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An Atlantic Industrial Revolution

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An Atlantic Industrial Revolution Mark Levengood CPCC Teaching Demonstration July 7, 2010 * Sources: http://www.qaronline.org/default.htm; image, http://www.ncdcr.gov ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Atlantic Industrial Revolution


1
An Atlantic Industrial Revolution
  • Mark Levengood
  • CPCC Teaching Demonstration
  • July 7, 2010

2
Reading Assignments
  • Textbook
  • Bronte, Shirley, excerpts online
  • Dickens, Hard Times, excerpts online
  • Luddite readings

3
Online Discussion Question 1
  • When you think of the Industrial Revolution, what
    terms, images, ideas, goals come to mind?
  • Answer this question in your online journal space
  • Read the posts by your group members and respond
    to at least one

4
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5
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6
Online Discussion Question 2
  • Which image best represents the word
    industrial? Why?
  • Cut two segments from your chosen image (using
    Jing) that support your case
  • Paste the two new images into your journal space
  • Provide at least 2 sentence explanation for each
    image

7
Outcomes
  • After this class you should be able to
  • Evaluate your preconceptions of industrial
    revolution
  • Compare preconceptions to Atlantic connections
  • Describe British conditions that led to I.R.
  • Compare industrial society to prior
    social-economic forms
  • Describe various parts of Atlantic economic
    system and their connections to I.R.

8
Outcomes (continued)
  • After this class you should be able to
  • Describe and evaluate issues of power, control,
    and exploitation in the Atlantic system
  • Describe slave, working-class, and colonial
    contributions to British and U.S. industrial
    growth
  • Describe and analyze the ideas and critiques of
    industrial production and the Atlantic system

9
CPCC Core Competencies
  • This class should address these core
    competencies
  • Communication skills (individual, group, written,
    oral, online)
  • Critical thinking (analysis, application)
  • Personal growth (diversity, global ed., econ.
    social ethics, arts culture, contributing to
    group)
  • Use of information technology (Blackboard, Jing
    image software, online discussion)

10
Previous Topics
  • After this class, you should be able to connect
    or compare industrial capitalist development to
    these previous topics
  • Feudalism
  • Mercantile capitalism
  • Guild production
  • The Enlightenment
  • British Enclosure Movement
  • The French Revolution

11
Part I Industrial Revolution in Britain,
1760-1850
  • What shape did industrial development take in
    Britain?
  • What advantages did Britain have that made it the
    center of I.R.?
  • Water, coal for power
  • Artisans to build machines
  • Available labor why?
  • Raw materials from where?
  • Markets for sales where?

12
From Household to Factory
Household production Why do people like to work
from home in todays society?
Spinning wheel making yarn at home
13

Hand loom making cloth at home
14
machinery
power
factory
materials
market
transport
transport
workers
finance
15
Making the Factory
  • Definition The term factory, in technology,
    designates the combined operation of many orders
    of workpeople, adult and young, in tending with
    assiduous skill a system of productive machines
    continuously impelled by a central power.
  • Andrew Ure, Philosophy of Manufactures (1835),
    13

16
Definition of IndustrialStudent Comments
  • Major themes machinery, work, workers,
    production, making things, making cloth/textiles,
    manufacturing, tools, technology, factory, time,
    speed, paycheck, bosses, supervision, work or get
    fired, be on time, break time, earning a living

17
What was new about the Factory? Student Images
and Comments
Machines, Technology, Water Power
(student names here)
Work Bell, Work Time (student names here)
18
Student Images
More than one part of manufacturing process in
the same building or place
(student names here)
Supervision Supervisors (student names here)
19
Student Images
Child labor (student names here)
Women workers (student names here)
20
What was new about the Factory?
  • Power machinery, introduced process-by-process
    over about 100 years
  • Capital costs
  • Location
  • Structure
  • Continuous operation
  • (with people around)
  • Need for new skills, esp. machine builders and
    repairmen

21
Factory Discipline
  • "Profit made in last half-hour" common belief
    translated into long workday of continuous labor
    by all hands
  • regular attendance
  • punctuality and sobriety
  • attentiveness to task
  • continual industry by schedule (eat, relieve
    self, work when you don't feel well)
  • no rowdiness, distracting conversation, wandering
    away from machine
  • no rebellion against authority or conditions

22
Focus on Time The Mill Clock
mill time, as measured by waterwheel
clock time
Victorian clock from Pyemore Mill, near Bridport,
Dorset J.M. Richards, The Functional Tradition in
Early Industrial Buildings, 109
23
Whats Missing Here?
machinery
power
factory
materials
market
transport
transport
workers
finance
24
Motivations?
25
The U.S. Experience
  • Textiles first
  • New England, NY, PA
  • Merchant capital
  • Stole British technology
  • Women from farm families mill girls
  • Cotton from southern slave plantations
  • Made cheap clothing for middle, working classes,
    and slaves

