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3rd Edition: Chapter 3

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Title: 3rd Edition: Chapter 3 Author: Jim Kurose & Keith Ross Last modified by: Edith Ngai Created Date: 10/8/1999 7:08:27 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 3rd Edition: Chapter 3


1
1DT066 Distributed Information System Chapter
3 Transport Layer
2
Chapter 3 Transport Layer
  • learn about transport layer protocols in the
    Internet
  • UDP connectionless transport
  • TCP connection-oriented transport
  • Our goals
  • understand principles behind transport layer
    services
  • reliable data transfer
  • flow control
  • congestion control

3
Transport vs. network layer
  • network layer logical communication between
    hosts
  • transport layer logical communication between
    processes
  • relies on and enhances network layer services

4
Internet transport-layer protocols
  • reliable, in-order delivery (TCP)
  • congestion control
  • flow control
  • connection setup
  • unreliable, unordered delivery UDP
  • no-frills extension of best-effort IP
  • services not available
  • delay guarantees
  • bandwidth guarantees

5
TCP vs. UDP
Features TCP (Yes/No) UDP (Yes/No)
(1) Ordered packets
(2) Connectionless
(3) Reliable data delivery (no packet loss)
(4) Flow control
(5) Congestion control
(6) delay guarantees
(7) bandwidth guarantees
6
TCP vs. UDP
Features TCP (Yes/No) UDP (Yes/No)
(1) Ordered packets Y N
(2) Connectionless N Y
(3) Reliable data delivery (no packet loss) Y N
(4) Flow control Y N
(5) Congestion control Y N
(6) delay guarantees N N
(7) bandwidth guarantees N N
7
Chapter 3 outline
  • 3.1 Transport-layer services
  • 3.2 Multiplexing and demultiplexing
  • 3.3 Connectionless transport UDP
  • 3.4 Principles of reliable data transfer
  • 3.5 Connection-oriented transport TCP
  • segment structure
  • reliable data transfer
  • flow control
  • congestion control

8
UDP USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL RFC 768
  • no frills, bare bones Internet transport
    protocol
  • best effort service, UDP segments may be
  • lost
  • delivered out of order to app
  • connectionless
  • no handshaking between UDP sender, receiver
  • each UDP segment handled independently of others
  • Why is there a UDP?
  • no connection establishment (which can add delay)
  • simple no connection state at sender, receiver
  • small segment header
  • no congestion control UDP can blast away as fast
    as desired

9
UDP MORE
  • often used for streaming multimedia apps
  • loss tolerant
  • rate sensitive
  • other UDP uses
  • DNS
  • SNMP
  • reliable transfer over UDP add reliability at
    application layer
  • application-specific error recovery!

32 bits
source port
dest port
Length, in bytes of UDP segment, including header
checksum
length
Application data (message)
UDP segment format
10
Chapter 3 outline
  • 3.1 Transport-layer services
  • 3.2 Multiplexing and demultiplexing
  • 3.3 Connectionless transport UDP
  • 3.4 Principles of reliable data transfer
  • 3.5 Connection-oriented transport TCP
  • segment structure
  • reliable data transfer
  • flow control
  • congestion control

11
PRINCIPLES OF RELIABLE DATA TRANSFER
  • important in app., transport, link layers
  • top-10 list of important networking topics!
  • characteristics of unreliable channel will
    determine complexity of reliable data transfer
    protocol (rdt)

12
PRINCIPLES OF RELIABLE DATA TRANSFER
  • important in app., transport, link layers
  • top-10 list of important networking topics!
  • characteristics of unreliable channel will
    determine complexity of reliable data transfer
    protocol (rdt)

13
PRINCIPLES OF RELIABLE DATA TRANSFER
  • important in app., transport, link layers
  • top-10 list of important networking topics!
  • characteristics of unreliable channel will
    determine complexity of reliable data transfer
    protocol (rdt)

14
RDT3.0 EXAMPLE
15
RDT3.0 EXAMPLE
16
rdt3.0 stop-and-wait operation
sender
receiver
first packet bit transmitted, t 0
last packet bit transmitted, t L / R
first packet bit arrives
RTT
last packet bit arrives, send ACK
ACK arrives, send next packet, t RTT L / R
17
PIPELINED PROTOCOLS
  • Pipelining sender allows multiple, in-flight,
    yet-to-be-acknowledged pkts
  • range of sequence numbers must be increased
  • buffering at sender and/or receiver
  • Two generic forms of pipelined protocols
    go-Back-N, selective repeat

