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Chapter 9 Notes

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Chapter 9 Notes Cellular Respiration 9-1 Chemical Pathways All living organisms need food to survive. Food provides living things with the chemical building blocks ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 9 Notes


1
Chapter 9 Notes
  • Cellular Respiration

2
9-1 Chemical Pathways
  • All living organisms need food to survive.
  • Food provides living things with the chemical
    building blocks they need to grow and reproduce.

3
9-1 Chemical Pathways
  • 1 gram of glucose releases 3811 calories of heat
    energy
  • Calorie (c) the amount of energy needed to raise
    the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 Celsius
    degree
  • The calories on food labels (C) are kilocalories
    or 1000 calories

4
9-1 Chemical Pathways
  • Cells gradually release energy from glucose and
    other food compounds.
  • Cellular respiration is the process that releases
    energy by breaking down food molecules in the
    presence of oxygen.
  • - 3 parts glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the
    electron transport chain

5
Electrons carried in NADH
Pyruvic acid
Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2
Glucose
Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain
Cytoplasm
Mitochondrion
6
9-1 Chemical Pathways
  • Equation for Cellular Respiration
  • 6O2 C6H12O6 ? 6CO2 6 H2O Energy
  • oxygenglucose ?carbonwaterenergy
  • dioxide

7
9-1 Chemical Pathways
Glucose
Krebs cycle
Electron transport
Glycolysis
Alcohol or lactic acid
Fermentation (without oxygen)
8
9-1 Chemical Pathways
  • The first set of chemical reactions in cellular
    respiration is glycolysis.
  • Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule
    of glucose is broken in half, producing two
    molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound

9
9-1 Chemical Pathways
  • Net results of glycolysis
  • - 2 molecules of ATP are gained
  • - 2 molecules of NADH are gained
  • - 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (3C) are formed
    from 1 glucose molecule

10
9-1 Chemical Pathways
4 ADP
2 ATP
2 ADP
4 ATP
Glucose
2 Pyruvic acid
11
9-1 Chemical Pathways
  • When oxygen is present in the cell, glycolysis is
    followed by the Krebs cycle.
  • If there is no oxygen present, glycolysis is
    followed by fermentation.
  • Fermentation releases energy from food molecules
    in the absence of oxygen

12
9-1 Chemical Pathways
  • Because fermentation does not require oxygen it
    is said to be anaerobic.
  • The two main types of fermentation are alcoholic
    fermentation and lactic acid fermentation

13
9-1 Chemical Pathways
14
9-1 Chemical Pathways
15
9-1 Chemical Pathways
  • Alcoholic fermentation is used mainly by plants
    and yeasts
  • - alcohol is the product
  • Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells
    when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the
    tissues
  • - lactic acid is the product

16
Section Quiz
  • The raw materials required for cellular
    respiration are
  • carbon dioxide and oxygen.
  • glucose and water.
  • glucose and oxygen.
  • carbon dioxide and water.

17
Section Quiz
  • Glycolysis occurs in the
  • mitochondria.
  • cytoplasm.
  • nucleus.
  • chloroplasts.

18
Section Quiz
  • The net gain of ATP molecules after glycolysis is
  • 3 ATP molecules.
  • 2 ATP molecules.
  • 3 pyruvic acid molecules.
  • 4 pyruvic acid molecules

19
Section Quiz
  • Fermentation releases energy from food molecules
    in the absence of
  • oxygen.
  • glucose.
  • NADH.
  • alcohol.

20
Section Quiz
  • The first step in fermentation is always
  • lactic acid production.
  • the Krebs cycle.
  • glycolysis.
  • alcohol production.

21
9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
  • Oxygen is used for the final steps of cellular
    respiration. Because the pathway requires
    oxygen, it is said to be aerobic.
  • In the presence of O2, pyruvic acid passes on to
    the second stage of cellular respiration, the
    Krebs cycle

22
9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
  • During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken
    down into carbon dioxide in a series of
    energy-extracting reactions
  • Net result of the Krebs cycle
  • - 2 molecules of pyruvic acid enter
  • - 8 molecules of NADH are gained
  • - 2 molecules of FADH2 are gained
  • - 2 molecules of ATP are gained

23
Mitochondrion
Citric Acid Production
24
9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
  • From glycolysis and the Krebs cycle high energy
    electron carriers, NADH and FADH2, are produced.
    The electrons are then passed to the electron
    transport chain.
  • The electron transport chain uses high energy
    electrons to convert ADP to ATP.
  • ETC Movie pt 1
  • ETC Movie pt 2

25
9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
26
9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
27
9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
28
9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
ATP synthase
29
9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
Channel
ATP synthase
ATP
30
9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
  • Each NADH make 3 ATP while each FADH2 makes 2 ATP
  • 1 glucose molecule can then make 38 total ATP ( 4
    ATP, 10 NADH ? 30 ATP, 2 FADH2 ? 4 ATP)
  • Cellular Respiration Animation

31
Section Quiz
  • The Krebs cycle breaks pyruvic acid down into
  • oxygen.
  • NADH.
  • carbon dioxide.
  • alcohol.

32
Section Quiz
  • In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is
    located in the
  • cell membrane.
  • inner mitochondrial membrane.
  • cytoplasm.
  • outer mitochondrial membrane.

33
Section Quiz
  • To generate energy over long periods, the body
    must use
  • stored ATP.
  • lactic acid fermentation.
  • cellular respiration.
  • glycolysis.

34
Section Quiz
  • Which statement correctly describes
    photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
  • Photosynthesis releases energy, while cellular
    respiration stores energy.
  • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration use the
    same raw materials.
  • Cellular respiration releases energy, while
    photosynthesis stores energy.
  • Cellular respiration and photosynthesis produce
    the same products.
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