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The True Health Effects of Radiation

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Title: The True Health Effects of Radiation


1
The True Health Effects of Radiation
  • Presented by Y. C. Luan
  • On behalf the 14 authors from
  • Nuclear Science and Technology Association
  • NBC contamination prevention Society
  • and three Universities

2
Abstract
  • . Health effects of radiation depend on the
    circumstances or the dose-rate of radiation being
    received.
  • . Radiation might be classified into acute and
    chronic exposure radiation.
  • . Health effects of acute and chronic exposure
    radiation are contradicting each other.
  • . Acute radiation is mostly harmful to people,
    but Chronic radiation is always beneficial to
    people.

3
Introduction-1
  • 1. The health effects of radiation depend on the
    circumstances or dose rate of radiation being
    received.
  • 2. Acute radiation is radiation received
    instantaneously in high dose rate in a short
    period of time.
  • 3.  Chronic radiation is the radiation received
    continuously in low dose rate in long time.
  • 4.  Chronic radiation, though is feared as acute
    radiation, is actually beneficial to people.
  • 5. Chronic radiation was serendipitously
    observed to be always beneficial to humans from
    the incident of Co-60 contaminated apartments in
    Taiwan.

4
Introduction-2
  •   6. Health effects of acute and chronic
    radiation are entirely different 86,572 atomic
    bomb survivors in Japan had 5.4 cancer
    mortality increasing in 40 years but 10,000
    irradiated residents in Taiwan had 97 cancer
    mortality decreasing.
  • 7. 31 Chernobyl firemen and workers received
    acute radiation from fission products died
    workers and public outside of plant were
    benefited when fission products diluted and
    decayed to chronic radiation,.

5
Introduction-3
  •   8. The chronic radiation experienced in
    Taiwan, might be used in preventing of cancers
    and hereditary diseases.
  • 9. Traditional radiation protection should be
    revised for promoting the nuclear energy
    application.
  • 10. Fearing of chronic radiation should be
    abolished, spending of billions dollars for
    radiation protection should be saved.

6
The health effects of acute radiation
  • 1. Deterministic effects of the acute radiation
    could cause radiation sickness and death.
  • 2. Stochastic effects of acute radiation could
    increase cancer mortality as described in
    ICRP-60.
  • 3.  LNT hypothesis implies that all radiation are
    harmful, the effects of low dose could be
    extrapolated from the high dose based on LNT
    model.
  • 4.  LNT model of ICRP is simple, logical, and
    conservative for governing of the radiation
    protection.
  • 5. But the LNT model is not appropriate for
    doseslt100 mSv.

7
The health effects of chronic radiation
  • 1. Radiation from natural background is chronic
    radiation.
  • 2. Radiation received by workers, and
    occasionally by public from the nuclear power
    plants, is also chronic radiation.
  • 3.  Chronic radiation with doses lower than 100
    mSv, should be less harmful physiologically and
    pathologically than the same dose of acute
    radiation.
  • 4.  Dr. Sternglass and other scientists claimed
    in 1960s chronic radiation had same or even more
    harmful effects than the acute radiation.
  • 5. Radiation is thus to be always afraid by
    people.

8
The controversy of radiation health effects-1
  • 1. LNT model was mainly derived from the leukemia
    deaths at high doses of acute radiation cohort
    of 905 survivors (1 of total 86,572) with dose
    in gt2 Sv, leukemia mortality increased 14 times
    cohort of 2819 survivors (3.2 of total 86.572
    )with dose gt1 Sv, leukemia deaths increased 5
    times of the public. Two cohorts of 32915 and
    5613 survivors ( 44.5 of total 86,572) with dose
    in 5 mSv-100 mSv, had no excess but less leukemia
    deaths based on LNT.

9
The controversy of radiation health effects-2
  • 2. The survivors received doses lt 100 mSv, had
    no excess cancer deaths as LNT predicated, LNT
    model is not appropriate for low dose acute
    radiation.
  • 3. Preston et al 2003 RERF report had more data,
    but no new results obtained.
  • 4.  Dr Sohei Kondo, professor emeritus of Osaka
    University, asserted low acute radiation from
    atomic explosion could reduce the cancer
    mortality, and increase life span.
  • 5. Both ANS and HPS had statements of 50 mSv/y
    or 100 mSv whole life would be unnecessary to
    evaluate the individual radiation risk.