26
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27
Textiles in North Carolina
  • Moved from north for cheaper labor
  • Closer to cotton grown by slaves, then
    sharecroppers
  • Textile labor typically white women, children,
    and families
  • Racially segregated
  • Agreement between white owners and white workers
    to exclude black workers from factory work and
    relatively better pay

28
Atherton Cotton Mills, Charlotte
29
Atherton Workers
30
Problems of Industrial Society
  • Based on lecture, readings, images

31
Opposition to Factory System
  • Luddites
  • Bronte reading

32
British Opposition to Factory System
  • Fight for social change and political
    representation
  • Correspondence Committees
  • Parliamentary Reforms
  • Anti-monarchical ideas
  • Whig, then Labor Party in Britain
  • Labor Movement
  • Fabians
  • Revolutionaries

33
Summary of British Industrial Rev.
  • Most important aspects

34
Part 2 Atlantic Industrial Connections
  • Group Exercise
  • Break up into discussion groups
  • Take a second look at ship painting
  • Use window tool
  • Find two parts of the painting that you find
    interesting or confusing
  • Can you relate these areas to topic of Industrial
    Revolution?

35
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36
Possible Student Selection
37
Possible Student Selection
38
Student Images and Comments
  • Major themes ocean, trade, painting, sailors,
    captain, transportation not production, not
    making anything, confusion, not sure why it isnt
    industrial, connected to industrial, but not
    really industrial
  • Confusion chains, body parts, is it supposed to
    be a pretty pic?

39
Which of these aspects of industrial production
have connections to the wider Atlantic world?
machinery
power
materials
factory
market
transport
transport
workers
finance
40
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41
Connections
  • How was the Atlantic plantation system connected
    to I.R. in Europe and U.S.?
  • Was the sugar plantation industrial?
  • Were slaves workers?
  • Was the trade in slaves industrial in nature?
  • What, besides technology and wages, defined the
    Industrial Revolution?

42
African Slave Factory Industrial?
43
Slave Ship Industrial?
44
Cuban Sugar Mill Industrial?
45
Sugar Plantation
  • Industrial?

46
Sugar Mill
  • Industrial?

47
New Forms of Consumption
  • Cheap sugar, textiles, guns, rum
  • Not just for royalty anymore
  • Growing middle-class conspicuous consumption
  • But also working-class consumption
  • Coffee houses places to talk politics
  • Sugar cheap calories for factory workers
  • Cheap goods for Atlantic Trade
  • New consumption patterns tightened relationships,
    both positive and negative

48
The Ship Industrial?
  • A factory at sea
  • Discipline
  • Control
  • Hierarchy
  • Economic profit
  • Engaged in Atlantic trade

49
Pirates
  • What do pirates represent?

Blackbeard the Pirate
50
Blackbeard and North Carolina
  • Blackbeard hijacked French slave ship La Concorde
    off Caribbean island of Martinique set slaves
    free
  • Ship had been used for at least 3 slaving
    voyages, around 500 slaves each
  • 61 died on Middle Passage on last voyage
  • 16 crew members also died
  • Blackbeard plundered ships in triangle and
    Atlantic/Caribbean trade

51
Atlantic Resistance to Power?
  • Pirates represent rare form of interracial
    lower-class solidarity
  • Could happen if conditions were right
  • But racism usually divided white working- class
    from slaves and free blacks in Atlantic world
  • White workers defined as not slaves
  • Whites gained prestige, small level of comfort
    consumption, wages for not being slaves

52
Relationships between Industrial Core and
Trading Partners
  • Unequal power between center (Britain, later
    U.S.) and periphery (colonies)
  • Resources, raw material, labor from periphery
  • Core industrial nation Britain, other
    Europeans, later U.S. produced industrial goods
  • Some sold back to periphery

53
Summarize Major Issues that Defined Atlantic
Industrial World
  • Production for profit
  • Control and discipline of work
  • Control of time
  • Control of space
  • Movement and trade of primary resources in
    exchange for finished industrial goods
  • Growth of middle classes in ports and industrial
    centers
  • Growth of working-class/slave populations

54
Continuing Questions Ideological Political
Effects of Industrialization
  • Growth of working-class movement at same time as
    abolitionist movement
  • Free labor ideas just for whites or for all?
  • Are industrial workers free?
  • Would political rights solve economic and social
    problems?
  • Do colonial subjects and slaves have rights?
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