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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

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Title: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY


1
  • OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
  • FOR INFORMAL WORKERS
  • Social Protection in Africa
  • Sharing Experiences on the Informal Economy
  • EC AU Commission Capacity Building Workshop
  • 10-11 March 2011, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Masuma Mamdani
  • IHI

2
WIEGO
  • A global research and advocacy network, working
    in some 40 countries, promoting and advancing the
    interests of poorer informal workers, especially
    women
  • Informal work is normal and not residual
  • Does NOT represent MBOs, works with, builds
    strengthens networks of informal worker
    organisations (MBOs).
  • Gives MBOs visibility, recognition and validity

3
EXPANDED DEFINITION OF THE INFORMAL ECONOMY (IE)
  • IE - the diversified set of economic activities,
    enterprises, and workers that are not regulated
    or protected by the state.
  • IE (or informal employment) includes
  • Self-employment in informal enterprises
    self-employed persons in small unregistered or
    unincorporated enterprises, including
  • employers
  • own account operators
  • unpaid contributing family workers
  • Wage employment in informal jobs wage workers
    without social protection through their work who
    are employed by formal or informal firms (and
    their contractors), by households, or by no fixed
    employer, including
  • non-standard employees of informal enterprises
  • non-standard employees of formal enterprises
  • casual or day labourers
  • industrial outworkers (also called homeworkers)
  • Notes
  • 1. WIEGO promoted this expanded definition in
    collaboration with the ILO and the International
    Expert Group on Informal Sector
  • Statistics (the Delhi Group) it was
    endorsed by the International Conference of
    Labour Statisticians (ICLS) in 2003
  • 2. T he elements of this expanded definition that
    were not included in the earlier ICLS 1993
    definition of informal sector are in italics

4
Informal Sector employment and production that
takes place in small, unincorporated and
unregistered enterprises ((ICLS 1993) . Informal
Employment broader definition that includes
informal employment inside and outside informal
enterprises (whether carried out for formal
sector enterprises or households (ICLS 2003)
5
SEGMENTED LABOR MARKETS/EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURES
  • What do we mean by segmentation?
  • Constraints exist which prevent individuals from
    moving into better employment opportunities (or
    improving the quality of existing employment)
  • What causes segmentation?
  • Discrimination, social norms, unequal
    wealth/assets, unpaid care responsibilities, lack
    of credit, lack of public goods/services, and
    more, etc
  • Why does segmentation matter?
  • Reinforces existing patterns of poverty and
    social exclusion.
  • Issue of equity gender, racial, caste
    segmentation.
  • Issue of basic rights and the choices available
    to individuals.
  • In summary a social justice issue

6
SEGMENTATION OF THE INFORMAL ECONOMY BY SEX,
AVERAGE EARNINGS, AND POVERTY RISK
7
WORKING POOR IN THE INFORMAL ECONOMY
  • In Unregulated Factories
  • garment makers
  • shoe makers
  • In Small Workshops
  • scrap metal recyclers
  • shoe makers
  • weavers
  • garment makers and embroiderers
  • paper-bag makers
  • On Streets or In Open Spaces
  • street vendors
  • push-cart vendors
  • garbage collectors
  • roadside barbers
  • construction workers
  • In Fields, Pastures, and Forests

8
EMPLOYMENT, INFORMALITY, POVERTY
  • Employment - the most important way in which the
    benefits of growth can be shared.
  • Most of the worlds poor especially in
    developing countries are working.
  • Informal rather than formal employment is on the
    rise.
  • The vast majority of the working poor those who
    earn less than US 1 per day - earn their living
    in the informal economy where
  • average earnings are low
  • risks are high
  • Poverty reduction is not possible without
  • Increasing formal employment opportunities AND
  • Increasing the assets and earnings AND
  • reducing the risks of those who work in the
    informal economy.

9
INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS
  • There is a need to address the following
  • Institutional mismatch existing means of legal
    and social protections vs. reality of work today
  • Policy biases Power imbalances in favor of
    capital vs. labor larger firms vs. micro firms
    formal labor vs. informal labor
  • Downloading of risks from lead firms -gt
    suppliers -gt intermediaries -gt dependent workers
    and producers at the bottom of production and
    distribution chains

10
POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORM THROUGH
DIALOGUE AND NEGOTIATION
  • Key stakeholders government, private sector,
    civil society (trade unions MBOs of working
    poor NGOs working on labor and employment
    issues)
  • Tripartite dialogues and negotiations should
    include MBOs of working poor as well as trade
    unions, employer associations, and government
  • Multi-partite initiatives initiatives involving
    multiple relevant stakeholders such as Fair
    Trade and Ethical Trade initiatives and the
    Global Compact - should be encouraged and
    supported
  • Multi-partite reform processes policy and legal
    reform processes should involve all relevant
    stakeholders including representatives of MBOs of
    the working poor