10
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed
chronic radiation is always beneficial to
humans-1
  • 1. Epidemiological studies of people in the
    higher natural background radiation areas in
    Kerala, India, Yangjing, China and Mountain
    States in USA, had lower cancer deaths. And
    higher doses received by nuclear workers in many
    countries had received higher doses but had lower
    cancer deaths These results have still not
    accepted as human data in proving chronic
    radiation is beneficial to people by all
    regulatory communities until today.
  • 2. The incredible Co-60 contaminated apartments
    incident 20 years ago in Taiwan, did not show
    harmful effects to people, but serendipitously
    revealed it was beneficial to them.

11
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed
chronic radiation is always beneficial to
humans-2
  • 3. A Co-60 source was mixed in the metal scrap,
    melted and drawn into steel bars which used
    finally in construction of 1700 apartments for
    about 10,000 residents in 1082-84. The first
    apartment was discovered in 1992, the residents
    irradiated at least for 9 years, long up to 20
    years. The annual dose in the first year 1983 was
    close to 50 mSv/y, high up to 600 mSv/y. The
    total averaged dose was about 0.4 mSv, and high
    up to 6 Sv.

12
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed
chronic radiation is always beneficial to
humans-3
  • 4. The total doses cumulated in 20 years were
    higher than the average doses received by the
    atomic bomb survivors in Japan, and the Russian
    recovery workers in Chernobyl accident. If LNT
    model is appropriate for chronic radiation, the
    excessive doses could induce at least 35 excess
    leukemia and 35 solid cancer deaths in 20 years,
    actually none of such deaths observed, on the
    contrary, the spontaneous cancer deaths of the
    residents of about 232 in 20 years based on the
    vital statistics in Taiwan, but reduced to only
    7, or 3 of the general population, as shown in
    the following curve plotted by Luan et al since
    1983.

13
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed
chronic radiation is always beneficial to
humans-4

14
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed
chronic radiation is always beneficial to humans-5
  • 5. The radiation could reduce hereditary
    malfunctions of the descendants of the residents
    was also observed, 46 based on LNT and 21 on
    congenital, but reduced to 3, or 6.5 of the
    general public.
  • 6. No harmful health effects chronic radiation
    observed in cytogenetic analysis.
  • 7. As the doses received from the natural
    background and the peaceful uses of nuclear
    energy are seldom bigger than the doses received
    in the Co-60 incident, it meant any chronic
    radiation is always beneficial to humans.

15
A radiological incident in Taiwan revealed
chronic radiation is always beneficial to humans-6
  • 8. The beneficial health effects of radiation
    observed in the Taiwan was coincidental to the
    theory of Dr. T.D. Luckey and his Complete
    Dose-Response Curve 100 mSv/y is optimum to
    human health, 10 Sv/y is still in hormetic range.
  • 9. The chronic radiation is always to humans was
    discovered by a group independent and
    knowledgeable scientists and published the
    reports in many international conferences and
    journals.

16
Most radiation is chronic radiation and
beneficial to humans
  • 1. Nuclear power plants, and related facilities,
    usually equipped with safety design and
    shielding, the nuclear workers and public could
    receive only chronic radiation.
  • 2. The doses of chronic radiation received by the
    nuclear energy and public would be never higher
    than 50 mSv/y, so that it is always beneficial to
    them.
  • 3. Population in the higher natural background
    areas have always lower cancer mortality.
  • 4. Beneficial effects of chronic radiation should
    be accepted by scientists, communities and
    regulation authorities.

17
Out of control Radioactive source is still risky
  • 1. The health effects of chronic radiation from
    Co-60 incident in Taiwan were serendipitously
    observed beneficial to humans, but most incident
    of out of control of Co-60, Cs-137 or other
    isotope is still harmful, even could kill people.
  • 2. There were quite number of people killed out
    of control incidences in Mexico, China, Brazil
    and in Tailand.
  • 3. A big out of control incident of Co-50 in
    Mexico 1984, but no people were killed and the
    contaminated steel bars shipped to USA were
    shortly identified and recovered.
  • 4. The out of control incident in Taiwan was an
    unique case showed the true health effects of
    radiation.

