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ALCOHOL PHYSIOLOGY

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ALCOHOL PHYSIOLOGY Sources: NHTSA SFST Manual & Institute for Traffic Safety Management and Research Physi-What? Physiology -- the way a particular body or organism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ALCOHOL PHYSIOLOGY


1
ALCOHOL PHYSIOLOGY
Sources NHTSA SFST Manual Institute for
Traffic Safety Management and Research
2
Physi-What?
Physiology -- the way a particular body or
organism works So what does alcohol do to my
physiology?
3
Measuring Alcohol in the Body
  • Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) describes the
    amount of alcohol in a person's blood.
  • BAC is expressed as the weight of alcohol per
    unit of volume of blood.
  • 0.08 is the legal limit for driving while
    intoxicated in New York State.
  • BAC can be measured accurately by testing the
    content in ones breath.

4
So What?
  • Increasing your BAC also increases your risk of
    being involved in many negative health and safety
    related issues.
  • Falls
  • Assaults
  • Motor vehicle crashes
  • Brain and Liver Damage
  • STD and HIV

5
How Much is Too Much?
  • Impairment begins with the first drink.
  • BACs vary from person to person due to factors
    such as weight and stomach contents.
  • Individuals can be substantially impaired after
    two drinks.
  • The same amount of alcohol will result in
    different BACs for men and women because alcohol
    is processed differently by men and women.

6
Too Much, Too Fast
  • Binge drinking five drinks by men four drinks
    by women in a short period of time.
  • High consumption increases the risk of negative
    consequences.
  • Binge drinking may cause alcohol poisoning.

7
Alcohol
A family of closely-related chemicals whose
molecules are made up of hydrogen, carbon and
oxygen
II-12
8
Some Types of Alcohol
Methyl Alcohol (Methanol)
Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol)
Isopropyl Alcohol (Isopropanol)
II-13
9
Ethanol
Ethyl Alcohol (Intended for human consumption)
H H
H C C OH
H H
II-14
10
Production of Ethanol
Fermentation Yeast combines with sugars from
fruit or grains in a chemical reaction that
results in ETOH Distillation Fermented beverage
is boiled at a controlled temperature to extract
and concentrate the ethanol fumes
II-15
11
Standard-Sized Drinks
A Can of Beer 12 ounces of fluid _at_ 4 alcohol
equals 0.48 ounces of pure ethanol A Glass of
Wine 5 ounces of fluid _at_ 12 alcohol equals 0.48
ounces of pure ethanol A Shot of Whiskey
(80-Proof) 1 and 1/4 ounces _at_ 40 alcohol equals
0.50 ounces of pure ethanol
II-16
12
Alcohol is the Most Abused Drug in the United
States
Alcohol is a CNS Depressant
II-17
13
Absorption of Alcohol
Stomach Walls
Stomach Walls
Getting the ethanol out of the stomach and into
the blood
20
Pylorus
Stomach Walls
80
II-18
14
Distribution of Alcohol
Getting the ethanol into the bodys tissues and
organs
Basic Principle
Ethanol goes wherever it finds water
II-19
15
Which Parts of the Body have Lots of Water?
The Brain The Liver Muscle Tissue
Which Parts Dont?
Bones Fatty Tissue The average male is 68
percent water The average female is only 55
percent water
II-20
16
Elimination of Alcohol
Getting the ethanol out of the body
Direct Excretion Breath, sweat, tears, urine,
etc. Metabolism Primarily in the liver
II-21
17
Metabolism in the Liver
  • The liver burns the ethanol (i.e., causes a
  • chemical reaction of ethanol with oxygen).
  • The process is aided by an enzyme called
  • alcohol dehydrogenase.
  • The ultimate products of the chemical
    reaction are carbon dioxide and water.
  • Due to metabolism, the average persons BAC
    drops by about 0.015 per hour.

II-22
18
Blood Alcohol Concentration
What does it mean?
BAC is the number of grams of alcohol found
in 100 milliliters of the persons blood
Example If a person has a BAC of .10, then there
is one-tenth of a gram of alcohol in every 100
milliliters of the persons blood.
II-23
19
QUESTIONS
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