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Title: IADSR International Conference 2012


1
IADSR International Conference 2012
  • Post Conference Workshop
  • Lahore, Pakistan
  • 1 May 2012

2
Writing a Journal ArticleSection by Section
  • Barbara Gastel, MD, MPH
  • AuthorAID at INASP (www.authoraid.info)
  • and Texas AM University

3
Overview
  • Using journals instructions to authors
  • Structuring a journal article
  • Writing effectively in English
  • Learning more some resources
  • Along the way
  • Open discussion
  • Small-group work

4
Preliminary Questions
  • Experience
  • Have you written an article reporting research?
  • Have you published such an article?
  • Materialshave you brought the following?
  • The instructions to authors from a journal in
    which you hope to publish a paper
  • An example of a paper published in this journal
  • A draft of a paper about your own research

5
Using a Journals Instructions to
Authors
  • Read the instructions to authors before starting
    to prepare your paper.
  • Consult the instructions while preparing your
    paper.
  • Check the instructions again before submitting
    your paper.

6
What are some questions that a journals
instructions may answer?
7
Some Questions the Instructions May Answer
  • What categories of article does the journal
    publish?
  • What is the maximum length of articles?
  • What is the maximum length of abstracts?
  • What sections should the article include? What
    are the guidelines for each?
  • What guidelines for writing style should be
    followed?

8
Some Questions (cont)
  • How many figures and tables are allowed? What
    are the requirements for them?
  • In what format should references appear? Is
    there a maximum number of references?
  • In what electronic format should the paper be
    prepared?
  • How should the paper be submitted?

9
Some Browsing
  • A resource Instructions to Authors in the Health
    Sciences (http//mulford.meduohio.edu/instr/)
  • Examples of journals instructions to authors
  • Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to
    biomedical journals (http//www.icmje.org/)

10
Small-Group Exercise
  • Look at some instructions to authors that you or
    others brought or accessed.
  • What kinds of information do they contain?
  • What else do you notice about them?
  • Note and discuss questions you have about
    instructions to authors.
  • Be ready to present observations and questions to
    the full group.

11
Discussion of the Small-Group Exercise
12
Beyond the Instructions
  • Look at some recent issues of the journal.
  • In the journal, look at some papers that present
    research analogous to yours.
  • Using such articles as models can help you gear
    your paper to the journal.

13
Small-Group Exercise
  • Look at a journal article that you or someone
    else brought or accessed.
  • What are some things about this article that
    might be good to imitate if you write an article
    for the same journal?

14
Discussion of the Small-Group Exercise
15
Structuring a Journal Article
16
Preparing a journal articlelargely a matter of
organization
17
A Common Format for Journal Articles IMRAD
  • Introduction What was the question?
  • Methods How did you try to answer it?
  • Results What did you find?
  • And
  • Discussion What does it mean?

18
A More Complete View
  • (Title)
  • (Authors)
  • (Abstract)
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • (Acknowledgments)
  • (References)

19
Some Other Structures
  • IRDAM (with methods at end)
  • IMRAD RAD RAD . . . (with combined or alternating
    results and discussion)
  • Other

20
Questions
  • What is the usual structure of journal articles
    in your research field?
  • What is the structure of an article that you or a
    group member brought?

21
Title
  • The fewest possible words that adequately
    indicate the contents of the paper
  • Important in literature searching
  • Should not include extra words, such as A Study
    of or Observations on
  • Should be specific enough
  • Generally should not include abbreviations
  • (Running title short version of titleappears at
    tops of pages)

22
Mini-Exercise
  • Look at the title of a journal article that you
    or a group member brought.
  • Do you think its a good title? Why or why not?

23
Authors
  • Those with important intellectual contributions
    to the work
  • Often listed from greatest contributions to least
  • In some fields, head of research group often is
    listed last
  • In some fields, listed alphabetically
  • Useful to list ones name the same way on every
    paper

24
The Abstract
  • An important part of the paper
  • Relatively widely read
  • Used to decide whether to read the rest of the
    paper
  • Gives editors, reviewers, others a first
    impression
  • Briefly summarizes the paper
  • Should be organized like the paper (for example,
    in a miniature version of the IMRAD format)
  • Some journals have structured abstracts (with
    standardized headings).

