • Developed by the Indiana Rural Community
    Assistance Program - RCAP

3
  • Introduction to
  • Yard Waste Management Options

4
Percents (By Weight) 2003 EPA Statistics
  • 35.2 - Paper/Paperboard/Cardboard
  • 12.1 - Yard Waste
  • 11.7 - Food Waste
  • That is over 50 of the MSW that can easily be
    composted!
  • 11.3 - Plastics
  • 8.0 - Metals
  • 7.4 - Rubber, Leather, Textiles (Clothing)
  • 5.3 - Glass
  • 1.0 - Household Hazardous Waste (HHW)
  • 2.2 - Other
  • 5.8 - Wood
  • Some of this wood portion of the waste stream
    tends to be within furniture or building products
    and is often treated and not suitable for
    composting.
  • Some of this wood portion of the waste stream
    is pallets which make an excellent mulch product.

5
Recycling Rates
  • National 30.6
  • _____________________________________________
  • Food Scraps 2.7
  • Yard Waste 56.3
  • _____________________________________________
  • Motor Vehicle Batteries 96.4
  • Steel Cans 58.8
  • Aluminum Cans 40.0
  • Paper/Paperboard/Cardboard 48.1
  • Glass Bottles 18.8
  • Plastic Containers and Packaging 9.6
  • _____________________________________________
  • Container and Packaging Waste 38.8
  • Non-durable Goods 31.0
  • Durable Goods 18.1
  • (2003 EPA Statistics)

6
The Second Most Recycled Item
  • By weight, yard waste is the 2 most recycled
    material in the United States
  • 16.1 million tons of yard trimming are recycled
    annually (Second only to corrugated boxes and
    paperboard boxes which recover 21.9 million tons
    annually)
  • Wood packaging is also recycled to a respectable
    tune of 1.3 million tons annually
  • (2003 EPA Statistics)

7
An Impressive Rise
  • Over approximately 20 years, composting has
    become a significant portion of the nations total
    recycling
  • Yard Waste Composting (Recycling) by Year
  • 1970 Negligible
  • 1980 Negligible
  • 1990 12
  • 2000 56.5

8
Yard Waste
  • What Is Yard Waste . . .
  • Grass Clippings
  • Leaves
  • Tree Trimmings
  • Brush Trimmings

9
Yard Waste
10
Yard Waste By Weight And Volume
  • Yard Waste By Weight . . .
  • Grass Clippings represent the largest portion,
    approximately 50
  • Leaves represent approximately 25
  • Tree and Brush Trimmings represent approximately
    25
  • Yard Waste By Volume . . .
  • Leaves represent the largest volume item in the
    yard waste stream

11
Yard Waste Seasonal Nature
  • Unlike other parts of the municipal solid waste
    stream, the volume and weight of collected yard
    waste varies greatly over the course of a year.
  • The majority of grass will be collected over
    summer months.
  • The majority of leaves will be collected over
    fall months.
  • The collection of both grass and leaves drop to
    near-zero over winter months.
  • Of all components of the yard waste stream, large
    limbs and stumps tend to be the most year-round
    in disposal.
  • During growing seasons yard waste can represent
    as much as 50 of the residential waste stream.

12
  • Composting Programs and
  • Yard Waste Management Programs
  • Across The United States

13
Composting Facilities Nationally
  • There are about 3,227 yard waste composting
    facilities in the United States, primarily
    located in the Northeast and the Midwest.
  • The State of Ohio has the most composting
    facilities of any State.
  • (2003 number from EPA)

14
States with Yard Waste Bans
15
A Cost Effective Solutions
  • Based on national averages . . .
  • For yard waste, compost programs are clearly the
    most cost effective means of managing this
    portion of the solid waste stream.
  • For food waste and contaminated paper products,
    compost programs may also be the most cost
    effective management solution.

16
Cost Effective In Indiana
  • But more important than national averages . . .
  • Successful Indiana programs support the national
    averages! Composting is a cost effective
    solution right here in Indiana.
  • On a cost-per-ton basis yard waste management
    comes out least expensive
  • State Average for Garbage Collection and
    Disposal 90.80 per ton
  • State Average for Recyclables Collection and
    Recycling 143.87 per ton
  • State Average for Yard Waste Collection and
    Composting 62.40 per ton
  • Averages come from a 1997 study of 240 Indiana
    Cities and Towns conducted by the Indiana
    Institute on Recycling

17
  • Introduction to Composting

18
So Lets Talk About Composting . . .
19
Compost
  • NOUN OR VERB?
  • BOTH!
  • The verb Composting is the process by which
    microorganisms break down waste and turn it into
    a valuable product.
  • The noun This end product is referred to simply
    as compost.

