Psychological Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Psychological Disorders PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 678f2a-NWNmN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Psychological Disorders

Description:

Psychological Disorders ... an improperly working endocrine system, ... the American Psychiatric Association s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:128
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 108
Provided by: aphslo
Learn more at: http://www.adair.k12.ky.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Psychological Disorders
2
  • What is a Psychological Disorder?

3
  • The World of Psychological Disorders

4
Psychological Disorders
  • are harmful dysfunctions in which behavior is
    judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive,
    and/or unjustifiable

5
Atypical
  • is abnormal being different from most other
    people in ones culture

6
Disturbing
  • means that a behavior goes against the standards
    of acceptable behavior, is unnerving, grotesque,
    or otherwise disruptive to a generally acceptable
    level of comfort.

7
Maladaptiveness
  • indicates that the behaviors are distressing or
    disabling or puts one at a greatly increased risk
    of suffering or death

8
Unjustifiable
  • means that certain behaviors are irrational, or
    that a behavior lacks any mental clarity or reason

9
  • What is the nature of Psychological Disorders and
    their causes?

10
Biological Model (Medical Model)
  • Abnormal behaviors are caused by physiological
    malfunctions IE. a failure of the central
    nervous system, an improperly working endocrine
    system, an abnormal flow of a specific hormone,
    genetic factors, brain damage

11
  • Brain Trauma

12
Psychoanalytical Model
  • Abnormal behaviors are symbolic expressions of
    unconscious, internal conflicts, often associated
    with early childhood IE. A fear of open water
    due to almost drowning as a child, obsessions
    with women who remind you of the mother who
    abandoned you, serial violence against
    homosexuals based on your own internal
    orientation conflicts

13
Behavioral Model
  • Abnormal behavior is the result of learned
    behavior IE. you are a psychopathic killer
    because you watched violent programming on
    tv.you obsessively clean the house because Mom
    obsessively cleaned the house

14
Diathesis-Stress Model (Bio-Psycho-Social
Perspective)
  • Abnormal behavior is caused when prone
    individuals who otherwise may not exhibit
    symptoms are put into stressful situations and
    then exhibit symptoms

15
  • IE. You may occasionally be stressed, or drink a
    bit or a have trouble sleeping, but then your
    house burns down, your ID is stolen online, your
    bank accounts are emptied, your wife leaves
    youthus you snap. An anxiety disorder
    emerges, a substance abuse disorder emerges, a
    sleep disorder emerges.

16
  • Classifying Psychological Disorders

17
  • There are 16 categories of Psychological
    Disorders, as specified in the DSM-IV TR the
    American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic
    and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

18

Insanity
  • This is a LEGAL definition only, whereas a person
    is unable to determine between right wrong or
    understand consequences due to metal illness

19
  • The Mentally Ill and Prison

20
  • Anxiety Disorders

21
  • Anxiety Disorders

22
Anxiety Disorders
  • Any disorders characterized by an intensely
    distressing, persistent stress, or maladaptive
    behaviors that reduce stress
  • Anxiety Overview

23
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • A person is continually tense, apprehensive, and
    in a state of autonomic system arousal

24
  • Dizziness
  • Sweaty Palms
  • Heart Palpitations
  • Ringing in the Ears
  • Edgy and Shaky
  • Unfocused and Out-of-Control Negative Feelings
  • Worried constantly about bad things that may
    happen
  • Twitchiness and/or trembling

25
Panic Disorder
  • Sufferers have acute episodes of intense anxiety
    without any apparent provocation

26
Obsessive-Control Disorder
  • Characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts
    (obsessions) or actions (compulsions)
  • Checking to see if a door is locked is normal.
    Doing it 30 times or I will die is not.
    Washing your hands is normal. Washing them until
    your hands are raw so that all of the germs are
    gone is not.