18
Pipelining increased utilization
sender
receiver
first packet bit transmitted, t 0
last bit transmitted, t L / R
first packet bit arrives
RTT
last packet bit arrives, send ACK
last bit of 2nd packet arrives, send ACK
last bit of 3rd packet arrives, send ACK
ACK arrives, send next packet, t RTT L / R
Increase utilization by a factor of 3!
19
Pipelining Protocols
  • Go-back-N overview
  • sender up to N unACKed pkts in pipeline
  • receiver only sends cumulative ACKs
  • doesnt ACK pkt if theres a gap
  • sender has timer for oldest unACKed pkt
  • if timer expires retransmit all unACKed packets
  • Selective Repeat overview
  • sender up to N unACKed packets in pipeline
  • receiver ACKs individual pkts
  • sender maintains timer for each unACKed pkt
  • if timer expires retransmit only unACKed packet

20
Go-Back-N
  • Sender
  • k-bit seq in pkt header
  • window of up to N, consecutive unACKed pkts
    allowed
  • ACK(n) ACKs all pkts up to, including seq n -
    cumulative ACK
  • may receive duplicate ACKs (see receiver)
  • timer for each in-flight pkt
  • timeout(n) retransmit pkt n and all higher seq
    pkts in window

21
GBN IN ACTION
22
SELECTIVE REPEAT
  • receiver individually acknowledges all correctly
    received pkts
  • buffers pkts, as needed, for eventual in-order
    delivery to upper layer
  • sender only resends pkts for which ACK not
    received
  • sender timer for each unACKed pkt
  • sender window
  • N consecutive seq s
  • again limits seq s of sent, unACKed pkts

23
SELECTIVE REPEAT SENDER, RECEIVER WINDOWS
24
Chapter 3 outline
  • 3.1 Transport-layer services
  • 3.2 Multiplexing and demultiplexing
  • 3.3 Connectionless transport UDP
  • 3.4 Principles of reliable data transfer
  • 3.5 Connection-oriented transport TCP
  • segment structure
  • reliable data transfer
  • flow control
  • Congestion control

25
TCP OVERVIEW RFCS 793, 1122, 1323, 2018, 2581
  • point-to-point
  • reliable, in-order byte steam
  • pipelined
  • send receive buffers
  • full duplex data
  • connection-oriented
  • flow controlled

26
TCP SEQ. S AND ACKS
  • Seq. s
  • byte stream number of first byte in segments
    data
  • ACKs
  • seq of next byte expected from other side
  • cumulative ACK

Host B
Host A
User types C
Seq42, ACK79, data C
host ACKs receipt of C, echoes back C
Seq79, ACK43, data C
host ACKs receipt of echoed C
Seq43, ACK80
simple telnet scenario
27
TCP reliable data transfer
  • TCP creates rdt service on top of IPs unreliable
    service
  • pipelined segments
  • cumulative ACKs
  • TCP uses single retransmission timer
  • retransmissions are triggered by
  • timeout events
  • duplicate ACKs

28
TCP RETRANSMISSION SCENARIOS
Host A
Host B
Seq92, 8 bytes data
Seq100, 20 bytes data
ACK100
ACK120
Seq92, 8 bytes data
Sendbase 100
SendBase 120
ACK120
Seq92 timeout
SendBase 100
SendBase 120
premature timeout
29
TCP RETRANSMISSION SCENARIOS (MORE)
SendBase 120
30
TCP Flow Control
  • receive side of TCP connection has a receive
    buffer
  • speed-matching service matching send rate to
    receiving applications drain rate
  • app process may be slow at reading from buffer

31
TCP CONGESTION CONTROL
  • goal TCP sender should transmit as fast as
    possible, but without congesting network
  • Q how to find rate just below congestion level
  • decentralized each TCP sender sets its own rate,
    based on implicit feedback
  • ACK segment received (a good thing!), network
    not congested, so increase sending rate
  • lost segment assume loss due to congested
    network, so decrease sending rate

32
TCP congestion control bandwidth probing
  • probing for bandwidth increase transmission
    rate on receipt of ACK, until eventually loss
    occurs, then decrease transmission rate
  • continue to increase on ACK, decrease on loss
    (since available bandwidth is changing, depending
    on other connections in network)

ACKs being received, so increase rate
X
X
X
TCPs sawtooth behavior
X
sending rate
time
33
Chapter 3 Summary
  • principles behind transport layer services
  • reliable data transfer
  • flow control
  • congestion control
  • instantiation and implementation in the Internet
  • UDP
  • TCP
  • Next
  • leaving the network edge (application,
    transport layers)
  • into the network core

34
GBN Demo
http//www.cs.mum.edu/courses/cs450/GoBackN.htm
35
Selective Repeat Demo
http//www.eecis.udel.edu/amer/450/TransportApple
ts/SR/SRindex.html
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