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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1 Psychology The scientific study of human behavior and mental processes Behavior- any action that people can observe or measure ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Psychology


1
Introduction to Psychology
  • Chapter 1

2
Psychology
  • The scientific study of human behavior and mental
    processes
  • Behavior- any action that people can observe or
    measure
  • includes walking, talking, eating, sleeping, etc.
  • measured by observation or laboratory instruments

3
Cognitive Activities
  • Mental processes
  • Include dreams, perceptions, thoughts, and
    memories

4
Psychological Constructs
  • Theoretical entities, or concepts, that enable
    one to discuss something that cannot be seen,
    touched, or measured directly
  • Ex anxiety about presenting a project

5
Goals of Psychology
  • Scientists seek to observe, describe, explain,
    predict, and control the events they study
  • Psychologists observe and describe behavior and
    mental processes to better understand them
  • This allows them to explain, predict, and help
    clients control their behavior

6
Explaining Behavior
  • Example Sports psychologists can help athletes
    improve performance by measuring athletes heart
    rates and other body processes and by
    interviewing athletes.
  • Psychologists explain behavior that might hinder
    an athletes performance.

7
Mental Processes
  • Predicting and Controlling
  • Psychologists predict that athletes perform best
    when anxiety is moderate.
  • help athletes control their behavior and mental
    processes by teaching them how to control
    anxiety.
  • Positive visualization is one method sports
    psychologists use to help athletes perform
    better.
  • focus on helping people reach their own goals.

8
Research
  • Two widely used research methods are surveys and
    experimentation.
  • Surveys collect data through questions asked of a
    particular group.
  • Experimentation usually involves people or
    animals. Some psychologists believe animal
    research can be applied to humans.

9
Research- Theories
  • Psychologists organize research findings into
    theories.
  • A theory is a statement that attempts to explain
    why things are the way they are and why they
    happen as they do.
  • Theories help psychologists form principles. A
    principle is a basic truth or law.

10
Fields in Psychology
11
  • Major Fields

12
Clinical
  • Largest group
  • help with anxiety, depression, weight control,
    drugs, relationships, etc.
  • use interviews and tests

13
Counseling
  • Usually treat people with adjustment problems
    rather than serious disorders
  • Example
  • hard to make friends, careers, family
  • help clarify goals and overcome problems

14
School
  • Identify and help students who have problems that
    interfere with learning
  • Example
  • peer group, family, learning disorders

15
Educational
  • Focus on course planning and instructional
    methods for whole school
  • ways learning is affected by psychological,
    cultural, economic, instructional factors

16
Developmental
  • Study changes that occur throughout a persons
    life
  • physical, emotional, cognitive, social
  • influences of heredity and environment on
    development

17
Personality
  • Identify human characteristics and traits and
    study development
  • Look for origins of problems and disorders

18
Social
  • Concerned with behavior in social situations

19
Experimental
  • Conduct research into basic processes such as
    functions of the nervous system, sensation and
    perception, learning and memory, thinking,
    motivation

20
  • Applied Fields

21
Industrial and Organizational
  • Focus on people and work
  • employed to improve working conditions and worker
    output

22
Human Factors
  • Attempt to find the best ways to design products
    for people to use

23
Community
  • Study and create social systems that promote and
    foster individual well-being
  • mental health centers, hospital programs,
    school-based programs

24
Forensic
  • Work within the criminal justice system
  • testify on competence of defendant, select and
    train officers, cope with stress

25
Health
  • Examine ways behavior and mental processes are
    related to physical health
  • preventing and reducing risk of disease

26
Rehabilitation
  • Work with patients that are struggling with the
    effects of a disability

27
Cross-cultural
  • Study behaviors and mental processes under
    different cultural conditions

28
Chapter 1
  • History of Psychology

29
Main Idea
  • Since ancient times, philosophers and scientists
    have studied behavior and mental processes.
    Psychologists throughout history have continued
    to refine and develop these studies.

