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PSYCHOLOGY 100 January 29/30, 2003

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PSYCHOLOGY 100 January 29/30, 2003 Lifespan Development Chapter 11 (continued) Kathy Pichora-Fuller What Happens as a Person Ages? Positive Change? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PSYCHOLOGY 100 January 29/30, 2003


1
PSYCHOLOGY 100January 29/30, 2003Lifespan
DevelopmentChapter 11 (continued)
  • Kathy Pichora-Fuller

2
What Happens as a Person Ages?
  • Positive Change?
  • Negative Change?

3
When is a Person Old(er)?
4
Continuity vs Stages
  • Figure 11.7
  • Stage theories of development. Some theories view
    development as a relatively continuous process,
    albeit not as smooth and perfectly linear as
    depicted on the left. In contrast, stage theories
    assume that development is marked by major
    discontinuities (as shown on the right) that
    bring fundamental, qualitative changes in
    capabilities or characteristic behavior.

5
Adolescence
Change
  • Developmental period ages 12 to 18
  • Many biological, perceptual, cognitive, social,
    and personality traits change from childlike to
    adultlike
  • Puberty
  • Developmental period between the ages of 9 and 17
    when the individual experiences significant
    biological changes that result in developing
    secondary sex characteristics and reaching sexual
    maturity

6
Eriksons Ages of Human Development
  • Young Adulthood
  • Young adults come to terms with the importance of
    companionship and connection
  • Shall I share my life with another person or
    live alone?
  • The central conflict of early adulthood is that
    of intimacy versus isolation.
  • But consider an example framed in terms of
    continuity Teen suicide in aboriginals
    (Chandler)
  • http//www.cheos.ubc.ca/Urban/healthChandler.html

7
Young Adulthood
  • The beginning of young adulthood is marked by
    commitments in the areas of career, relationships
    and lifestyle.
  • Knowledge gathering
  • Expanding social networks/roles
  • The quality of the period known as middle age is
    influenced in part by the outcome of these early
    adult decisions.

Change
8
Eriksons Ages of Human Development
  • Middle Age
  • In the middle of adulthood one wants to feel that
    they have contributed to society in some
    meaningful way
  • Will I add anything of real value to the world
    as a worker and a parent?
  • The conflict of middle adulthood is the desire to
    achieve generativity versus stagnation.

9
Middle Adulthood
Change
  • The Midlife Transition
  • The midlife crisis is a dramatic expression for
    the reassessment of personal goals that many
    people experience.
  • A more low-key and accurate term is midlife
    transition.
  • Some abandon unrealistic goals set in youth and
    set new goals that fit with their current lives.
  • Others try to fulfill some of those early life
    dreams, or set new ones.

10
Eriksons Ages of Human Development
  • Old Age
  • The reality that time is growing short forces
    people to face a final and profound question
  • Have I lived a full and meaningful life, or have
    I squandered my time?
  • As older adults we struggle to determine whether
    we have arrived at a stage of ego integrity
    versus despair.

11
Old Adulthood
Change
  • Despite the stereotypes we hold, old age is not a
    uniform experience for humans
  • Some deteriorate rapidly physically and/or
    intellectually
  • Shrinking social networks/roles (isolation)
  • Others remain active and alert into their 80s and
    later
  • Knowledge giving
  • In general, the elderly in our society have been
    experiencing improved health, activity and
    intellect.

within between
heterogeneity
12
Eriksons Stages
13
Demographics Booms Echoes
  • http//www.statcan.ca/english/Pgdb/demo31b.htm

14
The Aging Population
  • Prevalence How many in the total population
    affected by a condition at a given time
  • Incidence How many new cases in a given time
  • Longevity
  • Health
  • Education/Literacy
  • Career
  • Wealth
  • Happiness (Quality of Life)

15
The Shape of the Population
2016
1966
2041
1996
MalesltFemales
16
Longevity
17
Lifespan Perspective Defining Age
  • Chronological Age
  • Legal (retirement/pension)
  • Experiences (world events)
  • Genetic clocks
  • Generational Cohort
  • Peer Comparisons
  • Self-perception
  • Available Time
  • Physical Status
  • Growth vs Decline
  • Activity Profile (Cognitive)
  • Quantity/Quality
  • Participation (Social)
  • In(ter)dependence?

18
Healthy (Successful) Aging
  • Maturity
  • Growth Completed
  • Strength/Skill
  • Experience/Expertise
  • Knowledge
  • Wisdom
  • Independence
  • Wealth
  • Contribution to Others
  • Leadership

19
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22
Negative Aspects Ageist Stereotypes?
23
Research Questions
  • What changes with age?
  • Positive and/or negative change?
  • Why does it change with age? (Is it really
    aging?)
  • Causes (genetic, environmental)
  • Predisposing conditions (genetic, environmental)
  • What could counteract change?
  • Early intervention to prevent (e.g., diet,
    education, lifestyle)
  • Cure (e.g., drugs, surgery)
  • Assistive technology (e.g., glasses, walker)
  • Rehab to cope/compensate (e.g., retraining,
    counselling)
  • Fountain of Youth
  • Longevity Preservation and/or Regeneration of
    Function

24
Research Designs
  • Cross-sectional
  • (between subjects comparisons)
  • Simulations?
  • Longitudinal
  • (within subjects process over time)
  • Retrospective
  • Prospective
  • Intervention
  • Hybrid

25
  • Figure 11.4
  • Longitudinal versus cross-sectional research. In
    a longitudinal study of development between ages
    6 and 10, the same children would be observed at
    6, again at 8, and again at 10. In a
    cross-sectional study of the same age span, a
    group of 6-year-olds, a group of 8-year-olds, and
    a group of 10-year-olds would be compared
    simultaneously. Note that data collection could
    be completed immediately in the cross-sectional
    study, whereas the longitudinal study would
    require four years to complete.