11
Social Protection The Context
  • Vast majority of poor who work informally
  • precarious high risk exposure
  • have no social security coverage to protect
    against short term risks or life-time
    contingencies
  • cannot afford private insurance, have little
    access to social insurance
  • Poorer people live and work in poor communities,
    where it is hard to insure against risk
  • In developing countries
  • state systems of social insurance do not target
    informal workers, wage employed or self-employed
  • state systems of social assistance for poorer and
    vulnerable people do not target able bodied
    people of working age

12
SOCIAL PROTECTION DIFFERENT STRATEGIES FOR
DIFFERENT SECTORS
  • Evidence from a) value chain research and b) risk
    analysis of place of work and c) analyses of
    existing social protection schemes
  • different elements of the welfare mix may be
    more or less appropriate for different types of
    workers

13
SOCIAL PROTECTION DIFFERENT STRATEGIES FOR
DIFFERENT SECTORS
  • Street and market vendors
  • Focus on local government (not national
    government) policies
  • Encourage infrastructural service delivery to
    reduce risk AND increase productivity AND protect
    both informal workers and the public
  • Domestic workers
  • more potential for integrating into existing
    labour policy and legislation in line with
    extend social protection campaign

14
SOCIAL PROTECTION DIFFERENT STRATEGIES FOR
DIFFERENT SECTORS
  • Industrial outworkers
  • Encourage infrastructural delivery to private
    homes
  • Extend employer/ owner-of-capital insurance to
    include private homes
  • Integrate social protection for informal workers
    into trade agreements/ codes of conduct
  • Waste-pickers
  • negotiate with municipalities/private sector for
    provision of safety equipment and reduction of
    hazards at the place of work
  • provide access for workers to local
    government/private sector social provision
    health services and health insurance, training
    courses, educational bursaries

15
MAINSTREAMING SOCIAL PROTECTION FOR INFORMAL
WORKERS THE CASE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND
SAFETY (OHS)
  • VISION
  • The integration of the working conditions and
    health status of poorer informal workers, and
  • The inclusion of informal work places, into the
    discipline and practice of occupational health
    and safety

16
OHS FOR INFORMAL WORKERS
  • How to re-think OHS as a more inclusive
    discipline, for different types of informal
    workers?
  • What institutional reform would be necessary at
    national and local government level - to reach
    more workers?
  • How can informal workers be integrated in
    inclusive and sustainable platforms for
    negotiation and policy development?

17
OHS FOR INFORMAL WORKERS THE VISION - HOW?
  • Voice Support/assist MBOs of informal workers in
    shaping focused demands for OHS interventions and
    in negotiating for policy change and
    implementation
  • Visibility Integrate module on OHS for informal
    workers into Labour Force Surveys improve the
    country-based statistics on occupational hazards
    and injuries to regulating bodies such as the ILO
  • Validity Modify legal and institutional barriers
    to the inclusion of informal workers develop a
    model for expanded and integrated curriculum for
    OHS for informal workers into mainstream public
    health schools

18
OHS PROGRAMME DESIGN
  • Africa (Ghana, Tanzania), Asia (two sites in
    India), Latin America Brazil, Peru
  • Focus on different occupational groups
    including street vendors, homebased workers,
    informal recycling workers, domestic workers,
    agricultural workers, seaweed farmers

19
RESEARCH
  • Understanding the Context
  • Paper 1 Size and Shape of the Informal Economy
  • Paper 2 Institutional Mapping and Analysis
  • Participatory research on risks and hazards with
    MBOs
  • Focus groups discussions, mobility mapping, time
    and motion studies, household/ enterprise
    interviews, photography, health checklists

20
IMPROVING DATA ABOUT RISKS AND HAZARDS IN
INFORMAL WORK
  • Improved statistics on occupational injury and
    disease for informal workers
  • Work with National Statistics Bodies
  • Labour force survey modules pilot in two
    countries
  • Identify gaps in procedures for accident
    reporting

21
TANZANIA DATA ON OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES
  • Available data on occupational injuries are
    hugely underestimated
  • Reporting is limited to the workers covered by
    the system- those largely working in the formal
    sector - does not include most of those working
    in the informal sector, as well as in the
    agricultural sector

22
TANZANIA DATA SYSTEMS
  • Opportunities for strengthening the routine
    collection and monitoring of progress, structure
    and scale of the informal economy as well as
    pertinent OHS indicators (through targeted (and
    nested) questions in periodic surveys (HBS, LFS,
    DHS, census) at national, as well as at
    district/council level?
  • Coordination of ongoing data collection
    activities?
  • Strengthening the role of Municipalities or
    Councils at the Local Government (LG) level in
    the management of OHS - facilitate information as
    well as provide national and local decision
    makers with insights into the complexity of OHS
    affairs.

