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Indian Art 2


... is expanding India s warring rulers left the door open for the Islam religion to spread to Northern India Taking of Delhi on 1192 ... on Hindu monuments. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Indian Art 2

Indian Art 2
  • 320- 1400 ACE

Classical Period Gupta Empire 320-550AD
  • Outpouring of science, literature, music and the
    visual arts
  • It established the iconography of Hindu and
    Buddhist divinities.
  • A more unified style
  • Buddah is now depicted in human form , very
    serene, with eyes cast down, averted from the
    world as if in meditation
  • Cloth very close to the body
  • Open hand gesture-dharma chakra mudra
  • Hinduism is on the rise

Sandstone statue of preaching Buddha, fifth
century ad. Archaeoiogicai Museum, Sarnath.
  • Represents the god Shiva, and Vishnu, instead of
  • Relief showing Vishnu -. Vishnu Temple.
  • The thick and animated network of figures on a
    variety of levels,and the luminosity and
    sensuality of the high-relief sculpture are very

  • Lord Vishnu represents the aspect of the Supreme
    Reality that preserves and sustains the universe
  • He is generally symbolized by a human body with
    four arms. In His hands He carries a conch
    (indicates that the Lord communicates with his
    devotees with love and understanding ), a mace
    (denotes his energy ), and discus (he uses this
    weapon to protect his devotees from evil. ) His
    front right hand is depicted bestowing grace on
    His devotees.  .
  • He has a blue body and wears yellow clothes. The
    Lord is shown standing on a thousand-headed snake
    (named Shesha Nag), and the snake stands with its
    hoods open over the head of the Lord. 
  • The two front arms signify the lord's activity in
    the physical world and the two back arms signify
    His activity in the spiritual world

  • Brahma is the Hindu god of creation and one of
    the Trimurti,
  • Brahma is self-born (without mother) in the lotus
    flower which grew from the navel of Vishnu at the
    beginning of the universe.
  • Another legend says that Brahma was born in
    water. In this he deposited a seed that later
    became the golden egg. From this golden egg,
    Brahma the creator was born. The remaining
    materials of this golden egg expanded into the
    Brahm-anda or Universe.
  • Brahma is said also to be the son of the Supreme
    Being, Brahman and the female energy known as
    Prakrti or Maya.

  • Shiva is called the Destroyer (of evil), but has
    also the aspect of regeneration. As destroyer he
    is dark and terrible, .accompanied by a train of
    hideous demons, encircled with serpents and
    necklaces. He is also shown with reproductive
    power, he is worshipped in the form of the
    shivling or shiva linga (lingam).
  • The dance of Shiva is symbolic of the dynamic
    forces of creation and destruction, and the
    harmonious balance of opposites.
  • Most images of the dancing Shiva depict him with
    four arms, which represent the four cardinal
    directions of space.

India (1000-1400)
  • India-strong and expanding (Buddhist and Hindu)
  • Cult of Siva dominant (Siva Nataraja Lord of the
    Dance- spoke of creation and destruction)
  • Temples are shaped to represent the mountain
    residence of Siva
  • Temples are lavishly decorated, strict rules of
  • Detailed, often erotic figures decorated temple
  • The Muslims would gain control of northern India
    at the end of the century and not allow the icon

In Europe- the Middle Ages (dominance of the
church), time of the crusades.
  • This bronze sculpture, entitled Shiva as Nataraja
    (Lord of the Dance) (about AD 1000), is one of a
    number of sculptures of the Hindu god Shiva made
    during Indias Chola dynasty (10th century to
    13th century). The sculpture shows Shiva dancing
    within a circle of fire. One of the gods hands
    holds a flame, while the other beats on a drum.
    His foot rests on the demon of ignorance.

  • Ganesha, son of Shiva, Hoysala Sculpture- 13th
  • Soft soapstone
  • Ganesha is worshipped as the lord of beginnings
    and as the lord of obstacles (Vighnesha), patron
    of arts and sciences, and the god of intellect
    and wisdom.

Architecture 1000-1100
Name Kandariya Mahadeo TemplePlace Khajuraho
Time Period/Chronology C.1000 A.D
  • the largest and most ornate Hindu temple in the
    medieval temple group found at Khajuraho in
    Madhya Pradesh, India. It is considered one of
    the best examples of temples preserved from the
    medieval period in India.

