a) the Earth orbits the Sun. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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a) the Earth orbits the Sun.

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Question 1 a) the Earth orbits the Sun. b) the Moon orbits the Earth. c) stars are in constant motion. d) the Sun orbits the Earth. e) the Earth spins on its axis. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: a) the Earth orbits the Sun.


1
Question 1
a) the Earth orbits the Sun. b) the Moon orbits
the Earth. c) stars are in constant motion. d)
the Sun orbits the Earth. e) the Earth spins on
its axis.
Constellations appear to move across the sky at
night because
2
Question 1
Question 1
What motion is responsible for the apparent
motion of the constellations (east to west)
across the sky?
1) the motion of Earth around the Sun 2) the
motion of the Moon around Earth 3) the motion of
Mars around the Sun 4) the motion of the
constellations around Earth 5) the spinning of
Earth on its axis
a) the Earth orbits the Sun. b) the Moon orbits
the Earth. c) stars are in constant motion. d)
the Sun orbits the Earth. e) the Earth spins on
its axis.
Constellations appear to move across the sky at
night because
The Sun, Moon, planets, and stars all rise and
set because our planet rotates once each day.
3
Question 2
a) Wobble of Earths rotation axis b) the
greenhouse effect c) 23.5 tilt of Earths
rotational axis d) movement of Earth closer to or
farther from the Sun e) global warming and cooling
What causes Earths seasons?
4
Question 2
a) Wobble of Earths rotation axis b) the
greenhouse effect c) 23.5 tilt of Earths
rotational axis d) movement of Earth closer to or
farther from the Sun e) global warming and cooling
What causes Earths seasons?
Our planets tilt, and not its changing distance
from the Sun, creates seasons.
5
Question 3
a) the celestial equator b) the north celestial
pole c) the Milky Way d) the zodiac e) the
ecliptic
What is the path that the Sun, Moon, and planets
follow through the constellations?
6
Question 3
a) the celestial equator b) the north celestial
pole c) the Milky Way d) the zodiac e) the
ecliptic
What is the path that the Sun, Moon, and planets
follow through the constellations?
The ecliptic also marks the plane of Earths
orbit around the Sun.
7
Question 4
a) one hour b) one day c) one month d) one
year e) one decade
How long does it take the Sun to complete one
circuit of the ecliptic?
8
Question 4
1) one hour 2) one day 3) one month 4) one
year 5) one decade
How long does it take the Sun to complete one
circuit of the ecliptic?
The Sun moves around the ecliptic once as the
Earth orbits in one year.
9
Question 5
a) one day b) one hour c) one week d) one
month e) one year
How long does it take the Moon to go around the
ecliptic?
10
Question 5
a) one day b) one hour c) one week d) one
month e) one year
How long does it take the Moon to go around the
ecliptic?
The Moon orbits Earth in a month, and passes in
front of the constellations of the zodiac, which
are arranged around the ecliptic.
11
Question 6
a) physically close to each other. b) usually
equal in brightness. c) about the same age. d)
about the same distance away. e) in the same part
of the sky.
Stars in a constellation are
12
Question 6
a) physically close to each other. b) usually
equal in brightness. c) about the same age. d)
about the same distance away. e) in the same part
of the sky.
Stars in a constellation are
Stars within a constellation might be very
different distances, ages, types, and
brightnesses.
13
Question 7
a) during the new moon phase. b) when the Sun
blocks the Moon. c) during the full moon
phase. d) always around the summer solstice.
A total lunar eclipse occurs
14
Question 7
a) during the new moon phase. b) when the Sun
blocks the Moon. c) during the full moon
phase. d) always around the summer solstice.
A total lunar eclipse occurs
15
Question 8
a) summer. b) fall. c) winter. d) spring.
The vernal equinox marks the beginning of
16
Question 8
a) summer. b) fall. c) winter. d) spring.
The vernal equinox marks the beginning of
The vernal equinox occurs around March 2122.
17
Question 9
a) every month at new moon. b) every week at the
quarter phases. c) every month at full moon. d)
about every six months at new moon. e) every year
at new moon.
A solar eclipse happens
18
Question 9
a) every month at new moon. b) every week at the
quarter phases. c) every month at full moon. d)
about every six months at new moon. e) every year
at new moon.
A solar eclipse happens
19
Question 10
a) distances to stars increase. b) the baseline
gets larger. c) the baseline gets smaller. d)
the Earth moves faster in its orbit.
