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American Literary Periods and Their Characteristics

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American Literary Periods and Their Characteristics Puritan/Colonial 1650-1750 Historical Context A person s fate is determined by God (predestination) All people ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: American Literary Periods and Their Characteristics


1
American Literary Periods and Their
Characteristics
2
Puritan/Colonial 1650-1750 Historical Context
  • A persons fate is determined by God
    (predestination)
  • All people are corrupt and must be saved by
    Christ (Original Sin)
  • Covenant of Grace and Covenant of Works debate

3
Puritan/Colonial 1650-1750 Genre/Style
  • Sermons,
  • diaries,
  • personal narratives
  • Written in plain style

4
Puritan/Colonial 1650-1750 Effect/Aspects
  • Instructive
  • Reinforces authority of the Bible and church

5
Puritan/Colonial 1650-1750 Examples
  • Bradford's Of Plymouth Plantation
  • Rowlandson's "A Narrative of the Captivity
  • Edward's "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
  • Though not written during Puritan times, The
    Crucible The Scarlet Letter depict life during
    the time when Puritan theocracy prevailed.

6
Revolutionary/Age of Reason 1750-1800 Historical
Context
  • Tells readers how to interpret what they are
    reading
  • Meant to encourage Revolutionary War support
  • Instructive in values

7
Revolutionary/Age of Reason 1750-1800 Genre/Style
  • Political pamphlets
  • Travel writing
  • Highly ornate style
  • Persuasive writing

8
Revolutionary/Age of Reason 1750-1800 Effect/Aspec
ts
  • Patriotism grows, Instills pride
  • Creates common agreement about issues
  • National mission and the American character

9
Revolutionary/Age of Reason 1750-1800 Examples
  • Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine-
    Common Sense
  • Benjamin Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac and
    "The Autobiography"

10
Romanticism 1800-1860 Historical Context
  • Expansion of magazines, newspapers, and book
    publishing
  • Slavery debates
  • Industrial revolution brings ideas that the "old
    ways" of doing things are now irrelevant

11
Romanticism 1800-1860 Genre/Style
  • Character sketches
  • Frontier exploits
  • Slave narratives
  • Poetry
  • Short stories

12
Romanticism 1800-1860 Effects/Aspects
  • Value feeling and intuition over reasoning
  • Journey away from corruption of civilization and
    limits of rational thought toward the integrity
    of nature and freedom of the imagination
  • Helped instill proper gender behavior for men and
    women
  • Allowed people to re-imagine the American past

13
Romanticism 1800-1860 Examples
  • Washington Irving's "Rip Van Winkle
  • William Cullen Bryant's "Thanatopsis"
  • Dunbar's "We Wear the Mask"
  • Poems of Emily Dickinson

14
American Renaissance/Transcendentalism 1840-1860 H
istorical Context
  • Transcendentalists True reality is spiritual
  • Comes from18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant
  • Idealists
  • Self-reliance individualism
  • Emerson Thoreau
  • Seeking true beauty and understanding in life and
    in nature

15
American Renaissance/Transcendentalism 1840-1860 G
enre/Style
  • Poetry
  • Short Stories
  • Novels
  • Hold readers attention through dread of a
    series of terrible possibilities
  • Feature landscapes of dark forests, extreme
    vegetation, concealed ruins with horrific rooms,
    depressed characters

16
Realism 1855-Civil War Post War
period Historical Context
  • Civil War brings demand for a "truer" type of
    literature that does not idealize people or
    places
  • Battlefield Photography

17
Realism 1855-Civil War Post War
period Genre/Style
  • Novels and short stories
  • Objective narrator
  • Does not tell reader how to interpret story
  • Dialogue includes voices from around the country

18
Realism 1855-Civil War Post War
period Effect/Aspects
  • Social realism aims to change a specific social
    problem
  • Aesthetic realism art that insists on detailing
    the world as one sees it

19
Realism 1855-Civil War Post War period Examples
  • Writings of Mark Twain, Ambrose Bierce, Stephen
    Crane The Narrative of the Life of Frederick
    Douglass
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (some say 1st
    modern novel)
  • Regional works like The Awakening. Ethan Frome,
    and My Antonia (some say modern)