26
  • Table 10.5 (Kalat, Introduction to Psychology)
  • Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies

27
Sources of Bias
  • Selective attrition
  • differential survival
  • increased probability of some kinds of subjects
    dropping out.
  • Cohort effects
  • bias created because groups of contemporaries all
    have the same experience, knowledge or behaviors.

28
Hybrid DesignVictoria Longitudinal
Study(http//web.uvic.ca/psyc/VLS/index-projects.
html)
29
Research Approaches
  • Experimental
  • Group
  • Correlational
  • Case Study
  • Observation
  • Interviews/Narratives
  • Population Survey
  • Stats Canada

30
Some Answers
31
Aging Mind and Brain
  • Same Performance
  • More widespread activation brain reorganization
  • Deterioration or Compensation?
  • http//www.rotman-baycrest.on.ca/content/people/pr
    ofiles/grady.html

32
Predicament Enchancement Models of
Communication Aging
  • Ageist Stereotypes fuel communicative
    incompetence.
  • Dependent behaviours are reinforced and
    independent behaviours are ignored by nurses in
    residents of care facilities (Margaret Baltes).
  • Ryan EB, Giles H, Bartolucci G, Henwood K.
    Psycholinguistic and social psychological
    components of communication by and with the
    elderly. Language and Communication 198661-24.
  • Ryan EB, Meredith SD, Maclean MJ, Orange JB.
    Changing the way we talk with elders Promoting
    health using the Communication Enhancement Model.
    International Journal of Aging and Human
    Development 19954189-107.

33
Key Finding
Resilience
  • Early experiences influence latter life
  • http//www.earlylearning.ubc.ca/research.htm
  • Example from aging research Nuns Study
  • Those who wrote more complex language did not
    show symptoms of dementia in Alzheimers disease
  • Snowdon, D.A., Kemper, S., J.A. Greiner, L.H.,
    Wekstein, D.R., Markesbery, W.R. (1996).
    Cognitive ability in early life and cognitive
    function and Alzheimer's disease in late life
    Findings from the Nun Study. J American Medical
    Association, 275, 528-532.

"Use it or lose it."
34
Key Finding
Support
  • Age differences in memory are diminished when
    contextual support is available.
  • Free recall What did you learn last week?
  • gt
  • Cued recall Last week you learned about which
    two experimental designs?
  • gt
  • Recognition recall Last week did you learn
    about cross-sectional and longitudinal designs?

35
Key Finding
Slowing
  • Knowledge is enhance/preserved
  • Processing is slowed
  • Perception
  • Cognition
  • Performance varies with time/timing of task
    components

36
Key Finding Sensory Cognitive Aging Linked
  • Sensory and cognitive processing both decline
    with age Coincidence or not?
  • Hypotheses
  • Deprivation
  • Information Degradation
  • Cognitive Load on Perception
  • Common Cause
  • Lindenberger U, Baltes PB. Sensory functioning
    and intelligence in old age A strong connection.
    Psych Aging 19949339-55.

37
Older Listeners Models Hypotheses
Cognition
Perception
  • Modular vs Integrated Systems
  • Schneider BA, Pichora-Fuller MK. Implications of
    perceptual deterioration for cognitive aging
    research. In Craik FIM, Salthouse TA, eds, The
    Handbook of Aging and Cognition, 2nd ed. Mahwah,
    NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000 3 155-219.

38
UTM Research Equating for Perceptual Difficulty
during Cognitive Processing to Test the
Information Degradation Hypothesishttp//www.erin
.utoronto.ca/w3cihrsc/Cihr/index.htm
  • Would old do as well as young if cognitive
    measures were tested under enhanced perceptual
    conditions?
  • Would young do as poorly as old if cognitive
    measures were tested under degraded perceptual
    conditions?
  • Is it really aging or just hearing loss?

39
Speech Perception in Noise TestPichora-Fuller
MK, Schneider BA, Daneman M. How young and old
adults listen to and remember speech in noise. J
Acoust Soc Am 1995 97593-608.
  • 8 lists of 50 sentences
  • Half low-context
  • John did not talk about the feast.
  • Half high-context
  • The wedding banquet was a feast.
  • Repeat last word of sentence
  • Vary SN
  • Conversation at 65 dB SPL
  • Noise in home at 50 dB SPL
  • 15 dB SN in quiet living room
  • - 2 dB SN in subway/aircraft

40
Effect of Simulated Auditory Aging on Working
Memory SpanBrown S, Pichora-Fuller MK. Temporal
jitter mimics the effects of aging on word
identification and word recall in noise. Canadian
Acoustics 200028126-128.
41
Noise and Discourse ComprehensionSchneider BA,
Daneman M, Murphy D, Kwong See S. Listening to
discourse in distracting settings The effects of
aging. Psych Aging 200015110-125.
42
Final Comment
  • Should we think about older adults like younger
    adults performing under stressful conditions?
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