The angle of parallax increases as
20
Question 10
a) distances to stars increase. b) the baseline
gets larger. c) the baseline gets smaller. d)
the Earth moves faster in its orbit.
The angle of parallax increases as
The greater the distance between two observation
points (the baseline), the larger the angle of
parallax.
21
Question 11
a) the same phase in 24 hours. b) different
phases in 24 hours. c) a lunar eclipse once a
month. d) different sides of the Moon.
Considering the Moons phases, everyone on Earth
sees
22
Question 11
a) the same phase in 24 hours. b) different
phases in 24 hours. c) a lunar eclipse once a
month. d) different sides of the Moon.
Considering the Moons phases, everyone on Earth
sees
The Moon goes through its cycle of phases in
about 30 days the Earth rotates once in only 24
hours. So everyone has a chance to see the same
phase!
23
Question 1
a) planets move on epicycles. b) planets orbit
the Sun in the same direction. c) Earth moves
faster in its orbit. d) they are closer than
Uranus. e) they rotate quickly on their axes.
Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn show retrograde motion
because
24
Question 1
a) planets move on epicycles. b) planets orbit
the Sun in the same direction. c) Earth moves
faster in its orbit. d) they are closer than
Uranus. e) they rotate quickly on their axes.
Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn show retrograde motion
because
As Earth overtakes and passes the outer
planets, they seem to slow down and then reverse
direction.
25
Question 2
a) The Earth rotated. b) The Sun rotated. c) The
geocentric model couldnt account for day and
night. d) The Earth revolved around the Sun. e)
The Sun orbited Earth.
How did the geocentric model account for day and
night on Earth?
26
Question 2
a) The Earth rotated. b) The Sun rotated. c) The
geocentric model couldnt account for day and
night. d) The Earth revolved around the Sun. e)
The Sun orbited Earth.
How did the geocentric model account for day and
night on Earth?
The geocentric model held that the Earth was
motionless in the center of the universe.
27
Question 3
a) why planets moved in the sky. b) why Earth
was at the center. c) why retrograde motion
occurred. d) why Earth wobbled on its axis. e)
why inner planets were always seen near the Sun.
Epicycles were used in Ptolemys model to explain
28
Question 3
a) why planets moved in the sky. b) why Earth
was at the center. c) why retrograde motion
occurred. d) why Earth wobbled on its axis. e)
why inner planets were always seen near the Sun. .
Epicycles were used in Ptolemys model to explain
Planets were assumed to move uniformly on an
epicycle, as it moved uniformly around Earth.
29
Question 4
a) stars dont seem to show any parallax. b) we
dont feel as though Earth moves. c) objects
fall toward Earth, not the Sun. d) we dont see
an enormous wind. e) All of the above were valid
reasons.
The geocentric model was supported by Aristotle
because
30
Question 4
a) stars dont seem to show any parallax. b) we
dont feel as though Earth moves. c) objects
fall toward Earth, not the Sun. d) we dont see
an enormous wind. e) All of the above were valid
reasons.
The geocentric model was supported by Aristotle
because
Aristotle thought that if the Earth rotated and
orbited, we would feel its motion. In
Aristotles time, the size of the solar system
and distances to stars were assumed to be much,
much smaller. Parallax was expected to be seen.
31
Question 5
a) planets move on epicycles. b) Earth is the
center of the solar system. c) the stars move on
the celestial sphere. d) the Sun is the center of
the solar system. e) Earths axis wobbles over
26,000 years.
The heliocentric model assumes
32
Question 5
1) planets move on epicycles. 2) Earth is the
center of the solar system. 3) the stars move on
the celestial sphere. 4) the Sun is the center of
the solar system. 5) Earths axis wobbles over
26,000 years.
The heliocentric model assumes
Heliocentric models proposed by Aristarchus and
others were considered wrong by Aristotle and his
followers.
33
Question 6
a) proving planets move around the Sun in
elliptical orbits. b) the theory of gravity. c)
proposing a simpler model for the motions of
planets in the solar system. d) discovering the
Sun was not at the center of the Milky Way. e)
discovering the four moons of Jupiter.
Copernicus important contribution to astronomy
was
34
Question 6
a) proving planets move around the Sun in
elliptical orbits. b) the theory of gravity. c)
proposing a simpler model for the motions of
planets in the solar system. d) discovering the
Sun was not at the center of the Milky Way. e)
discovering the four moons of Jupiter.
Copernicus important contribution to astronomy
was
His heliocentric model easily explained
retrograde motion because planets orbited the Sun
at different speeds.