18
The health effects of radiation from the
Chernobyl accident-1
  • 1. The Chernobyl accident emits both acute
    radiation and chronic radiation,
  • 2. Chernobyl accident was considered to be a
    catastrophe, to frighten all people in the
    world but was also a good opportunity to observe
    the health effects of radiation.
  • 3. When the meltdown high radioactive fission
    products released abruptly into the reactor hall,
    31 firemen and workers received high doses of
    acute radiation in a short time, just like the
    radiation received by atomic bomb survivors.

19
The health effects of radiation from the
Chernobyl accident-2
  • 4. The radiation received in Chernobyl accident
    was longer time and consisted of not only gamma,
    but beta and alpha. the dose rate was about 1
    Gy/hr on April 26, 1986, but high enough to kill
    people.
  • 5. When Fission products dispersed and deposited
    on spacious ground, highly diluted and decayed of
    its radioactivity to one tenth every seven-fold
    time lapses, 49 hours later would decrease to
    about 1, 10 mGy/r.
  • 6. So that in a few days after the accident, the
    acute radiation from fission products turned to
    be chronic radiation, and beneficial to the public

20
The chronic radiation from the accident is
harmless-1
  • 1. 200,000 Russian workers engaged for
    decontamination received an average dose of about
    100 mSv, followed-up by the International
    Chernobyl Project (ICP) under the supervision of
    the IAEA and WHO.
  • 2. The ICP predicated that 150 leukemia deaths
    in ten years after the accident based on LNT
    model. But none of such results were observed and
    reported so in the one decade after Chernobyl
    conference co-sponsored by the EC, IAEA and WHO,
    held in Vienna in 1996 7
  • 3. There were also no such results described in
    UNSCEAR 2000 annul report to the General Assembly

21
The chronic radiation from the accident is
harmless-2
  • 4. These reports meant that emergency workers
    and the evacuated public suffer no excess solid
    cancer deaths, though they had received quite
    amount of radiation.
  • 5. A severe nuclear accident like Chernobyl could
    only harm only few workers in the reactor hall,
    could not harm workers and public outside of
    power plants.
  • 6. Both reports indicated quite amount of thyroid
    cancer incidences observed among the children,
    but no proper control cohort for exact comparison
    of thyroid cancer deaths of the children under
    the ages of 18.

22
Most radiation from accident is chronic radiation
and beneficial to people-1
  • 1. Russian specialists from the national science
    and medical academy followed the health results
    of the workers with their own RNMDR system, and
    the summary report sent to IAEA as a letter to
    the IAEA BULLTIN editor ( IAEA BULLETIN 42/4/2000
    ) They found cancer deaths of the emergency
    workers were statistically lower than the control
    public, 48 leukoses cases verified among the
    180.000 emergency workers in 14 years
    (1986-2000).

23
Most radiation from accident is chronic radiation
and beneficial to people-2
  • 2. Assuming Russian workers in particular age
    had the same spontaneous leukemia mortality of
    the Japanese ( the cancer of total population is
    found often close to male in the ages of 20-50),
    their spontaneous leukemia deaths of the workers
    should be about 118 (180,000/86,572x162 x14/40
    118)
  • 3. And assuming also they had the similar
    cancer mortality of the population in Taiwan in
    200 persons/100,000 person-years (ages in 34-64),
    and leukemia in about 2.6 of all caners, The
    Russian workers should be at least 131
    (200/100,000 x180,000x.026x14 131).

24
Most radiation from accident is chronic radiation
and beneficial to people-3
  • 4. Even 48 leukose incidences meant leukemia
    death, it was lower for Russian workers.
  • 5. Only the cancer deaths decreased in the
    Russian paper was attributed to healthy worker
    effects and better medical care.
  • 6. What did healthy worker effect and
    better medical care mean? If these could be
    clarified as not dominant, or the cancer deaths
    of the workers in a big number, it could be
    concluded that the chronic radiation from
    Chernobyl accident is beneficial to the emergency
    workers, and to public in the fallout areas in
    the world

25
Follow-up study of Chernobyl workers revealed
chronic radiation also beneficial-1
  • 1. 65,905 emergency workers with external doses
    averaged in 100 mSv were followed by Russia
    Academy of Medical Science and reported in 2001
    HPJ.
  • 2. The report indicated that the all causes
    death mortality is in 0.6-0.9, average in 0.82
    lower than the the public.
  • 3. The cancer mortality of the workers in 1998
    was in 110 persons /100,000 person-years, and the
    total cancer deaths were 515 observed in 8 years
    (1991-1998).
  • 4. There was no comparison with Russian public
    reported. Assuming the workers had same cancer
    deaths as the Japanese, the cancer deaths should
    be about 1102 (65,905/86,572x7244 x8/401102)