30
Early Views and Beliefs
  • Psychology is as old as human history.
  • Written account of the interest in peoples
    actions, motives, and thoughts can be traced to
    ancient times.

31
Ancient Greece
  • Socrates developed a method of learning called
    introspection, which means to carefully examine
    our own thoughts and feelings.
  • Aristotle outlined associationism, the theory
    that association with past experiences is a basic
    principle of mental activity.

32
Wilhelm Wundt and Structuralism
  • Wundt founded a field of psychology known as
    structuralism.
  • focused on the basic elements of consciousness.
  • Wundt broke down consciousness into objective
    sensations and subjective feelings.

33
William James and Functionalism
  • Experience is a continuous stream of
    consciousness.
  • Functionalism is the study of how mental
    processes help organisms adapt to their
    environment.

34
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
  • psychoanalysis- emphasizes unconscious motives
    and internal conflicts in human behavior.
  • psychodynamic thinking- assumes that most of what
    exists in an individual's mind is unconscious and
    consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and
    wishes.
  • the key to human behavior is satisfying desires.

35
Modern Developments
  • John B. Watson and Behaviorism
  • Founded the school of behaviorism, which defined
    psychology as the scientific study of observable
    behavior
  • Holds that people can be totally conditioned by
    external events and that belief in individual
    choice is just an illusion

36
The Gestalt School
  • Gestalt psychology is an alternative to
    behaviorism and structuralism.
  • It was developed by German psychologists Max
    Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Köhler.
  • It is based on the idea that our perceptions of
    objects are more than the sum of their parts.
    They are wholes that give shape, or meaning, to
    the parts.

37
  • Gestalt psychology rejects the structuralist idea
    that experience can be broken down into
    individual parts or elements.
  • It also rejects the behaviorist idea that only
    observable behavior is important.

38
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39
Contemporary Perspectives
40
The Biological Perspective
  • Emphasizes the influence of biology on our
    behavior
  • Assume our mental processes--thoughts, fantasies,
    and dreams-- are made by the nervous system
  • The Brain

41
  • Focus on the influence glands, hormones, and
    genes
  • Influenced by associationism and neroscience

42
Evolutionary Perspective
  • Charles Darwin
  • Focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental
    processes
  • Suggest that many behavior patterns are adaptive
  • People learn to act certain ways to survive and
    pass it down

43
Cognitive Perspective
  • Emphasizes the role thoughts play in determining
    behavior
  • Influenced by Structuralism, functionalism, and
    Gestalt psychology
  • Compare the brain to a computer
  • Believe that behavior is influenced by values,
    perceptions, and choices

44
Humanistic Perspective
  • Stresses the human capacity for self-fulfillment
    and the importance of consciousness,
    self-awareness, and the capacity to make choices
  • Consciousness shapes human personality
  • Consider personal experiences most important
  • Help people explore feelings, manage negative
    impulses, and realize potential

45
Psychoanalytic Perspective
  • Stresses the influence of unconscious forces on
    human behavior
  • Influenced by Sigmund Freud
  • believed that aggressive impulses are common
    reactions to the frustrations of daily life and
    we seek to vent them on other people

46
Learning Perspective
  • Emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior
  • Important to observing, describing, explaining,
    predicting, and controlling behavior
  • John B. Watson and Behaviorism
  • personal experiences and reinforcement guide
    individual development

47
  • Social-Learning Theory
  • people can change their environments and create
    new ones
  • peoples expectations and values influence
    whether they choose to do what they have learned

48
Sociocultural
  • Study the influences of ethnicity, gender,
    culture, and the socio-economic status on
    behavior and mental processes
  • Helps people appreciate cultural heritages and
    historical issues
  • Influenced by Social, environmental, and
    cross-cultural psychology

49
Biopsychosocial
  • Mental processes are influenced by the
    interaction of biological processes,
    psychological dispositions, and social factors
  • George Engel used it to explain heart disease
  • must consider more than just biology
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