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Nervous System

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Title: Nervous System


1
Nervous System
2
NERVOUS SYSTEM
3
Two Parts
  • Central (CNS)
  • Peripheral (PNS)

4
http//inside.salve.edu/walsh/cns_pns.jpg
5
Central Nervous System
  • Brain
  • Spinal Cord

6
The Brain
  • Coordinates body activities
  • Made up of approximately 100 billion neurons
  • Divided into three major parts-
  • the cerebrum
  • the cerebellum
  • the brain stem (medulla)

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Cerebrum
  • Largest part of the brain
  • Used for
  • Thinking
  • Memory is stored
  • Movements are controlled
  • Impulses from the senses are interpreted.

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Cerebellum
  • Interprets stimuli from eyes, ears, muscles
  • Controls voluntary muscle movements
  • Maintains muscle tone
  • Helps maintain balance

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Medulla (Brain Stem)
  • Connects brain to spinal cord
  • Act as pathways connecting various parts of the
    brain with each other
  • Controls involuntary actions
  • Breathing, digestion, heart beat

13
http//www.cbituk.org/GRAPHICS/brain.gif
14
The Spinal Cord
  • Extension of the brain stem
  • Bundles of neurons that carry impulses from all
    parts of the body to the brain and from the brain
    to all parts of your body

15
PERIPHERAL NERVOUSSYSTEM
  • NERVES AND SENSES

16
Nerve Cells
  • Neurons
  • Basic functioning units of the nervous system

17
http//ilearn.senecac.on.ca/aahs/health/IHP/ottawa
/anatomy/neuron/map/neuron.html
18
http//35.9.122.184/images/40-AnimalStructureAndFu
nction/
19
Neurons
  • Made up of a cell body and branches called
    dendrites and axons
  • Dendrites receive messages from other neurons and
    send them to the cell body
  • Axons carry messages away from the cell body

20
Any message carried by a neuron is called an
impulse
Any message carried by a neuron is called an
impulse
21
Neurons
  • A message carried by a neuron is called an
    impulse

22
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23
Types of Neurons
  • Sensory
  • Motor
  • Interneuron

24
Sensory Neurons
  • Receive information
  • Send impulses to the brain or spinal cord

25
Interneurons
  • Send impulses from sensory neurons to motor
    neurons

26
Motor Neurons
  • Conduct impulses from the brain or spinal cord to
    muscles or glands throughout your body

27
STIMULUS /RESPONSE

28
Synapse
  • Small space across which an impulse moves from an
    axon to the dendrites or cell body of another
    neuron

29
Synapse
  • As impulse reaches the end of an axon, axon
    releases a chemical
  • Flows across the synapse
  • Stimulates the impulse in the dendrite of the
    next neuron
  • Impulse moves from neuron to neuron

30
http//www.med.harvard.edu/publications/On_The_Bra
in/Volume7/Number1/images/Neuron.jpg
31
An impulse moves in only one direction across a
synapse - from an axon to the dendrites or cell
body of another neuron.
http//mhln.com
32
Peripheral Nervous System
  • Connects body to brain spinal cord
  • 12 pairs of nerves from your brain (cranial
    nerves)
  • 31 pairs from your spinal cord (spinal nerves)
  • Bundles of sensory and motor neurons held
    together by connective tissue

33
http//www.christopherreeve.org/Research/Research.
cfm?ID178c21
34
Peripheral Nervous System
  • Two divisions
  • Somatic
  • Autonomic

35
http//abdellab.sunderland.ac.uk/lectures/Parmacol
ogy/Pics/anatomy/PNS.GIF
36
Somatic Nervous System
  • Controls voluntary actions
  • Made up of the cranial and spinal nerves that go
    from the central nervous system to your skeletal
    muscles

37
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Controls involuntary actions-those not under
    conscious control-such as your heart rate,
    breathing, digestion, and glandular functions

38
http//users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyP
ages/A/autonomic.gif
39
Reflexes
  • Involuntary, automatic response to a stimulus
  • Involves a simple nerve pathway called a reflex
    arc

40
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