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IP Telephony with Asterisk

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A few years ago, everyone struggled to convert data (IP) into sound, and move it over the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) infrastructure [using MODEMs] ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IP Telephony with Asterisk


1
IP Telephony with Asterisk
  • Sunday A. Folayan

2
Disclaimer
I am NOT an expert in VoIP technology I am NOT
PRETENDING to be one. I am a user who just got
interested in the technology. and its coolness
What I say may not be what it is, but how I
understand it. Do not believe what I say
wholesome, but seek your own understanding If
you know that what I just said is a lie, please
be kind to challenge me!
3
IP Telephony 101
Once upon a time, this was a means of
Transportation a 4x4 gas-efficient All Terrain!
4
There lived the PSTN .
  • A few years ago, everyone struggled to convert
    data (IP) into sound, and move it over the Public
    Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) infrastructure
    using MODEMs

5
Enter VoIP .
  • The packetisation and transport of classic public
    switched telephone system audio over an IP
    network.
  • The analog audio stream is encoding in a digital
    format, with possible compression and filtering,
    before encapsulating it in IP for transport over
    LAN/WAN or the public internet Infrastructure

6
Convergence or Extinction?
  • Now everyone is struggling to convert PSTN
    sound into data, and move it over well
    established IP links. using CODECs
  • Technology has just reversed the process

7
Voice Technology Matrix
POTS
FXS/FXO
Voice
??
8
VoIP provides a choice of Providers and paths
Roaming
ENUM lookup
27 217 451230
Query
NAPTR
200067_at_fwd.pulver.com
PRI 43 1 79564
Randy_at_psg.com
Invite100_at_84.201.255.254
AS5300
Freeworld Dialup
Psg.com asterisk Server
HP Ze5500
19343_at_fwd.pulver.com
Sghuter_at_nsrc.org
19918_at_fwd.pulver.com
Call forwarding to AS 5300
TESPOK SIP Proxy
9
Why TDM does not scale
  • PSTNs traditionally (Graham Bell Era) stuff a
    single call on a single cable pair and charge
    for 1 pair!
  • PSTNs then stuffed multiple calls on a single
    cable pair using Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
    and charge as multiple pairs!!
  • BRI, PRI, ISDN, E1 T1 etc are all TDM
    technologies with diverse switching and Timing
    technologies
  • PSTNs are now stuffing almost all calls into IP
    and they still keep the entire honey pot
  • TDM is wasteful. Cannot utilize time slots
    carrying a period of silence in conversations
  • VOIP is incompatible with the PSTNs charging
    model!
  • TDM introduces complex settlement systems,
    rendered obsolete by IP
  • TDM just does not scale!

10
IP vs VoIP
  • VoIP introduces a collection of protocols and
    devices that allow for the encoding, transport
    and routing of audio calls over IP networks.
  • Voice ? IP ? Voice P2P, Skype, Messanger
  • Voice ? IP ? PSTN Net2Phone, Deltathree
  • Voice PSTN ? IP ? PSTN iBasis, ITXC
  • Voice GSM ? IP ? GSM/PSTN ???

11
Games the big boys play
ISP1
TDM
12
Little kids also play
ISP1
TDM
13
The VoIP edge
  • IP is Scaleable
  • IP conserves capacity
  • IP simplifies charging and billing
  • A turf for ISPs to play on
  • Softphones for Pc to Phone and PC to PC calls
  • Web-based applications for web to phone services
  • Move phones into the IT department and away from
    the expensive PBX consulting firm
  • Interconnecting office PBXs at zero network cost
  • Give ubiquitous access to the PBX for
    home/traveling employees
  • PBX features such as Voicemail, Call blocking,
    Call forwarding, Call Conferencing, Follow me etc
    as added services

14
Universal Access
ISP1
15
VoIP Building block
  • VoIP is not built on TCP, but RTP
  • RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol)
  • RTCP (Real-Time Control Protocol)
  • RTP is a UDP stream with no intelligence for QOS
    or resource reservation
  • Contains a packet number for detection of packet
    loss and re-sequencing of out of order packets.
  • Unidirectional two streams in any call

16
VoIP Building block
  • Calls are CODed to IP or DECoded from IP.
  • CODECS vary in sample size, usually Kbits per
    second
  • Decoding can include echo cancellation
  • Decoding can compensate for jitter
  • IP routers do not need to decode voice passing
    through them

17
VoIP Building block
  • Sample CODEC Sizes
  • G711alaw 64k
  • G711ulaw 64k
  • ILBC 15k
  • Speex 2.15 44.2k
  • Gsm 13k
  • G729 8k
  • G723 5.3 - 6.3k
  • Iax2 (trunked) 4k
  • Codecs that compress to lower bandwidth are CPU
    intensive, unless the codec is implemented in
    hardware. Strike a balance!

18
Control Protocols
  • H323 Complex, multiple flow, ancient
  • Has a large install base
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • New, simple, only sets up RTP streams
  • Cisco Skinny (Proprietary)
  • Allows complete phone customization
  • MGCP (media Gateway Control Protocol)
  • Good but Not widely deployed as SIP
  • IAX (Inter-Asterisk eXchange)
  • Simple, transverses NAT, Compressed

19
SIP
  • SIP messages are HTTP-like and readable
  • Supports Video
  • There's lots of hardware SIP units available
  • Grandstream BT-101/2
  • Cisco 79xx )
  • Not suited for Trunking (pbx to pbx)
  • SIP is responsible for the increased use of VoIP

20
IAX(2)
  • Inter Asterisk Exchange
  • Not many Hardware phones support IAX.
  • Soft Clients available for unix/Windows
  • Works behind NAT
  • Has Trunking support built in
  • Very low bandwidth requirement
  • Built for asterisk