35
Question 7
Copernicus heliocentric model was flawed because
a) he assumed planets moved in ellipses. b) he
didnt know about Uranus Neptune. c) he
couldnt account for gravity. d) he couldnt
explain retrograde motion. e) he assumed planets
moved in circles.
36
Question 7
Copernicus heliocentric model was flawed because
a) he assumed planets moved in ellipses. b) he
didnt know about Uranus Neptune. c) he
couldnt account for gravity. d) he couldnt
explain retrograde motion. e) he assumed planets
moved in circles.
Copernicus model still needed small epicycles to
account for observed changes in planetary speeds.
37
Question 8
a) Hipparchus b) Galileo c) Tycho d)
Copernicus e) Kepler
Who published the first astronomical
observations made with a telescope?
38
Question 8
a) Hipparchus b) Galileo c) Tycho d)
Copernicus e) Kepler
Who published the first astronomical
observations made with a telescope?
Galileo published the Starry Messenger in 1610,
detailing his observations of the Moon, Jupiters
moons, stars, and nebulae.
39
Question 9
a) craters on the Moon b) sunspots c) lunar
maria d) satellites of Jupiter e) stars of the
Milky Way
Which of Galileos initial observations was most
challenging to established geocentric beliefs?
40
Question 9
a) craters on the Moon b) sunspots c) lunar
maria d) satellites of Jupiter e) stars of the
Milky Way
Which of Galileos initial observations was most
challenging to established geocentric beliefs?
Seeing four moons clearly move around Jupiter
disproved that everything orbited Earth and
showed Earth could orbit the Sun and not lose its
moon, too.
41
Question 10
a) Kepler b) Newton c) Galileo d) Tycho Brahe
e) Copernicus
Which hero of the Renaissance postulated three
laws of planetary motion?
42
Question 10
a) Kepler b) Newton c) Galileo d) Tycho Brahe
e) Copernicus
Which hero of the Renaissance postulated three
laws of planetary motion?
Note that Isaac Newton is also well known for
three general laws of motion. But Keplers laws
are about objects in orbits, like planets
orbiting a star.
43
Question 11
a) planets orbit the Sun. b) orbits are
noncircular. c) orbits are elliptical in
shape. d) All of the above are stated.
Keplers 1st law of planetary orbits states that
44
Question 11
a) planets orbit the Sun. b) orbits are
noncircular. c) orbits are elliptical in
shape. d) All of the above are stated.
Keplers 1st law of planetary orbits states that
Keplers laws apply to all orbiting objects. The
Moon orbits Earth in an ellipse, and the Space
Shuttle orbits Earth in an ellipse, too.
45
Question 12
  1. Earth orbits slower in January.
  2. Earth orbits faster in January.
  3. Earths orbital speed doesnt change.

Earth is closer to the Sun in January. From this
fact, Keplers 2nd law tells us
46
Question 12
  1. Earth orbits slower in January.
  2. Earth orbits faster in January.
  3. Earths orbital speed doesnt change.

Earth is closer to the Sun in January. From this
fact, Keplers 2nd law tells us
Keplers 2nd law means that a planet moves faster
when closer to its star.
47
Question 13
  1. speed.
  2. period.
  3. shape.
  4. velocity.

Keplers 3rd law relates a planets distance from
the Sun and its orbital
48
Question 13
  1. speed.
  2. period.
  3. shape.
  4. velocity.

Keplers 3rd law relates a planets distance from
the Sun and its orbital
Venus period 225 days Venus axis 0.7 AU
Keplers 3rd law P2 a3 means more distant
planets orbit more slowly.
Earths period 365 days Earths axis 1.0 AU
49
Question 14
a) increases with distance. b) depends on the
state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas). c) can
be attractive or repulsive. d) increases with
mass.
Newtons law of gravity states that the force
between two objects
50
Question 14
a) increases with distance. b) depends on the
state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas). c) can
be attractive or repulsive. d) increases with
mass.
Newtons law of gravity states that the force
between two objects
The attractive force of gravity INCREASES with
greater mass, and DECREASES QUICKLY with greater
distance. The force doesnt depend on the kind
of matter.
51
Question 1
a) gamma rays b) infrared c) sound d) visible
light e) radio
Which of these is NOT a form of electromagnetic
radiation?
52
Question 1
a) gamma rays b) infrared c) sound d) visible
light e) radio
Which of these is NOT a form of electromagnetic
radiation?
Sound comes from pressure waves all others are
types of EM radiation of different wavelengths.