27
  • Living with an Anxiety Disorder
  • AE Series Obsessed

28
Phobias
  • Marked by persistent, irrational fears and
    avoidance of a specific object or situation
  • Some phobias are so intense that they are
    incapacitating

29
Common and Uncommon Fears
30
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Usually involves flashbacks or nightmares
    following a persons involvement in or
    observation of an extremely troubling event, such
    as a war or a natural disaster

31
  • Dissociative Disorders

32
Dissociative Disorders
  • Involve disturbances in a persons consciousness,
    memories, identity, and perception of the
    environment

33

Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • A person has two or more distinct personalities
    that alternate in their control of the persons
    behavior

34
Amnesia
  • Loss or impairment of memory.
  • Amnesia with a physical cause is called organic
    amnesia, whereas amnesia of psychological origin
    is called functional amnesia

35
  • Three Faces of Eve - Dissociative Identity
    Disorder
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder

36
  • Eating Disorders

37
  • Eating Disorders

38
Eating Disorders
  • Conditions in which an individual experiences
    severe disturbances in eating behaviors

39
  • Anorexia is essentially a form of self-starvation
    in order to lose weight, Bulimics partake in
    binge and purge behaviors in order to maintain
    body weight

40
  • Anorexia
  • Bulimia

41
  • Impulse-Control Disorders

42
  • Impulse control disorders involve the loss or
    lack of control in certain specific situations.
    The hallmark of these disorders is the
    individual's inability to stop impulses that may
    cause harm to themselves or others. Affected
    individuals often feel anxiety or tension in
    considering these behaviors. This anxiety or
    tension is relieved or diminished once the action
    is performed.

43
  • Kleptomania compulsive stealing
  • Pyromania setting fires
  • Trichotillomania compulsive hair pulling
  • Dermatillomania compulsive skin picking
  • Intermittent Explosive Disorder aggressive
    outbursts

44
  • My Strange Addictions
  • Trichotillomania
  • Hoarding Behaviors
  • AE Series Hoarders

45
  • Mood Disorders

46
Mood Disorders
  • Also called affective disorders, create
    disturbances in a persons emotional life

47
Major Depression
  • Symptoms may include feelings of sadness,
    hopelessness, and worthlessness, as well as
    complaints of physical pain and changes in
    appetite, sleep patterns, and energy level. The
    length of time of the depression is a key also.

48
Mania
  • An individual has an abnormally elevated mood,
    often marked by exaggerated self-importance,
    irritability, agitation, and decreased sleep

49
Bipolar Disorder
  • Also called manic-depressive illness, a persons
    mood alternates between extremes of mania and
    depression

50
  • Bipolar Overview
  • Bipolar, A Dangerous Diagnosis
  • Demi Lovato, Bipolar and Eating Disorders
  • Mania and Depression

51
  • Personality Disorders

52
Personality Disorders
  • Maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively
    affect a persons ability to function in society.

53
Narcissistic Personality
  • A grandiose sense of self-importance. They seek
    excessive admiration from others and fantasize
    about unlimited success or power. They believe
    they are special, unique, or superior to others.

54
  • Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by
    irrational suspicions and mistrust of others.
  • Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by
    social inhibitions, feelings of inadequacy,
    extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation, and
    exaggerated emotions.

55
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Acting in a way that disregards the feelings and
    rights of other people. Antisocial personalities
    often break the law, and they may use or exploit
    other people for their own gain. They may lie
    repeatedly, act impulsively, and get into
    physical fights. They may even kill other people.

56
  • Anti-Social Personality Disorder Interview
  • Teen Murderer
  • Bullying Behaviors
  • In the Mind of a Psychopath

57
  • Schizophrenia

58
  • Schizophrenia Overview
  • Childhood Schizophrenia
  • Treating Schizophrenia Part I
  • Treating Schizophrenia Part II
  • A Brilliant Madness

59
  • Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling
    brain disease
  • People with schizophrenia often suffer terrifying
    symptoms such as
  • hearing internal voices not heard by others
  • believing that other people are reading their
    minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to
    harm them.
  • speech and behavior can be so disorganized that
    they may be incomprehensible or frightening

60
Causes of Schizophrenia?
  • It has long been known that schizophrenia runs in
    families. A child whose parent has schizophrenia
    has about a 10 percent chance. By comparison, the
    risk of schizophrenia in the general population
    is about 1 percent. The strongest evidence to
    date leads to chromosomes 13 and 6 but remains
    unconfirmed.