25
Mini-Exercise
  • Look at the abstract of a journal article that
    you or a group member brought.
  • Is it structured (with headings in it) or
    unstructured?
  • How is it organized?

26
A Note on Abstracts
  • First to be read
  • Last to be written or revised

27
Orders of Reading and WritingSections of a Paper
  • People read the sections of journal papers in
    various orders. (What does that imply for how to
    write such papers?)
  • You can write the sections of a paper in any
    order.
  • A convenient order in which to write the main
    sections methods, results, discussion,
    introduction

28
Methods
29
Purposes of the Methods Section
  • To allow others to replicate what you did
  • In order to test it
  • In order to do further research
  • To allow others to evaluate what you did
  • To determine whether the conclusions seem valid
  • To determine whether the findings seem applicable
    to other situations

30
Methods Basic Informationto Include
  • In most cases, overview of study design
  • Identification of (if applicable)
  • Equipment, organisms, reagents, etc used (and
    sources thereof)
  • Populations
  • Approval of human or animal research by an
    appropriate committee
  • Statistical methods

31
Methods Amount of Detail to Use
  • For well-known methods name of method, citation
    of reference
  • For methods previously described but not well
    known brief description of method, citation of
    reference
  • For methods that you yourself devise relatively
    detailed description

32
Methods The Words and More
  • Should be written in past tense
  • In some journals, may include subheads (which can
    help readers)
  • May include tables and figuresfor example
  • Flowcharts
  • Diagrams of apparatus
  • Tables of experimental conditions

33
Questions? Comments? Additions?
34
Results
35
The Results Section
  • The core of the paper
  • Often includes tables, figures, or both
  • Should summarize findings rather than providing
    data in great detail
  • Should present results but not comment on them
  • (Note Some journals combine the Results and the
    Discussion.)

36
Verb Tense for the Results SectionPast Tense
  • Examples
  • A total of 417 patients showed _____.
  • _____ increased, but _____ decreased.
  • The average depth was _____.
  • In all, 93 of the dental students and 77 of the
    medical students indicated that ______.
  • The difference in _____ was not statistically
    significant.

37
Results Sections of Paperswith Tables or Figures
  • How much should the information in the text
    overlap that in the tables and figures?
  • Not extensive overlap
  • In general, text should present only the main
    points from the tables and figures
  • Perhaps also include a few of the most important
    data
  • Remember to mention each table or figure. Do so
    as soon as readers might want to see it.

38
Mentioning Tables and FiguresSome Writing Advice
  • In citing tables and figures, emphasize the
    finding, not the table or figure.
  • Not so good Table 3 shows that researchers who
    attended the workshop published twice as many
    papers per year.
  • Better Researchers who attended the workshop
    published twice as many papers per year (Table 3).

39
Tables A Few Suggestions
  • Use tables only if text will not suffice.
  • Design tables to be understandable without the
    text.
  • If a paper includes a series of tables, use the
    same format for each.
  • Be sure to follow the instructions to authors.

40
Figures A Few Suggestions
  • Use figures (graphs, diagrams, maps, photographs,
    etc) only if they will help convey your
    information.
  • Avoid including too much information in one
    figure.
  • Make sure that any lettering will be large enough
    once published.
  • Follow the journals instructions.

41
Small-Group ExerciseMethods and Results Sections
  • Note the most important points presented about
    the methods section and results section.
  • Note and discuss any questions you may have.
  • Look at published papers that group members
    brought. See how they compare with what was said
    about the methods and results sections.
  • If you brought a draft of a paper, consider the
    methods and results sections in light of the
    lecture material. Consider what you would keep
    the same and what changes you would make.