53
Question 2
a) wavelength b) frequency c) period d)
amplitude e) energy
The distance between successive wave crests
defines the ________ of a wave.
54
Question 2
a) wavelength b) frequency c) period d)
amplitude e) energy
The distance between successive wave crests
defines the ________ of a wave.
Light can range from short-wavelength gamma rays
to long-wavelength radio waves.
55
Question 3
a) radius. b) mass. c) magnetic field. d)
temperature. e) direction of motion.
The frequency at which a stars intensity is
greatest depends directly on its
56
Question 3
a) radius. b) mass. c) magnetic field. d)
temperature. e) direction of motion.
The frequency at which a stars intensity is
greatest depends directly on its
Wiens Law means that hotter stars produce much
more high- frequency light.
57
Question 4
Rigel appears as a bright bluish star, whereas
Betelgeuse appears as a bright reddish
star. Rigel is ______ Betelgeuse.
a) cooler than b) the same temperature as c)
older than d) hotter than e) more massive than
Betelgeuse
The constellation ORION
Rigel
58
Question 4
Rigel appears as a bright bluish star, whereas
Betelgeuse appears as a bright reddish
star. Rigel is ______ Betelgeuse.
a) cooler than b) the same temperature as c)
older than d) hotter than e) more massive than
Betelgeuse
Hotter stars look bluer in color cooler stars
look redder.
The constellation ORION
Rigel
59
Question 5
a) its spectral lines are redshifted. b) the
light is much brighter. c) its spectral lines are
shorter in wavelength. d) the amplitude of its
waves has increased. e) its photons have
increased in speed.
If a light source is approaching you, you will
observe
60
Question 5
a) its spectral lines are redshifted. b) the
light is much brighter. c) its spectral lines are
shorter in wavelength. d) the amplitude of its
waves has increased. e) its photons have
increased in speed.
If a light source is approaching you, you will
observe
The Doppler Shift explains that wavelengths from
sources approaching us are blueshifted.
61
Question 6
a) depend on its temperature. b) are identical
to its absorption lines. c) depend on its
density. d) are different than its absorption
lines. e) depend on its intensity.
The wavelengths of emission lines produced by an
element
62
Question 6
a) depend on its temperature. b) are identical
to its absorption lines. c) depend on its
density. d) are different than its absorption
lines. e) depend on its intensity.
The wavelengths of emission lines produced by an
element
Elements absorb or emit the same wavelengths of
light based on their electron energy levels.
63
Question 7
a) its composition. b) its surface
temperature. c) its transverse (side-to-side)
motion. d) its rotation. e) its density.
Analyzing a stars spectral lines can tell us
about all of these EXCEPT
64
Question 7
a) its composition. b) its surface
temperature. c) its transverse (side-to-side)
motion. d) its rotation. e) its density.
Analyzing a stars spectral lines can tell us
about all of these EXCEPT
Only motion toward or away from us influences a
stars spectral lines. Spectra can also tell us
about a stars magnetic field.
65
Question 8
a) radio microwaves b) X rays ultraviolet
light c) infrared gamma rays d) visible light
radio waves e) visible ultraviolet light
What types of electro-magnetic radiation from
space reach the surface of Earth?
66
Question 8
a) radio microwaves b) X rays ultraviolet
light c) infrared gamma rays d) visible light
radio waves e) visible ultraviolet light
What types of electro-magnetic radiation from
space reach the surface of Earth?
Earths atmosphere allows radio waves and visible
light to reach the ground.
67
Question 9
a) proton b) electron c) neutron d) atomic
nucleus e) photon
Which of the following has a fundamentally
different nature than the other four?
68
Question 9
a) proton b) electron c) neutron d) atomic
nucleus e) photon
Which of the following has a fundamentally
different nature than the other four?
Photons are packages of light energy. Protons,
neutrons, electrons are particles of matter
within an atomic nucleus.
69
Clicker Question
Compared to blue light, red light travels A
faster B slower C at the same speed
70
Clicker Question
A star much colder than the sun would appear A
red B yellow C blue D smaller E larger
71
Clicker Question
If a star is moving rapidly towards Earth then
its spectrum will be A the same as if it were
at rest B shifted to the blue C shifted to the
red D much brighter than if it were at rest E
much fainter than if it were at rest
72
Clicker Question
Compared to ultraviolet radiation, infrared
radiation has greater A energy B amplitude C
frequency D wavelength
73
Clicker Question
The energy of a photon is proportional to its A
period B amplitude C frequency D wavelength
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