26
Follow-up study of Chernobyl workers revealed
chronic radiation might be also beneficial-2
  • 5. Assuming the workers ( In ages of about
    36-66) has similar spontaneous cancer mortality
    as population in Taiwan of 200 persons/100,000
    person-year, the cancer deaths of the workers was
    about 1054 ( 200 /100,000 x 65,905 x8 1054)
  • 6. 515 cancer deaths among 4995 total deaths in
    8 years, was only 10, seemed too low in
    comparing with most countries of about 25 . it
    should be over 1000.
  • 7. Peter Fong predicated in his paper to
    Chernobyl conference after one decay in 1996,
    3,000,000 cancer deaths might be prevented (not
    officially disclosed).

27
Follow-up study of Chernobyl workers revealed
chronic radiation might be also beneficial-3
  • 8. The study by Russia Medical Academy indicated
    also the lower mortality might be attributed to
    the Healthy worker effects and the incomplete
    data collection. if these uncertainty factors
    could be clarified as not dominant, the health
    effects of chronic radiation from accidents
    should be globally recognized.
  • 9. A nuclear accident might be only harmful to
    the workers inside of reactor hall, but
    beneficial to the workers and public outside the
    reactor. The public should also not fear of
    nuclear accident.

28
Conclusion and remarks-1
  • 1. Chronic radiation is different to acute
    radiation and always beneficial to humans were
    serendipitously observed in Taiwan.
  • 2. The cancer mortality induced to humans by
    acute radiation is hard to discerned from the the
    spontaneous cancers, which often in big number
    and has long latent period but people has the
    highest cancer death rate, and the chronic
    radiation could strongly immune it, it could be
    easily identified in an epidemiological study.
  • 3. The incident of the Co-60 contamination had
    incidentally indicated chronic radiation could
    effective immunize the cancers as a vaccine.

29
Conclusion and remarks-2
  • 4. There were no evidence indicating hereditary
    defects could be caused by acute radiation but
    the chronic could prevent the defects.
  • 5. The beneficial health effects of chronic
    radiation observed in Taiwan was limited to the
    low LET gamma radiation to whole body exposure.
    High LET radiation from radioactive material or
    internal contamination of Alpha and Beta has also
    beneficial effects observed in animal tests.

30
Conclusion and remarks-3
  • 6. Atomic bomb explosion in Japan produced also
    big quantity of radioactive substances (fission
    products), but evaporated immediately to the
    stratosphere, and became of global fallout, then
    gradually deposited on the ground in the world,
    which is also known as chronic radiation, and
    beneficial to people.
  • 7. Dr Peter Fong ever studied the fallout from
    the US atmosphere nuclear tests which did not
    increase but prevent millions of cancer deaths of
    Americans.

31
Conclusion and remarks-4
  • 8. Chronic radiation exposed to the workers and
    public from the nuclear power plants is similar
    to the radiation exposed to the residents in the
    Co-60 contamination in Taiwan, only in smaller
    doses, so that it is surely also beneficial to
    them.
  • 9. People receive the natural background
    radiation every day, and people in higher natural
    background areas often receive higher doses than
    the nuclear workers, so that natural radiation is
    essential to human beings.

32
Conclusion and remarks-5
  • 10. The public in suburb of the nuclear power
    plants, should never fear of radiation but
    welcome it, even in accident.
  • 11. Governmental radiation protection measures
    should not be strictly conducted based LNT model,
    and nuclear energy should be considered as the
    most safe energy.
  • 12. A nuclear accident could occasionally incur,
    only its acute radiation could harm a few
    workers, and they could be avoided with some
    reasonable procedure.

33
Conclusion and remarks-6
  • 13. Cancer deaths and hereditary defects are the
    disastrous and miserable sickness, it is now
    known that it could be prevented by chronic
    radiation in proper doses.
  • 14. Numerous animal tests in many countries
    indicated the dose rate gt 1mSv/hr were beneficial
    to the animals. And authors in our study had
    purposely to test the health of mice with dose
    rate gt1 mSv/hr which showed also healthy results
    to mice.