20
Regionalism 1865-1915
  • Regionalism was a literary movement in which
    authors would write a story about specific
    geographical areas.
  • Writers in this time not only tried to show the
    region they wrote about to their readers, but
    they also made an attempt at a sophisticated
    sociological or anthropological treatment of the
    culture of the region.
  • By writing about regions, the authors explore the
    culture of that area including its-
  • Languages
  • Customs
  • Beliefs
  • history

Authors of Regionalism
Willa Cather
William Faulkner
Kate Chopin
Frank Norris
21
NATURALISM (1890s - 1950s)
  • Trend rather than a movement never formalized
    nor dominated by the influence of a single writer
  •      A more extreme, intensified version of
    realism
  •      Shows more unpleasant, ugly, shocking
    aspects of life
  •      Objective picture of reality viewed with
    scientific detachment
  •      Determinism mans life is dominated by the
    forces he cannot control biological instincts,
    social environment
  •       No free will, no place for moral judgment
  •       Pessimism
  •       Disillusionment with the dream of success
    collapse of the predominantly agrarian myth
  •       Struggle of an individual to adopt to the
    environment
  •       Society as something stable, its
    predictability allowed one to present a universal
    human situation through accurate representation
    of particulars
  •        Faith in society and art

22
The Moderns 1900-1950 Historical Context
  • Writers reflect the ideas of Darwin (survival of
    the fittest), Karl Marx (how money and class
    structure control a nation), and Sigmund Freud
    (the power of the subconscious)
  • Overwhelming technological changes of the 20th
    Century
  • Rise of the youth culture
  • WWI and WWII

23
The Moderns 1900-1950 Genre/Style
  • Novels Plays
  • Poetry (a great resurgence after deaths of
    Whitman Dickinson)
  • Highly experimental as writers seek a unique
    style
  • Use of interior monologue stream of
    consciousness

24
The Moderns 1900-1950 Effect/Aspect
  • In Pursuit of the American Dream
  • Admiration for America as land of Eden
  • Optimism
  • Importance of the Individual

25
The Moderns 1900-1950 Examples
  • Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby
  • Poetry of Jeffers, Williams, Cummings, Frost,
    Eliot, Sandburg, Pound, Robinson, Stevens
  • Rand's Anthem
  • Short stories and novels of Steinbeck, Hemingway,
    Thurber, Welty, and Faulkner
  • Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun Wright's Native
    Son (an outgrowth of Harlem Renaissance-- see
    below)
  • Miller's The Death of a Salesman (some consider
    Postmodern)

26
Harlem Renaissance (parallel to
Modernism) 1920s Historical Context
  • Mass African-American migration to Northern urban
    centers
  • African-Americans have more access to media and
    publishing outlets after they move north

27
Harlem Renaissance (parallel to
Modernism) 1920s Genre/Style
  • Allusions to African-American spirituals
  • Uses structure of blues songs in poetry
    (repetition)
  • Superficial stereotypes revealed to be complex
    characters

28
Harlem Renaissance (parallel to
Modernism) 1920s Effect/Aspects
  • Gave birth to "gospel music"
  • Blues and jazz transmitted across American via
    radio and phonographs

29
Harlem Renaissance (parallel to
Modernism) 1920s Examples
  • Essays Poetry of W.E.B. DuBois
  • Poetry of McKay, Toomer, Cullen
  • Poetry, short stories and novels of Zora Neale
    Hurston and Langston Hughes
  • Their Eyes Were Watching God

30
Postmodernism 1950-present
  • Post-World War II prosperity
  • Media culture interprets values
  • Disillusionment
  • Resistance to easily recognizable themes or
    morals in a story
  • Insists that values are not permanent but only
    "local" or "historical"

31
Postmodernism 1950-present Genre/Style
  • Mixing of fantasy with nonfiction blurs lines of
    reality for reader No heroes
  • Concern with individual in isolation
  • Social issues as writers align with feminist
    ethnic groups
  • Usually humorless
  • Narratives
  • Metafiction
  • Present tense
  • Magic realism

32
Postmodernism 1950-present Examples
  • Mailer's The Naked and the Dead and The
    Executioner's Song Feminist Social Issue poets
    Plath, Rich, Sexton, Levertov, Baraka, Cleaver,
    Morrison, Walker Giovanni
  • Miller's The Death of a Salesman The Crucible
    (some consider Modern)
  • Lawrence Lee's Inherit the Wind
  • Capote's In Cold Blood
  • Stories novels of Vonnegut
  • Salinger's Catcher in the Rye
  • Beat Poets Kerouac, Burroughs, Ginsberg
  • Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
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