61
  • It is likely, although not yet certain, that the
    disorder is associated with some imbalance of the
    complex, interrelated chemical systems of the
    brain, involving the presence of excessive
    amounts of the neurotransmitters dopamine

62
Hallucinations
  • Perceptions that occur without connection to an
    appropriate source hearing voices that other
    people do not hear is the most common type of
    hallucination in schizophrenia
  • Voices may describe the patients activities,
    carry on a conversation, warn of impending
    dangers, or even issue orders to the individual.

63
Delusions
  • False personal beliefs that are not subject to
    reason or contradictory evidence
  • patients suffering from paranoid-type symptoms
    often have delusions of persecution, or false and
    irrational beliefs that they are being cheated,
    harassed, poisoned, or conspired against.
  • In addition, delusions of grandeur, in which a
    person may believe he or she is a famous or
    important figure, may occur in schizophrenia

64
Disorganized Thinking
  • Schizophrenia often affects a persons ability to
    think straight. Thoughts may come and go rapidly
    the person may not be able to concentrate on one
    thought for very long and may be easily
    distracted, unable to focus attention.
  • People with schizophrenia may not be able to sort
    out what is relevant and what is not relevant to
    a situation. The person may be unable to connect
    thoughts into logical sequences, with thoughts
    becoming disorganized and fragmented.

65
Inappropriate Effect
  • expressing improper emotions, related to the
    environmental context they are presented in, or
  • a person with schizophrenia may not show the
    signs of normal emotion, perhaps may speak in a
    monotonous voice, have diminished facial
    expressions, and appear extremely apathetic

66
  • Schizophrenia Part 1 - ABC 20/20 coverage
  • Schizophrenia Part 2 - ABC 20/20 coverage

67
  • Sleep Disorders
  • Sleep Disorders Overview

68
  • Affect normal sleep patterns. They may include
    Insomnia (lack of sleep), Apnea (stop breathing),
    and Narcolepsy (excessive daytime sleepiness).

69
  • Sleep Disorders Overview
  • Living with Sleep Apnea
  • Waking Up from Narcolepsy

70
  • Sexual Disorders

71
  • Strange Sexual Disorders

72
Men
  • Erectile dysfunction (impotence) refers to the
    inability of a man to have or maintain an
    erection. Premature ejaculation occurs when a man
    is not able to postpone or control his
    ejaculation. Inhibited male orgasm, or retarded
    ejaculation, occurs when a man cannot have an
    orgasm despite being highly aroused.

73
Women
  • Female orgasmic dysfunction (anorgasmia, or
    inhibited female orgasm) refers to the inability
    of a woman to have an orgasm. Vaginismus refers
    to a spastic contraction of the outer third of
    the vagina, a condition that can close the
    entrance of the vagina, preventing intercourse.

74
PARAPHILIAS INCLUDE FANTASIES, BEHAVIORS, OR
SEXUAL URGES FOCUSING ON UNUSUAL OBJECTS,
ACTIVITIES, OR SITUATIONS
75
TYPES OF PARAPHILIAS
76
EXHIBITIONISM
  • SEXUALLY EXPOSING ONESELF (GENITALS) TO OTHERS

77
FETISHISM
  • SEXUAL URGES AND BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH
    NON-LIVING OBJECTS

78
Specific Fetishes
  • Agriozoophilia wild animals
  • Alektorophilia chickens
  • Anthophilia flowers
  • Autodysomophilia bad smells
  • Bibliophilia books
  • Chaetophilia hair
  • Coimetrophilia cemeteries
  • Coprophilia feces

79
Specific Fetishes
  • Daimonophilia ghosts
  • Didaskaleinophilia school
  • Dontophilia teeth
  • Ecclesiophilia church
  • Emetophilia vomit
  • Epistaxiophilia nosebleeds
  • Geniophilia chins
  • Gerontophilia old people
  • Heliophilia sun

80
Specific Fetishes
  • Hoplophilia guns
  • Ichthyophilia fish
  • Lachanophilia vegetables
  • Leprophilia leprosy
  • Lutraphilia otters
  • Melophilia music
  • Necrophilia dead
  • Nephophilia clouds

81
Specific Fetishes
  • Nosophilia terminal illness
  • Ombrophilia rain
  • Ophidiophilia snakes
  • Peladophilia baldness
  • Pogophilia beards
  • Thassophilia sitting
  • Urophilia urine

