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MARS METEOROLOGY

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MARS METEOROLOGY Eve Halligan Science Education Consultant ... 2008 on the northern arctic plains Operated for ~6 months; unlike the MER rovers, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 10 July 2019
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Title: MARS METEOROLOGY


1
MARS METEOROLOGY
Eve Halligan Science Education Consultant halligan
4_at_hotmail.com
2
MeteorologyBasics
  • Weather Warm-up!
  • Please write down 2-3 characteristics of the
    atmosphere on Post-its
  • Share with your table/people next to you
  • What tools would Meteorologists on Earth use to
    study those characteristics?
  • Large Group Share Share 1 Characteristic and
    the tool(s) used to study it (no repeats)
  • Which of these would be most useful to a weather
    forecaster?

3
Primary Atmospheric Characteristics
  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Wind Speed Direction at multiple
    layers/heights AGL
  • Humidity (water vapor/moisture content)
  • Instability
  • Precipitation
  • Cloud cover
  • Visibility
  • Ascent/Descent Rising motion/Subsidence

4
Observations, Measurements, Tools, Data!
  • Weather Balloons
  • Surface Stations
  • Wind Profilers
  • Radar (surface aircraft)
  • Satellite
  • Computer Models Numerical Weather Prediction!
  • - Model Output Statistics http//weather.unisys.c
    om/mos/index.php
  • - Reliable surface observations!

5
Atmosphere
  • Air is a fluid atmosphere behaves much like a
    shallow pool of water
  • These wave motions are important on Earth and
    other planets as well!
  • Topography can affect these wave motions

6
Atmosphere
  • Yep. Mars has an atmosphere.
  • 95 CO2, 3 N2, 2 Ar traces of O2, CO
  • Surface pressure 0.006 atm (1/100th Earths
    atmosphere)

7
Air Pressure
  • 1013.2 mb at sea level on Earth
  • Thats 14.7 lbs/in2!
  • Pressure differences between different locations
    causes the air to move from H toward L (wind)

H L
8
What drives weather?
  • Discuss with your small groups

9
Transfer of Heat Energy
Radiation


Conduction
Convection
10
Weather Versus Climate
  • Weather
  • The state of the atmosphere at any given time,
    including things such as temperature, pressure,
    precipitation, and cloud cover.
  • Climate
  • The totality of weather over a long period of
    time at one place or over a region. Climate
    results from the accumulated impact of weather
    day after day.

11
Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP)
  • The forecasting of the behavior of atmospheric
    disturbances by the numerical solution of the
    governing fundamental equations of hydrodynamics,
    subject to observed initial conditions.
  • NWP are the basis for most Global Climate Models
  • Model Output Statistics (MOS) is another useful
    tool to weather forecasters

12
Activity Mars Meteorology
  • MARCI Weather Weekly Weather Report for Nov. 3-9,
    2008
  • http//photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA114
    18
  • Curiosity Daily Weather
  • http//marsweather.com/data
  • Mars Mission Map http//mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/ne
    ws/images/20081124a/MSL_4sites_globe.jpg

13
Discussion Qs
  • How would you rate the quality of the data?
  • What observations can you make?
  • How would you interpret these observations?
  • What could you say about Mars from this data set?
  • Can you use previous mission data to make a
    generalization?
  • What can you say we know about Mars at this
    point? How certain are you?
  • What questions would you ask about Mars
    atmosphere/weather?
  • How would you attempt to answer these questions?
  • What are limitations to this type of mission
    (lander/instruments)?

14
Extensions
  • Connecting to MSL/Curiosity
  • Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS)
    Information (including data graphs and latest
    REMS news) http//mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/mission/i
    nstruments/environsensors/rems/
  • Mars Weather from REMS http//marsweather.com/dat
    a
  • Mars Weather on Twitter (_at_MarsWxReport)
    https//twitter.com/MarsWxReport
  • In the News
  • http//science.time.com/2013/07/23/revealed-
    how-mars-lost-its-atmosphere/
  • http//mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/news/whatsnew/inde
    x.cfm?FuseActionShowNewsNewsID1461
  • http//spaceref.com/mars/mars-water-ice-clouds-lea
    d-to-twice-daily-temperature-change.html

15
Dust Devils on Mars?!
http//www.jpl.nasa.gov/video/index.cfm?id1072
Credit NASA
16
Modern ExplorationPhoenix
  • Launched August 4, 2007 landed on May 25, 2008
    on the northern arctic plains
  • Operated for 6 months unlike the MER rovers,
    Phoenix had no chance of surviving more than 6-7
    months

17
Rotation Revolution
  • One Martian day (sol) is 24 hours and 37 minutes
  • One Martian year is 687 Earth days, almost two
    Earth years

18
Seasons
  • Like Earth, Mars tilts
  • This tilt contributes to seasons orbit also
    contributes
  • Martian Year means Seasons are twice as long!

19
Mars is Cold
  • Average temp -63 C (-81 F) max min vary
  • Mars has a LARGE diurnal (daily) temperature
    variation
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