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Mixed Methods Research

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Mixed Methods Research Professor Dr. Khalid Mahmood University of the Punjab Lahore PAKISTAN * Creswell & Plano Clark (2007) * * Acknowledgement This presentation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mixed Methods Research


1
Mixed Methods Research
  • Professor Dr. Khalid Mahmood
  • University of the Punjab
  • Lahore PAKISTAN

2
Acknowledgement
  • This presentation has been prepared with the help
    of many books and presentations on the topic.
  • The presenter pays his sincere gratitude to all
    authors, professors and experts for their efforts
    and contributions.
  • Particular thanks to Professor John W. Creswell
    of University of Nebraska-Lincoln for his
    un-matched contribution on the topic.

3
Agenda
  • Three types of research designs
  • Qualitative vs. quantitative research
  • Pragmatism Philosophy behind MMR
  • Reasons for mixing
  • How methods can be mixed
  • Planning mixed methods procedures
  • Notations to describe MM designs
  • 6 mixed methods designs
  • Further readings

4
Three types of research designs
  • Qualitative research exploring and
    understanding the meaning individuals or groups
    ascribe to a social or human problem.
  • Quantitative research testing objective
    theories by examining the relationship among
    variables.
  • Mixed methods research an approach to inquiry
    that combines or associates both qualitative and
    quantitative forms.

5
Qualitative vs. quantitative research
Criteria Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Purpose To understand interpret social interactions. To test hypotheses, look at cause effect, make predictions.
Group Studied Smaller not randomly selected. Larger randomly selected.
Variables Study of the whole, not variables. Specific variables studied
Type of Data Collected Words, images, or objects. Numbers and statistics.
Form of Data Collected Qualitative data such as open-ended responses, interviews, participant observations, field notes, reflections. Quantitative data based on precise measurements using structured validated data-collection instruments.
6
Qualitative vs. quantitative research
Criteria Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Type of Data Analysis Identify patterns, features, themes. Identify statistical relationships.
Objectivity and Subjectivity Subjectivity is expected. Objectivity is critical.
Role of Researcher Researcher their biases may be known to participants in the study, participant characteristics may be known to the researcher. Researcher their biases are not known to participants in the study, participant characteristics are deliberately hidden from the researcher (double blind studies).
Results Particular or specialized findings that is less generalizable. Generalizable findings that can be applied to other populations.
Scientific Method Exploratory or bottomup the researcher generates a new hypothesis and theory from the data collected. Confirmatory or top-down the researcher tests the hypothesis and theory with the data.
7
Qualitative vs. quantitative research
Criteria Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
View of Human Behavior Dynamic, situational, social, personal. Regular predictable.
Most Common Research Objectives Explore, discover, construct. Describe, explain, predict.
Focus Wide-angle lens examines the breadth depth of phenomena. Narrow-angle lens tests a specific hypotheses.
Nature of Observation Study behavior in a natural environment. Study behavior under controlled conditions isolate causal effects.
Nature of Reality Multiple realities subjective. Single reality objective.
Final Report Narrative report with contextual description direct quotations from research participants. Statistical report with correlations, comparisons of means, statistical significance of findings.
8
Pragmatism Philosophy behind MMR
  • Arises out of actions, situations, and
    consequences rather than antecedent conditions.
  • There is a concern with applicationswhat
    worksand solutions to problems.
  • Instead of focusing on methods, researchers
    emphasize the research problem and use all
    approaches available to understand the problem.

9
Reasons for mixing
  • The insufficient argument either quantitative
    or qualitative may be insufficient by itself
  • Multiple angles argument quantitative and
    qualitative approaches provide different
    pictures
  • The more-evidence-the-better argument combined
    quantitative and qualitative provides more
    evidence
  • Community of practice argument mixed methods
    may be the preferred approach within a scholarly
    community
  • Eager-to-learn argument it is the latest
    methodology
  • Its intuitive argument it mirrors real life

10
How methods can be mixed
Types of mixing Comments
Two types of research question. One fitting a quantitative approach and the other qualitative.
The manner in which the research questions are developed. Preplanned (quantitative) versus participatory/emergent (qualitative).
Two types of sampling procedure. Probability versus purposive.
Two types of data collection procedures. Surveys (quantitative) versus focus groups (qualitative).
Two types of data analysis. Numerical versus textual (or visual).
Two types of data analysis. Statistical versus thematic.
Two types of conclusions. Objective versus subjective interpretations.
11
Planning mixed methods procedures
Timing Weighting Mixing Theorizing
No Sequence Concurrent Equal Integrating Explicit
Sequential - Qualitative first Qualitative Connecting Implicit
Sequential - Quantitative first Quantitative Embedding
12
Notations to describe MM designs
13
Mixed methods designs
  • Sequential Explanatory Design
  • Sequential Exploratory Design
  • Sequential Transformative Design
  • Concurrent Triangulation Design
  • Concurrent Embedded Design
  • Concurrent Transformative Design

