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Biblical Creation Stories

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Thomas J. Sienkewicz Last modified by: toms Created Date: 10/18/2005 3:08:11 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biblical Creation Stories


1
Biblical Creation Stories
Adam and Eveanthropomorphic godsBabyloncovenant
Elohist writerGarden of Edenimmanent
godIsraelitesLeviathanMardukMesopotamiaMoses
polytheismPriestly writerpunsRationalizationTi
amattranscendent godtree of knowledgeYawehYahw
ist or Jehovist writer
2
Examples of Paratactic Storytelling
  • Genesis two accounts of creation, one after the
    other
  • Genesis I-23 (God as Elohim) PRIESTLY
  • Genesis 2 (God as Yahweh)
  • COMPARE
  • Two accounts of creation of Pandora in Hesiod
  • Hesiod. Theogony 561-612 (creation)
  • Hesiod Works and Days 69-89 (creation and
    urn/box)

3
Authors of Genesis, 1
  • 950 B.C.E. The Yahwist or Jehovist (often
    referred to as Y or J). This writer referred to
    God by the Hebrew word Yahweh, which was
    sometimes rendered Jahweh. To help in
    identifying this source, the translation used
    here always renders Yahweh as Lord.
  • Origin Judaea, South Israel.

4
Authors of Genesis, 2
  • 850 B.C.E. The Elohist (often referred to as
    E). This writer referred to God by the Hebrew
    word Elohim. To help in identifying this
    source, the translation used here always renders
    Elohim as God.
  • Origin Ephraim, North Israel.

5
Authors of Genesis, 3
  • 721 B.C.E. Yahwist-Elohist version (often
    referred to as J-E).
  • Origin After the fall of the Northern Kingdom,
    Judaean editors combined parts of the J and E
    traditions. In parts of Genesis they were so
    effective in weaving these sources together, that
    we can no longer separate them.

6
Authors of Genesis, 4
  • 550 B.C.E. The Priestly writer (often referred
    to as P). This writer also referred to God by the
    Hebrew word Elohim, but his account can be
    distinguished from the Elohist by what he writes
    about. He demonstrates the concerns of a priest
    he writes about how Jewish rituals and holy days
    began, and he keeps track of the generations
    the so-called "begats." This is because a
    person's ancestry determines eligibility for
    religious functions. To help in identifying this
    source, the translation used here always renders
    Elohim as God.
  • Origin In 587 B.C.E, the Jews were captured by
    Nebuchadnezzar and carried off to Babylon. This
    is known as the Babylonian Exile. It ended in
    538, when Cyrus allowed the Jews to return to
    their homeland, Israel. In his creation story,
    the Priestly writer is largely concerned with
    refuting the Babylonian religion, so we can tell
    he wrote after the Exile, expressing ideas that
    were current during it.

7
Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo Buonarotti(b. 1475, Caprese, d.
1564, Roma)
For more information on the ceiling paintings,
see http//gallery.euroweb.hu/tours/sistina/index1
.html
8
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9
The Priestly Version of Creation
Day 1 1 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 1 3 And God said, "Let there be light" and there was light. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.
Day 2 1 6 And God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters."
10
The Priestly Version of Creation (2)
Day 3 1 9 And God said, "Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear."
Day 4 1 14 And God said, "Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to separate the day from the night and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years
11
The Priestly Version of Creation (3)
Day 5 1 21 So God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarm, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind.
12
The Priestly Version of Creation (4)
Day 6 1 24 And God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kinds cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth according to their kinds." 1 26 Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth." 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him male and female he created them.
13
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14
God as Immanent or Transcendent?
15
The Priestly Version of Creation (5)
Day 7 2 2 And on the seventh day God finished his work which he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done. 3 So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all his work which he had done in creation.
16
Creation of humans in the Bible P
  • 1 1 In the beginning when God created the
    heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was without
    form and void, and darkness was upon the face of
    the deep and the Spirit of God was moving over
    the face of the waters.
  • 1 24 Then God said, "Let us make man in our
    image, after our likeness and let them have
    dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the
    birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over
    all the earth, and over every creeping thing that
    creeps upon the earth."