42
Discussion of Small-Group Exercise
43
The Introduction
44
Purposes of the Introduction
  • To provide background
  • In order to help readers understand the paper
  • In order to help readers appreciate the
    importance of the research
  • To identify the question or questions that the
    research addressed (or the hypothesis or
    hypotheses that the research tested)

45
Length of Introduction
  • Articles in some fields tend to have short
    introductions (a few paragraphs or less)
  • Articles in some other fields tend to have long
    introductions or to also include related sections
    (for example, literature review)
  • What about introductions in your field?

46
Gearing the Introductionto the Audience
  • Papers in relatively general journals
    Introduction must provide basic background
    information.
  • Papers in specialized journals in your field
    Introduction can assume that readers have more
    knowledge about the field.

47
Structure of the Introduction
  • Introduction typically should be funnel-shaped,
    moving from general to specific
  • A common structure
  • Information on importance of topic
  • Highlights of relevant previous research
  • Identification of unanswered question(s)
  • Approach you used to seek the answer(s)
  • (In some fields) your main findings

48
Discussion
49
Discussion
  • One of the more difficult parts to write, because
    have more choice of what to say
  • Often should begin with a brief summary of the
    main findings
  • Should answer the question(s) stated in the
    introduction (or address the hypothesis or
    hypotheses)
  • Sometimes is followed by a conclusions section

50
The DiscussionSome Possible Content
  • Strengths of the study
  • For example, superior methods, extensive data
  • Limitations of the study
  • For example small sample size, short follow-up,
    incomplete data, possible sources of bias,
    problems with experimental procedures
  • Better to mention limitations than for peer
    reviewers and readers to think that youre
    unaware of them
  • If the limitations seem unlikely to affect the
    conclusions, can explain why

51
The DiscussionPossible Content (cont)
  • Relationship to findings of other researchfor
    example
  • Similarities to previous findings (your own,
    others, or both)
  • Differences from previous findings
  • Possible reasons for similarities and differences

52
The DiscussionPossible Content (cont)
  • Applications and implicationsfor example
  • Possible uses of the findings (in clinical
    practice, in policy, or otherwise)
  • Relationship of the findings to theories or
    models
  • Do the findings support them?
  • Do they refute them?
  • Do they suggest modifications?

53
The DiscussionPossible Content (cont)
  • Other research neededfor example
  • To address questions still unanswered
  • To address new questions raised by the findings
  • Other

54
The Discussion Structure
  • Typically should move from specific to general
    (opposite of introduction)
  • Beware of excessive length

55
IMRAD StructureLike an Hourglass
  • Introduction starts by talking broadly about
    your topic and then narrows down to your own
    research
  • Methods narrowfocuses on your research
  • Results narrowfocuses on your research
  • Discussion starts narrow (with your own
    research) and then broadens to discuss others
    research and then wider implications

56
Small-Group ExerciseIntroduction and Discussion
  • Note the most important points presented about
    the introduction and discussion.
  • Note and discuss any questions you may have.
  • Look at published papers that group members
    brought. See how they compare with what was said
    about the introduction and discussion.
  • If you brought a draft of a paper, consider the
    introduction and discussion in light of the
    lecture material. Consider what you would keep
    the same and what changes you would make.

57
Discussion of Small-Group Exercise
58
Acknowledgments
  • The place to thank people who contributed to the
    research but whose contributions dont qualify
    them for authorship
  • Obtain permission before listing people
  • Sometimes also the place to mention sources of
    financial support

59
References
60
Functions of References
  • To give credit to others for their work
  • To add credibility to your work by showing that
    you used valid information sources
  • To help show how your work relates to previous
    work
  • To help readers find further information

61
ReferencesImportance of Accuracy
  • Studies show that many references are inaccurate.
  • For references to fulfill their functions, they
    must be accurate. Therefore
  • Make sure that you accurately state what the
    cited material says.
  • Make sure that all information in the citation
    (for example, author list, article title, journal
    title, volume, year, pages) is accurate.

62
Another Reason Your References Should Be Accurate
  • Often, authors whose work you cite will be chosen
    as your peer reviewers. Inaccurate references to
    their work will not impress them favorably.