23
  • Limited capacity to enforce the many laws and
    regulations and ensure HS at the workplace few
    inspectors, lack of other trained staff,
    transport facilities and other essential
    resource around 4,000 workplaces are registered
    out of an estimated total of 50,000 workplaces in
    mainland Tanzania
  • Environmental hazards are widespread, especially
    in the informal sector and in small and
    medium-sized companies where the majority of the
    work force is employed.
  • Workers are often unaware about OHS issues and
    remain unprotected from occupational accidents
    and diseases

24
Tanzania
  • Existing labour laws are designed to cover most
    Tanzanian workers, including many of those in the
    informal economy. However, informal sector
    workers on the whole, still tend not to benefit
    from the legislation.
  • Need to enhance the implementation of the labour
    laws - in the formal and the informal economy gt
    calls for an effective labour administration and
    inspection service.

25
TANZANIA
  • Many protective laws, policies, programmes
    projects,
  • Involving multiple state and non-state actors
  • Scattered, ill-coordinated and the general impact
    of these has been limited.
  • It is therefore not just about building new
    systems and new programmes. It is also about
    assessing the effectiveness or rather weaknesses
    of existing systems and programmes.
  • The issue is not always of more money but better
    use of available resources

26
SURVEY OF OHS SYSTEMS IN EA
  • Legislation and Government authorities are
    relatively well developed, the implementation of
    legislation is weak, and the legal and
    particularly practical coverage of services is
    currently low.
  • Regulations may stipulate comprehensive content
    for services, the practical content may often be
    very narrow, including only health examinations
    and curative general health services, based on
    the public health system.
  • Preventive activities are under-developed with
    weak systems for recognition and registration of
    occupational diseases and injuries.
  • There are substantial needs to develop financial
    systems for OHS by obligating employers to invest
    more in OHS and to organize alternative public
    service provision opportunities for the informal
    sector, agriculture and the self-employed.
  • (Rantanen and Lehtinen, 2010)

27
POOR OPERATORS LACK INCENTIVE TO MAINTAIN CLEAN
WORKING ENVIRONMENTS
  • Street Net Ghana Alliance survey of 20 chop bars
    (informal eating establishment)
  • Bar operators on average spent around US 1,142
    annually on water, refuse removal, use of
    toilets, cleaning equipment, employee health
    certificates fire fighting equipment
  • How to make OHS more affordable for informal
    businesses?

28
GHANA TANZANIA INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS
  • Local Government (LG) is an important player in
    determining workplace conditions, with specific
    links to both formal and informal sector
    employments, and administration related issues
  • LG is not effective in maintaining an acceptable
    work environment
  • General lack of resources
  • Institutional Issues

29
OHS
  • Multi-disciplinary and inter-sectoral- addressed
    by a range of legislation under different
    departments / ministries and organisations.

30
GHANA TANZANIA INSTITUTIONAL PROBLEMS OF LOCAL
GOVERNMENT
  • Lack of horizontal coordination between local
    government departments that have jurisdiction
    over various aspects of health and safety
  • Problematic vertical alignments between LG and
    national govt
  • Lack of institutionalised communication between
    LG and informal workers
  • Poor dissemination of public information (laws,
    policies, regulations, by-laws)
  • Insufficient regulation of privatised services

31
INTERVENTIONS PREVENTION OF RISKS, IMPROVING
WORK CONDITIONS
  • Participatory health screenings on morbidity and
    risk
  • Development of prototypes of improved equipment
  • Assessment of impact of new/ modified equipment
  • Exchanging good practices between countries and
    between national, regional and international
    organisations networks of informal workers

32
Sharing the learning
  • Diagnostic workshops between workers and those
    who control OHS
  • Multiple stakeholder policy dialogue
  • Integrating the learning into MBO planning and
    strategy
  • Development of accessible materials on organising
    around OHS issues
  • Regional meetings to share the learning
  • Papers at international policy conferences
  • Articles in influential journals
  • Influence on OHS curriculum

33
TOWARDS SUSTAINED INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE KEY
ENABLING CONDITIONS
  • Representative Voice
  • more and stronger organizations of the working
    poor in the informal economy
  • representation of such organizations in relevant
    policy-making, rule-setting, and collective
    bargaining institutions and processes at all
    levels
  • Official Visibility
  • improved labor force and other economic
    statistics that measure all economic units and
    workers - including their earnings contribution
    to GDP
  • analysis and dissemination of these data to
    policy-makers, advocates of informal workers, and
    organizations of working poor in informal economy
  • research on the characteristics and situation of
    informal workers
  • documentation of promising examples of policy,
    regulator, legal, and programmatic interventions
    in support of informal workers
  • Legal and Policy Validity
  • legal identity and rights of informal workers as
    workers, asset holders, and citizens
  • legal recognition of the member-based
    organizations of informal workers
  • legal empowerment through inclusive legal and
    policy reform processes and appropriate legal and
    policy reforms
  • A LONG TERM PROCESS

34
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35
Women in Informal EmploymentGlobalising and
Organising1
  • www.wiego.org
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