82
FROTTEURISM
  • SEXUAL URGES RELATED TO TOUCHING OR RUBBING
    AGAINST UN-SUSPECTING, NON-CONSENTING, AND
    UNFAMILIAR PEOPLE OF THE OPPOSITE SEX

83
MASOCHISM
  • SEXUAL PLEASURE DERIVED FROM BEING HURT OR
    HUMILIATED VERBALLY AND/OR PHYSICALLY

84
SADISM
  • SEXUAL PLEASURE DERIVED FROM MISTREATING OTHERS

85
TRANSVESTITISM
  • CROSS-DRESSING

86
VOYEURISM
  • SEXUAL PLEASURE IS DERIVED FROM SECRETLY
    OBSERVING OTHERS

87
  • Somatoform Disorders

88
Somatoform Disorders
  • Characterized by the presence of physical
    symptoms that cannot be explained by a medical
    condition or another mental illness

89
  • Somatoform disorder is a condition in which the
    physical pain and symptoms a person feels are
    related to psychological factors. These symptoms
    can not be traced to a specific physical cause.
  • Their symptoms are similar to the symptoms of
    other illnesses and may last for several years.
    People who have somatoform disorder are not
    faking their symptoms. The pain that they feel is
    real.

90
  • Hypochondriasis refers to an excessive
    preoccupation or worry about having a serious
    illness. Hypochondria is often characterized by
    fears that minor bodily symptoms may indicate a
    serious illness, constant self-examination and
    self-diagnosis, and a preoccupation with one's
    body.

91
Conversion Disorder
  • Patients present with symptoms such as numbness,
    paralysis, blindness, etc. The diagnosis of
    conversion disorder involves three elements - the
    exclusion of neurological disease, the exclusion
    of feigning, and the determination of a
    psychological mechanism.

92
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
  • A preoccupation with an imagined or minor defect
    in appearance which causes clinically significant
    distress or impairment in social, occupational,
    or other important areas of functioning.
  • The disorder generally is diagnosed in those who
    are extremely critical of their physique or
    self-image even though there may be no noticeable
    disfigurement or defect, or a minor defect which
    is not recognized by most people. Too Ugly To
    Live - Part 1

93
  • Substance-Related Disorders
  • Substance Abuse Disorders

94
Substance-Related Disorders
  • Result from the abuse of drugs, side effects of
    medications, or exposure to toxic substances

95
  • Adjustment Disorders

96
Adjustment Disorders
  • An inability or maladaptive reaction to an
    identifiable stressful life event/ stressor
    (divorce,  death, a family move, etc.). Symptoms
    must occur within three months of the
    event/stressor and persisted for no longer than
    six months. Usually includes depression,
    withdrawal, or a rebellion against society,
    family, or the law.

97
  • Cognitive Disorders

98
Cognitive Disorders
  • Such as delirium and dementia, involve a
    significant loss of mental functioning

99
Dementia
  • Characterized by impaired memory and difficulties
    in such functions as speaking, abstract thinking,
    and the ability to identify familiar objects. The
    conditions in this category usually result from a
    medical condition, substance abuse, or adverse
    reactions to medication or poisonous substances

100
  • Disorders usually first diagnosed in Infancy,
    Childhood, or Adolescence

101
Childhood Disorders
  • Disorders that are generally diagnosed in
    children through the age of 18

102
Autism
  • Most commonly characterized by non-normal social
    attachments, withdrawal, echolalia (repeat word
    patterns), strange motor behaviors, and those
    affected are often mentally retarded

103
  • Autism Genes
  • Detecting Autism

104
  • Factitious Disorders

105
Factitious Disorders
  • Intentionally producing or faking physical or
    psychological symptoms in order to receive
    medical attention and care. For example, an
    individual might falsely report shortness of
    breath to gain admittance to a hospital, report
    thoughts of suicide to solicit attention, or
    fabricate blood in the urine or the symptoms of
    rash so as to appear ill.

106
  • Mental Disorders Due to a General Medical
    Condition

107
General Mental Disorders
  • Diagnosed when there is evidence they are caused
    by the specified medical conditions
  • IE. A coma caused by a bad food reaction, a
    change in personality or mood due to a hormonal
    change in the body
About PowerShow.com