17
Creation of Humans in the Bible J-E
  • 2 4b
  • In the day that the LORD God made the earth and
    the heavens, 5 when no plant of the field was yet
    in the earth and no herb of the field had yet
    sprung up-for the LORD God had not caused it to
    rain upon the earth, and there was no man to till
    the ground 6 but a mist went up from the earth
    and watered the whole face of the ground then
    the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground,
    and breathed into his nostrils the breath of
    life and man became a living being. 8 And the
    LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east
    and there he put the man whom he had formed. 9
    And out of the ground the LORD God made to grow
    every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good
    for food, the tree of life also in the midst of
    the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good
    and evil.

18
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20
The J-E Version of Creation
  • 2 25 And the man and his wife were both naked,
    and were not ashamed.
  • 3 6 when the woman saw that the tree was good
    for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes,
    and that the tree was to be desired to make one
    wise, she took of its fruit and ate and she also
    gave some to her husband, and he ate. 7 Then the
    eyes of both were opened and they knew that they
    were naked and they sewed fig leaves together and
    made themselves aprons.
  • 3 20 The man called his wife's name Eve, because
    she was the mother of all living. 21 And the LORD
    God made for Adam and for his wife garments of
    skins, and clothed them.

21
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22
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23
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24
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25
Comparison of the J-E writer and the Priestly
writer
Priestly Genesis 11-24a J-E Genesis 24b-324
Landscape Wet. Originates in Mesopotamia, a fertile land irrigated by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. This account begins with the Spirit of God "moving over the face of the waters." Dry. Originates in the deserts of Palestine. This account describes the planting of a garden, an important event in a desert. Man is made from dust.
26
Comparison of the J-E writer and the Priestly
writer (2)
Priestly Genesis 11-24a J-E Genesis 24b-324
Order of creation Man is made last, showing his importance to God. The world is prepared for him before his creation. Man is made first, showing his importance to God. After man's creation, everything else is created for his use.
Nature of humans Created male and female from the first Does not sin against god. The man is created first. The woman is created later, after all other creatures. Sins against god.
27
Comparison of the J-E writer and the Priestly
writer (3)
Priestly Genesis 11-24a J-E Genesis 24b-324
View of God Aloof from his creation. Seems to delegate his work "Let there be light." TRANSCENDENT Involved with humans, and the act of creation forms man of dust, breathes life into his nostrils walks in garden (Genesis 38) IMMANENT
28
Comparison of the J-E writer and the Priestly
writer (4)
Priestly Genesis 11-24a J-E Genesis 24b-324
Concerns Explains the reason behind religious ceremonies like the Sabbath day. Focuses on the relationship between God and Israel.
29
Similarities Between P and J-E
  • Human beings matter to God
  • Covenant appears in both
  • A covenant, like a contract, binds both God and
    his people Israel. Under it, God, functions as a
    patron promises to take care of his people, who
    also promise to be loyal to him.
  • P Implied in the relationship between man and
    God, as represented by the Sabbath
  • J-E And the LORD God made for Adam and for his
    wife garments of skins, and clothed them.

30
Puns in Hebrew Genesis
  • 27 adham (man) is created from adhamah
    (ground) and is named Adam at 317
  • 223 ishash (woman) incorporates the rib of ish
    (man)
  • 330 hawwa Eve (mother of all living) sounds
    like hay (life)

31
Eve and Pandora
32
Babylon
  • Babylonian refers to any of the peoples who
    occupied Mesopotamia from the days of the early
    Sumerians and Akkadians, right through to 539 BC,
    when Babylon fell to the Persian leader Cyrus.
    Mesopotamia refers to the land around the Tigris
    and Euphrates rivers which is now part of modern
    Iraq