  • -Khajuraho extended over 21 sq. km and contained
    about 85 temples built by multiple rulers from
    about 950 to 1050.
  • its remoteness probably saved it from the
    desecration that Muslim conquerors generally
    inflicted on Hindu monuments. They were
    rediscovered in 1838
  • Of the 85 original templesmost constructed of
    hard river sandstoneabout 20 are still
    reasonably well preserved. Both internally and
    externally the temples are richly carved with
    excellent sculptures that are frequently sensual
    and, at times, sexually explicit.
  • The main spire or shikhara rises 31 m to depict
    Mount Meru, the holy mountain of Shiva and is
    surrounded by 84 miniature spires
  • Decorating the sides of the temple are over 646

Many of the side panels depict Shiva in the
presence of apsaras, consorts, and other
divinities. These erotic figures do not span the
whole temple and are not to be found among the
226 found inside
Meanwhile over in the West-1000-1100
  • Europe-Basically a climate of political stability
    and economic expansion in the west due to
    national monarchies
  • STILL.
  • On 15 July 1099, the armies of the First Crusade
    captured Jerusalem and massacred its defenders to
    claim the city for Christianity
  • 88 years later, Saladin, the charismatic leader
    of the Muslim Near East, retook the holy city for
  • Within three years, Richard the Lionheart was
    leading the Third Crusade. Yet, despite winning
    several battles, he failed to take Jerusalem.

  • Islam is expanding
  • Indias warring rulers left the door open for the
    Islam religion to spread to Northern India
  • Taking of Delhi on 1192- Muslim domination in
    Northern India would remain for centuries
    (founding of the Delhi Sultanate in 1193)
  • Hinduism still strong in Southern India
  • It took a century and a half to take over India
    as it retreated southward.

Northern Muslim/Indian Art
  • The exotic art of Hindu and Buddhist India was
    considered Icons by the Muslim conquerors, many
    temples were destroyed
  • The Mosque of Islam at Delhi was supplied by
    stones taken from Hindu shrines
  • Dominant feature is the Qutb Minar a great
    minaret begun in 1199 and conceived as a tower of
  • Inscriptions from the Koran, decoration
    traditional Indian inspiration

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India (1100-1200)
  • N. India splits due to wars, facilitated Muslim
    expansion-Muhammad Ghuri founder of Muslim power
  • Religious freedom was basically allowed, they did
    not impose their religion on the Hindu minority
  • Sculpture, and some temples, destroyed due to
  • Still Southern India remained until the 14th
    century- Tamil empire of Hindu Cholas
  • Architecture rich in detail- sculpture more
    important than architecture
  • Building very modest in scale

Kesava Temple at Somnathpur
Location South West Of Bangalore,
Karnataka Consecrated In 1268 A.D, Hoysala
craftsmanship. Dedicated To Lord Keshava
  • Keshava (Krishna) temple was built in 1268 by the
    Hoysala general Somanatha, during the reign of
    king Narasimha III. This gem of a building is the
    last, and best-preserved, of the major Hoysala
    temples. The entrance (East-facing) to the temple
    is framed by lathe-turned columns.

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  • Krishna, surrounded by attendants, plays the
    flute beneath a tree. His dress and crown are
    richly ornamented. The typically rococo (ornate
    and intricate) manner of such sculptures makes
    the Hoysala one of the easiest styles to
    recognize in Indian art.

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India (1200-1300)
  • As Muslim advances into India Hindu and Buddhist
    artistic traditions were on the decline
  • Images were broken due to the erotic art of the
    Hindu religion
  • Surya Temple SW of Calcutta escaped their
  • Meanwhile in the west

  • Mongol invasion, of vast areas of Asia and some
    of Europe
  • It is believed, they brought wares from China but
    also the bubonic plague
  • We know it as the BLACK DEATH or BLACK PLAGUE or
    THE BUBONIC PLAGUE (1/3 of Europe was wiped out)
  • Ottoman Turks-14th century- (from Antolia)
    brought down Constantinople-advance stopped in
    Samarkand (Tamerlane)
  • Muslims still have a small part of Spain in

Surya Temple-Temple of the Sun-during the reign
of Narasimhadeva 1238-64 -representation of the
chariot of the sun-god Surya It was conceived as
the chariot of the sun god, Surya, carried upon
twelve pairs of wheels representing the months,
and drawn by seven horses representing the days
of the week
Included seven sculptured horses of the god myth
to draw it
One of the horses that draw the Sun's chariot
  • A wheel of the Sun's chariot

A wheel of the Sun's chariot the body of the
temple was carried by 12 great wheels
Wall detail of the temple Above the wheels
erotic paired-off sculptures which have made the
Temple notorious
The king, on an elephant, being presented with a
giraffe sent by an African king
Surya Deva himself, with his charioteer and
horses below his feet
India 1300-1400
  • Mostly under Islamic reign, so we will cover the
    art under Islamic art latter on in the semester