63
Formats
  • Various formats exist for citation in textfor
    example
  • Accuracy of references is important (Day and
    Gastel, 2011).
  • Accuracy of references is important.3
  • Various formats exist for items in reference
    listsfor example
  • Pineda D. 2003. Communication of science in
    Colombia. Sci. Ed. 2691-92.
  • Pineda D. Communication of science in Colombia.
    Sci Ed 20032691-2.

64
A Reminder
  • Be sure to use the format used by your target
    journal.
  • For the citations in the text
  • For the reference list

65
Citation Management Software
  • Examples EndNote, Reference Manager, RefWorks
  • Allows you to keep a database of references
  • Provides the citations and references in the
    proper format for your target journal

66
Placement of Citations
  • Ambiguous
  • This disease has been reported in humans, dogs,
    rabbits, and squirrels (Cumming and Gastel, 1997
    Khan and Chaudhry, 2008 Zhang, 2002).
  • This disease has been reported in humans, dogs,
    rabbits, and squirrels.1,4,7
  • Clear
  • This disease has been reported in humans (Cumming
    and Gastel, 1997), dogs (Khan and Chaudhry,
    2008), and rabbits and squirrels (Zhang, 2002).
  • This disease has been reported in humans,1 dogs,4
    rabbits,7 and squirrels.7

67
Other Advice on References
  • Cite only items that you have read.
  • Check each reference against the original source.
  • Carefully follow the journals instructions to
    authors.
  • Use other articles in the same journal as models.

68
Before Submitting Your Paper
  • Make sure the abstract is consistent with the
    rest of your paper.
  • Revise, revise, revise the paper.
  • Show the paper to other people, and revise it
    some more.
  • Re-check the journals instructions to authors.

69
Writing Effectively in English
70
The Essentials
  • The essentials are content, organization, and
    clarity.
  • If a paper has excellent content, is well
    organized, and is clear, it is likely to be
    accepted even if the English is so-so.
  • If a paper has poor content, is badly organized,
    or is unclear, it is likely to be rejected even
    if the English is excellent.

71
Cultural Differences to Consider
  • Directness of expression?
  • Amount of detail?
  • Attitudes toward time?
  • Attitudes toward using material taken from
    others writing?
  • Other?

72
Some Common Language Challenges
  • Verb tenses
  • Prepositions
  • Articles
  • Sentence structure
  • Sentence length
  • Other
  • What language challenges, if any, do people in
    Pakistan face when writing in English?

73
Some Strategies
  • Compiling lists of words and phrases commonly
    used in your field
  • Writing simply
  • Having people with a strong command of English
    review your drafts
  • Using a professional editor (if possible, one
    familiar with your field)
  • Other

74
Writing Readably
  • In general, avoid
  • Very long paragraphs
  • Very long sentences
  • Perhaps use
  • Headings
  • Bulleted or numbered lists
  • Italics and boldface (but dont overuse these)
  • Easy-to-understand graphics

75
Writing Readably (cont)
  • Where feasible,
  • Use simple, common words.
  • attempt? fundamental?
  • Delete needless words.
  • red in color? totally destroyed?
  • Condense wordy phrases.
  • at this point in time? in the event that?
  • Use verbs, not nouns made from them.
  • produce relief of? provide an explanation?

76
Questions? Comments? Additions?
77
Learning MoreSome Resources
78
Some General Resources
  • OneLook Dictionary Search (www.onelook.com)
  • Academic Phrasebank (www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.
    uk)
  • Grammar Girl (grammar.quickanddirtytips.com)
  • University writing centers (search online)
  • Books on scientific writingfor example
  • Research Writing in Dentistry, by J. Anthony von
    Fraunhofer
  • How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, 7th
    ed, by Robert A. Day and Barbara Gastel

79
AuthorAID at INASP(www.authoraid.info)
  • A project mainly to help researchers in
    developing countries to write about and publish
    their work
  • Main components
  • Mentoring
  • Workshops
  • Openly accessible content
  • Small travel grants and workshop grants

80
Questions and Answers
81
Closing Items
82
Thank you!
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