20
Types of Composting By Material
  • MSW Composting
  • Composting of Municipal Solid Waste Stream.
    Waste is ground, metals removed, and all
    remaining materials composted. Usually produces
    low quality compost.
  • Yard Waste Composting
  • Limited only to the yard waste portion of the
    waste stream.
  • Food Waste Composting
  • Most commonly the vegetable waste only. Animal
    byproducts require higher temperatures and much
    greater care to prevent spreading of pathogens.
  • Co-composting
  • Common term when one or all of the above are
    combined with sewage sludge and the combined
    mixture is then composted.

21
Types of Composting By Technique
  • Backyard Composting
  • In-Vessel Composting
  • Windrow Composting (10 ft.wide, 6 ft. high, lt 150
    ft. long)
  • Forced Aeration
  • Worm Composting/Vermicomposting
  • Mulch Production
  • Co-Composting (Sewage Sludge Nitrogen rich
    Wood Waste)
  • Land Application

22
Types of Composting Aerobic or Anaerobic?
  • We are talking today about AEROBIC composting.
  • That is, composting in the presence of OXYGEN
  • Microorganisms decompose organics aerobically
    (with oxygen) under carefully controlled
    conditions to produce finished compost
  • Anaerobic decomposition is what occurs in a
    landfill with Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and
    Leachate being three major products.

23
Backyard Composting
  • Low tech.
  • Lowest energy costs because the compost is
    treated at the location where it was created.
  • Many styles of bins. The key, however, is not
    the bin but maintaining optimal conditions.
  • Backyard composting is considered SOURCE
    REDUCTION by the EPA hierarchy of waste
    management.

24
In-vessel
25
In-Vessel Composting
  • Operations and Energy Intensive.
  • Most commonly used for MSW composting.
  • Most commonly used in Europe where space is at a
    premium.
  • Because of high initial and operating costs, not
    a major point of discussion in the composting
    tool-kit

26
Windrow Composting
  • Most common method of yard waste composting in
    the United States
  • Generally a row of material is composted,
    usually about 10-25 feet wide, 6 feet high, and
    as long as 150 feet.
  • Windrow composting has been shown to be highly
    cost effective. For community programs it is the
    major point of emphasis for the composting
    tool-kit.

27
Windrow Composting
28
Forced Aeration
  • A variation on the windrow pile with the addition
    of air being forced through the pile via pipes at
    the base of the pile.

29
Worm Composting
  • Can be done indoors or outdoors
  • Uses the macro-organism, red worms, verses the
    micro-organisms used in other forms of composting
  • Most effective with vegetable matter food wastes
  • Can be very small or very large scale

30
Mulch Production
  • Not a true form of composting (in the verb
    sense)
  • An excellent method of managing certain woody
    waste products
  • Mulch is a valuable and much sought after
    gardening product

31
Mulch Production
  • Woody wastes are ground/shredded
  • Can be colorized
  • Some municipal programs provide the product
    free-of-charge
  • From home improvement stores, to commercial
    composting and mulching operations, to the corner
    gas station, bags or truckloads of mulch can and
    are purchased by landscapers and gardeners
    everywhere.

32
Co-Composting
  • Co-composting utilizes combining sewage sludge
    (which is nitrogen rich) with woody wastes (which
    are carbon rich) for composting.
  • This type of composting is not covered within the
    tool-kit.

33
Land Application
  • Land application is the direct incorporation of
    raw, uncomposted, leaves, grass, and/or other
    non-woody landscaping waste directly into the
    soil.
  • The raw yard waste decomposes slowly over a
    period of time and are incorporated back into the
    soil.
  • Land application must be managed carefully to
    ensure proper proportions to prevent aesthetic or
    environmental problems from occurring.

34
Land Application
35
  • Wrapping Up Our Introduction

36
Conclusions Renewable Resource
  • As with all forms of recycling we must shift from
    looking at compostables as waste and instead as
    a feedstock for a useful finished product
  • Many people do not realize that peat moss is
    MINED. At best, peat moss is a VERY SLOWLY
    renewable resource.
  • Compost and mulch both offer a RENEWABLE RESOURCE
    that is an effective alternative to peat moss.

37
Conclusions Cost Effective
  • Based on national averages . . .
  • For yard waste, compost programs are clearly the
    most cost effective means of managing this
    portion of the solid waste stream.
  • For food waste and contaminated paper products,
    compost programs may also be the most cost
    effective management solution.
  • But more important than national averages . . .
  • Successful Indiana programs support the national
    averages! Composting is a cost effective
    solution right here in Indiana.

38
Conclusions Win-Win
  • Composting is a COST EFFECTIVE means of managing
    over 50 of the municipal solid waste stream.
  • Composting is a COST EFFECTIVE means of meeting
    landfill diversion goals.
  • That sure sounds like a win-win scenario to me!

39
QUESTIONS?
40
Thank You!
  • Additional Questions, Comments, or You Think You
    Have A Potential Pilot Community
  • Please Feel Free to Contact Me
  • Mark W. Davis
  • Technical Assistance Provider
  • Rural Community Assistance Program
  • Office 1-800-382-9895
  • Wireless (812) 320-0720
  • E-mail mdavis_at_incap.org
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