14
Sequential explanatory design
15
Sequential explanatory design Characteristics
  • Viewing the study as a two-phase project
  • Collecting quantitative data first followed by
    collecting qualitative data second
  • Typically, a greater emphasis is placed on the
    quantitative data in the study
  • Example You first conduct a survey and then
    follow up with a few individuals who answered
    positively to the questions through interviews

16
Sequential explanatory design When do you use
it?
  • When you want to explain the quantitative results
    in more depth with qualitative data (e.g.,
    statistical differences among groups, individuals
    who scored at extreme levels)
  • When you want to identify appropriate
    participants to study in more depth qualitatively

17
Sequential explanatory design Sample script
The purpose of this two-phase, explanatory mixed
methods study will be to obtain statistical,
quantitative results from a sample and then
follow-up with a few individuals to probe or
explore those results in more depth. In the
first phase, quantitative research questions or
hypotheses will address the relationship or
comparison of __________ (independent) and
________ (dependent) variables with ___________
(participants) at ___________(the research site).
In the second phase, qualitative interviews or
observations will be used to problem significant
_______(quantitative results) by exploring
aspects of the ________ (central phenomenon)
with _______ (a few participants) at ____________
(research site).
18
Sequential exploratory design
19
Sequential exploratory design Characteristics
  • Viewing the study as a two-phase project
  • Qualitative data collection precedes quantitative
    data collection
  • Typically, greater emphasis is placed on the
    qualitative data in the study
  • Example You collect qualitative diary entries,
    analyze the data for themes, and then develop an
    instrument based on the themes to measure
    attitudes on a quantitative survey administered
    to a large sample.

20
Sequential exploratory design When do you use it?
  • To develop an instrument when one is not
    available (first explore, then develop
    instrument)
  • To develop a classification or typology for
    testing
  • To identify the most important variables to study
    quantitatively when these variable are not known

21
Sequential exploratory design Sample script
The purpose of this two-phase, exploratory mixed
methods study will be to explore participant
views with the intent of using this information
to develop and test an instrument with a sample
from a population. The first phase will be a
qualitative exploration of a _______(central
phenomenon) by collecting ___________(data) from
____________ (participants) at _______ (research
site). Themes from this qualitative data will
then be developed into an instrument (or survey)
so that the __________ (theory and research
questions/hypotheses) can be tested that ________
(relate, compare) ____________ (independent
variable) with __________ (dependent variable)
for _________(sample of a population) at
_________ (research site).
22
Sequential transformative design
QUAL quan Social science theory,
qualitative theory, advocacy worldview
QUAN qual Social science theory,
qualitative theory, advocacy worldview
23
Sequential transformative design Characteristics
  • Has two distinct data collection phases
  • A theoretical perspective is used to guide the
    study
  • Purpose is to use methods that will best serve
    the theoretical perspective of the researcher

24
Concurrent triangulation design
25
Concurrent triangulation design Characteristics
  • Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data
  • Collecting these data at the same time in the
    research procedure
  • Analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data
    separately
  • Comparing or combining the results of the
    quantitative and qualitative analysis
  • Example collect survey data (quantitative) and
    collect individual interviews (qualitative) and
    then compare the results

26
Concurrent triangulation design When is it used?
  • When you want to combine the advantages of
    quantitative (trends, large numbers,
    generalization) with qualitative (detail, small
    numbers, in-depth)
  • When you want to validate your quantitative
    findings with qualitative data
  • When you want to expand your quantitative
    findings with some open-ended qualitative data
    (e.g., survey with closed- and open-ended data)

27
Concurrent embedded design
28
Concurrent embedded design Characteristics
  • One data collection phase during which both
    quantitative and qualitative data are collected
    (one is determined to be the primary method).
  • The primary method guides the project and the
    secondary provides a supporting role in the
    procedures.
  • The secondary method is embedded or nested
    within the predominant method and addresses a
    different question.

29
Sample script for a concurrent design (Triangulati
on or nested)
The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods
study is to better understand a research problem
by converging both quantitative (numeric) and
qualitative (text or image) data. In this
approach, ___________ (quantitative instruments)
will be used to measure the relationship between
the ________ (independent variables) and
__________ (dependent variables). At the same
time in the study, the __________ (central
phenomenon) will be explored using _____________
(qualitative interviews, documents, observations,
visual materials) with _________ (participants)
at ____________ (the research site).
30
Concurrent transformative design
31
Concurrent transformative design Characteristics
  • Guided by a theoretical perspective.
  • Concurrent collection of both quantitative and
    qualitative data.
  • The design may have one method embedded in the
    other so that diverse participants are given a
    choice in the change process of an organization.

32
Further readings
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