21
Phones
  • Soft phones
  • X-lite - www.xten.com (Windows)
  • Lipz - www.lipz4.com (Linux)
  • DIAX - http//www.laser.com/dante/diax/diax.html
    (Windows)
  • PhoneGaim www.phonegaim.com(Linux)
  • Linphone - www.linphone.org (FreeBSD)
  • Sjphone - http//www.sjlabs.com/sjp.html
    (Windows, WinCE, Mac)
  • Lots of others

22
Phones
  • Hard phones
  • Cisco 79XXs
  • Grandstream BT 10Xs
  • Snom 100/200s
  • LOTS of h.323 phones from .tw -)
  • Many other phones

23
  • Most IP phones can work Peer to Peer

It is the Ability to use a PC as switch or PBX
that really makes VoIP rock!! Simply loading a
software PBX on a PC offers new possibilities
24
PBX Software
  • Call Manager
  • Closed Source
  • 13 ? 16 CDs
  • Web Interface
  • Requires CCNA to setup
  • Needs extremely powerful Server
  • Leaves PRI/FXO/FXS to other devices
  • Asterisk
  • Open Source
  • A large array of tools and add-ons
  • Uses industry-wide devices and equipment
  • Can be setup in one night

25
What is in VoIP for operators?
  • Some uncharted colonies
  • WiFi/WiMax Phones for universal access
  • True Global roaming -)
  • Enum adoption
  • Numbering plan, being able to really Play
  • Receivership for Long Distance companies

26
Asterisk Open-Source IP PBX
27
Asterisk is not
  • A billing system
  • A CRM system
  • A web server or XML server (re Cisco 79xx)
  • A configuration tool for VoIP devices
  • A voice recognition system
  • A USENET or email client

28
Asterisk is a .
  • Telephony gateway (TDM - PRI,POTS)
  • VoIP Gateway (IP channels)
  • IVR system (Interactive Voice Response)
  • Voicemail system
  • Meet-me Conference system
  • Scriptable telephony-to-anything (Perl, C, etc.)
  • Automatic Call distribution (ACD) system

29
Practical Uses (office)
  • Ditch your LD company
  • Interconnect office PBXs at zero network cost
  • Get Unified Messaging
  • Give ubiquitous access to the PBX for
    home/traveling employees
  • Disaster recovery scenarios
  • Move phones into your IT department and away from
    your expensive PBX consulting firm
  • Eliminate adds/moves/changes as physical chores

30
System Requirements
  • No clear rule of thumb on processor size at
    least 400mhz PIII recommended
  • Works on almost all Linux Distributions and
    FreeBSD
  • Source binaries (including sounds) are 35Mb
  • Using complex codecs (i.e. G.729, speex, etc.)
    will increase processor load dramatically

31
Estimated CPU Sizing
Purpose Simultaneous calls Minimum Recommendation
Hobby System lt5 X86 400Mhz 256MB
SoHo System 5 - 10 X86 1Ghz 512Mb
SMB System 10 - 15 X86 3Ghz 1GB
Large gt15 Dual CPU, Clusters
32
Compatible Interfaces
  • Many interfaces for converting between
    Voice/IP/TDM are compatible with Asterisk. These
    include
  • POTS cards (Digium, Zapata, Voicetronix, etc.)
  • TDM Digital (AdTran VoFR, Digium E1/T1, etc.)
  • CAPI (ISDN card support for Linux ISDN driver)
  • USB dongle for FXS
  • Modem drivers for certain modems
  • Speaker/headphones via soundcard

33
Basic Installation Steps
  1. Setup CPU and operating System
  2. Install desired hardware based on application
    intended
  3. Download asterisk from www.asteriskpbx.org
  4. Compile and install with Make
  5. Load Appropriate drivers None is needed for IP
    or soft phone
  6. Configure modules.conf
  7. Configure either sip.conf or iax.conf
  8. Configure extensions.conf
  9. Start Asterisk
  10. Make calls!

34
Extensions.conf (Call Flow)
  • Calls come in on channels and are then handed to
    the extensions.conf file, which is the dialplan
  • Dialplan contains logical sections of matches
    called Contexts, and each channel sends a call
    into the dialplan with a context name and a
    dialed number
  • The dialplan then matches (with modified
    regexps) the number being dialed, and runs
    applications accordingly
  • Each match on the dialed number has an order of
    steps called Priorities, and are indicated with
    an integral incrementing number (BASIC-like)

35
Other use .
  • Call queues - you can build a call center with
    Asterisk, with various call weightings and agent
    logins/hot seating
  • Multi-ring, cascading ring with different
    technologies (inbound calls forward to your desk
    line and your cell phone - first answer gets it)
  • Multi-language support with same dialplan
  • Festival integration for voice synthesis

36
References .
  • http//www.asterisk.org/
  • http//www.digium.com/
  • http//www.voip-info.org
  • http//www.loligo.com/asterisk/
  • http//www.wwworks-inc.com/asterisk/
  • http//www.xten.com/
  • http//resources.nznog.org/Wednesday-220306/JonnyM
    artin-AsteriskPBX/NZNOG06-Asterisk_JM.pdf
  • http//www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2003/07/03/aste
    risk.html
  • http//www.nznog.org/crigby-voip-intro.ppt
  • http//www.loligo.com/asterisk/misc/presentations/
    asterisk-overview.v1.0.ppt
  • http//docbox.etsi.org/tispan/open/enum-workshop-2
    0040224-sophia/08.20r20stastny20austria_v4.ppt
  • http//www.ietf.org/proceedings/03jul/slides/enum-
    3/enum-3.ppt
  • http//www.ispa.at/downloads/c8431676f72b_2003-05_
    ispa_enum_voip_stastny.ppt
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