Source http//home.no.net/torawo/skole/samfunnsfa
g/mesopotamia.htm
33
Babylonians
  • had an advanced and prosperous civilization
  • lived in cities
  • wrote in cuneiform business records as well as
    literature and law
  • were ruled by Hammurabi 1760 BCE

http//ragz-international.com/babylonia.htm
34
Babylonian Captivity
  • Babylonians took over the entire Assyrian Empire,
    and its army reached Jerusalem, the capital of
    Juda, the southern Kingdom of the Jews, in 597
    BCE
  • The prominent citizens of Judah -- anyone who had
    influence to exert, money to invest, valuable
    skills to employ, or the ability to read and
    write -- were deported to live together in
    Babylon. When the deportations were finished in
    587 BCE, the city of Jerusalem, with its Palace
    and Temple, was demolished completely.
  • The Babylonian captivity came to an end in 538
    BCE when the Persian leader Cyrus (who had
    captured Babylon) released the Jews

35
Science of the Babylonians
  • had considerable engineering knowledge and skill
    which they used in the preparation of maps,
    surveys, and plans involved the use of leveling
    instruments and measuring rods
  • observed the heavens in a detailed and accurate
    manner over many centuries.

36
Science of the Babylonians (2)
  • had a base-60 place value system
  • used fractions for calculations in base sixty
  • they used a year of 12 months and a week of 7
    days, and also originated the division of the day
    into hours, minutes, and seconds
  • developed an extensive algebra which allowed them
    to solve quadratic equations as well as both
    third and fourth order equations, and als and
    simultaneous equations in several unknowns. They
    had an effective algorithm for computing square
    roots, and generated a remarkable approximation
    to Ö2. Using their version of log tables they
    solved problems in compound interest using linear
    interpolation.

37
Enuma Elish
The Babylonian creation story is found in an epic
poem from the second millennium BCE titled the
Enuma Elish (when in the height) http//www.
sacred-texts.com/ane/enuma.htm
38
Cosmology of the Babylonians
  • creation takes place in a watery waste
  • mingling of Apsu (sweet water) and Tiamat (salt
    water)
  • The god Marduk makes the earth from the body of
    Tiamat, a monster he kills
  • The heavens are formed from her upper part and
    the waters are the liquids which flowed from her
    veins

http//www.goetter-und-mythen.de/marduk.htm
39
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40
Priestly Creation Story Refutes the Cosmogony of
Babylon
  • Priestly version of Genesis shows, by describing
    each aspect of creation as coming from the God of
    Israel, that it is not Marduk who is responsible
    for the creation of the world
  • darkness was upon the face of the deep and the
    Spirit of God was moving over the face of the
    waters.
  • Hebrew 'tehom.' is the equivalent of the
    Babylonian word Tiamat. Tiamat was the
    Babylonian deity identified with salt water and
    killed by the head god Marduk. Here the Priestly
    writer is showing that Yahweh, not Marduk,
    prevailed over the deep.
  • The heavenly bodies are not gods but lights
    produced by God on the fourth day

41
Babylonian Ishtar
  • Goddess of animal and human fertility
  • Her influence was felt throughout the world
  • Worshipped by recourse to temple prostitutes

In Genesis it is not the fertility of Ishtar
which causes animal fertility but God, on the
sixth day.
http//www.astroconsulting.com/FAQs/goddesses.htm
42
  • Workshop of Albrecht AltdorferThe Rule of
    Bacchus, c. 1535National Gallery of Art,
    Washington, D.C.
  • Samuel H. Kress Collection1952.5.31.a

43
Biblical Creation Stories
Adam and Eveanthropomorphic godsBabyloncovenant
Elohist writerGarden of Edenimmanent
godIsraelitesLeviathanMardukMesopotamiaMoses
polytheismPriestly writerpunsRationalizationTi
amattranscendent godtree of knowledgeYawehYahw
ist or Jehovist writer
Enuma Elish MichelangeloAltdorfer Babylonian
Exile Apsu and Tiamat
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