34
Conclusion and remarks-7
  • 15. The incident of Co-60 contamination in Taiwan
    showed that many residents living in 1 mSv/hr
    apartments in 1983 was still be healthy.
  • 16. This paper tentatively suggests lt1 mSv/hr as
    the acceptable dose rate limit of chronic
    radiation. If a person lives all year in such
    radioactive environment, he might receive many Sv
    in one year, which is still in the beneficial
    range of Luckeys dose-effect curve, though it
    might not be the optimum dose rate to health.

35
Conclusion and remarks-8
  • 18. Many studies indicated beneficial health
    effects of chronic radiation could be useful in
    cancer therapies, enhance of immune system,
    activation of gene p53, suppress diabetes, AIDS
    and for pain relief etc. Such studies are
    valuable to human beings, should be further
    studied.

36
Recommendation-1
  • 1. The findings in the Co-60 incident could be
    regarded as more important than the findings
    obtained in the atomic bomb explosion in Japan,
    but they need more studies by the international
    scientists and communities, especially on the
    mechanism of the beneficial effects, and
    communicate the entire world of the results to
    the medical and nuclear energy applications.
  • 2. From the experiences obtained from the
    incident of Co-60 contamination, and the
    beneficial effects observed in the Chernobyl
    accident, the conventional radiation protection
    should be revised for elevating application of
    nuclear energy.

37
Recommendation-2
  • 3. This paper tentatively recommended
    the1mSv/hr and 1 Sv/y as the acceptable hourly
    and annually dose rate limit for the nuclear
    energy workers and the public. The 50 mSv as the
    optimum annual doses to people,
  • 4. The emergency plans for the nuclear reactor
    accidents and for out of control of radioactive
    sources of course should be also revised.
  • 5. As cancers and hereditary defects are the
    miserable sicknesses, the medical scientists and
    communities should design appropriate radiation
    irradiators, and use the optimized doses in
    preventing the miserable sicknesses

38
Profile of the authors (I)
W.L. Chen Ph. D. Director, Department of Medical Radiation Technology, National Yang-ming University Head, Radiation Protection Department of AEC, and former Head, Health Physics Division of INER
Y.C. Luan Senior Scientist and Manager of Radiation Protection, NUSTA consultant to NBC Society, and former Manager, Radioactive Waste Management Plant and Manager, Cobalt-60 Irradiation Plant of INER, AEC
M.C. Shieh Ph. D. General Secretary, NUSTA Professor of National Chung-Kung University, and former Manager, Uranium Conversion Project of INER, AEC
S.T. Chen MS Senior Scientist and Head, Nuclear Reactor Engineering, NUSTA, and former Director, Nuclear Engineering Division of INER, AEC
H.T. Kung MS Senior Scientist and Nuclear Material Manager, NUSTA, and former Manager, Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant of INER, AEC
39
Profile of the authors (II)
K.L. Soong Ph. D. Senior Scientist, NUSTA, and former Senior Scientist and Leading Scientist, Geology and Mineralogy Research Project of INER, AEC
Y. C. Yeh Ph. D. Secretary General, Chinese Nuclear Society Senior Scientist, NUSTA, and former Director, Analysis Center of INER, AEC
T.S. Chou Ph. D. Head, Radiation Research Group, NBC Society Professor of Feng Chia University, and former Head, Chemical Engineering Division of INER, AEC
S. H. Mong MS Head, Protection Research Group, NBC Society former NBC consultant to Saudi Arabia, and Commandant, Army NBC School, Taiwan
J.T. Wu M.D. Biology Consultant, NBC Protection Society, Taiwan Professor of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Utah, USA, and Medical Director, Special Chemistry and Reagent Development Laboratory at ARUP
40
Profile of the authors (III)
C.P. Sun Ph. D. Board member of NBC Protection Society, and Associated Professor of Social Risk Analysis, National Chiao-Tung University.
W.P. Deng Ph. D. Associated Professor, Biological Material Institute, Taipei Medical University. And former Associated Professor, Graduate Institute of Biological Material, Harvard University, USA.
F.M. Wu Ph. D. Professor of Pathology and Director of Animal Testing Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei
M.L. Shen Ph. D Professor, Biometry Division, Department of Agronomy, National Taiwan University, Taipei
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