Cuban Missile Crisis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Cuban Missile Crisis


1
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Andrew Wood and Dave Ryan

2
A Brief Chronology
  • May, 1962 Khrushchev makes veiled references to
    a plot (How would the U.S. feel to have missiles
    pointing at them, as they have missiles pointed
    at us?)
  • September JFK and Congress issue warnings to
    USSR that US will deal harshly with any threats
    to national security
  • October 14 U2 recon. flight over Cuba spots
    sites installing nuclear missiles
  • October 15 Presence of missiles is confirmed

3
The Missiles One Site
4
Chronology, Continued
  • October 16 President Kennedy notified
  • October 16-22 Secret deliberations on what
    should be done
  • October 22 Kennedy tells nation his plan for
    blockade and quarantine
  • October 23 OAS endorses naval quarantine
  • October 24 Naval quarantine begins and
    successfully changes course of many Soviet ships

5
Chronology, Continued
  • October 25 One Soviet ship challenges naval
    quarantine Kennedy lets it pass
  • October 25 At the UN, Adlai Stevenson directly
    challenges the Soviet ambassador to admit to the
    existence of missiles, when the ambassador
    refuses, Stevenson wheels out pictures of the
    missile sites
  • October 26 Soviets raise possibility for a deal
    if we withdraw missiles will America promise not
    to invade Cuba?

6
Chronology, Continued
  • October 27 Soviets demand that Americans also
    withdraw missiles from Turkey Major Andersons
    plane is missing over Cuba, presumably shot down
    U.S. recon plane strays over Soviet airspacehigh
    tensions
  • Kennedy tells Khrushchev that he will accept the
    proposal of the 26th, Kennedy tells his brother
    to tell the Soviet Ambassador that though the
    Turkey missiles would not be part of the bargain,
    they would be removed in time
  • October 28 USSR agrees to withdraw missiles

7
Soviet Decisions
  • Motivations
  • Close the missile gapCurrently far behind U.S.
    in terms of number of missiles
  • Verbal threats no longer effective with
    overwhelming evidence of U.S. superiority
  • Protect Cuba
  • Reciprocity The U.S. has missiles pointing at
    us, lets see how they feel now

8
Soviet Decisions, Continued
  • Inability to use the missiles
  • If fired a missile, repercussions would be severe

9
Why Khrushchev Settled
  • Effectiveness of naval quarantine
  • Conventional inferiority in the Caribbean
  • No possible countermove
  • Overwhelming world support for the U.S.
  • Other possible reasons
  • Got what he wanted?
  • No U.S. invasion of Cuba
  • U.S. missiles withdrawn from Turkey

10
The American Decision
  • In September Kennedy had stated and Congress had
    passed a resolution saying that if the Soviet
    Union placed offensive weapons in Cuba we would
    not tolerate it.
  • Could we then rely solely on diplomacy? Kennedys
    thought John could be impeached if he didnt
    act in accordance with his prior warnings
  • Determined in first 48 hours of crisis that the
    removal of missiles was the primary objective
  • This objective effectively ruled out isolated
    diplomacy, and left two options

11
The American Decision cont.
  • Option 1 - Air Strike
  • On October 17th, President Kennedy made the flat
    statement that there would definitely be an air
    strike, at least against the missile sites, and
    perhaps against wider targets (Bundy 394)
  • Reservations from others, airstrike may be using
    a sledgehammer to kill a fly
  • Later that day Robert McNamara suggests policy in
    between diplomacy and an air strike

12
The American Decision cont.
  • Option 2 Blockade
  • Advocated early on by McNamara and Robert
    Kennedy, blockade would not require instant
    killing, but critics feared it would not remove
    the missiles and would allow Soviets time to
    complete what they already had in Cuba
  • Douglas Dillon strengthened blockade argument by
    suggesting that it would only be a first step,
    that if Khrushchev did not remove the missiles to
    lift it, then more could be done
  • By Friday the 19th, the committee working on the
    blockade adapted it into a quarantine, on Sunday
    Kennedy accepted their plan as the course of
    action

13
Could America have acted differently?
  • Could we have used the crisis to remove Castro?
  • Our warnings all along had been against offensive
    weapons so once that warning is tested if we use
    it to attack Castro are we sticking to our word?
  • Could we have tried diplomacy before resorting to
    the quarantine?
  • If we didnt keep secrecy, Khrushchev could have
    proclaimed defiance, or denounced quarantinethen
    both countries would be in positions where
    theyre heading straight for each other and cant
    just turn back

14
Castros Role
  • No real role in decision making
  • Apparently out of touch with the situation
  • Oct. 26 Aggression imminent/imperialists
    disregarding world opinionClearly not the case
  • Khrushchev plays along to some extent but it is
    clear he disagrees with him (your suggestion
    would have started a thermonuclear world war)

15
Questions
  • Do you feel Major Andersons death justified more
    aggressive action?
  • Seeing as how our options in the crisis were
    somewhat dictated by the warnings we issued in
    Septembershould we have issued those warnings?
  • Robert Kennedy likened an air strike to Pearl
    Harbor (Bundy 394), was that a fair analogy?
  • If the missiles in Cuba were conventional, and
    neither the Soviet Union nor the U.S. possessed
    any nuclear weapons, would the crisis have been
    avoided?

16
The Cuban Missile Crisis
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Cuban Missile Crisis

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Cuban Missile Crisis Andrew Wood and Dave Ryan A Brief Chronology May, 1962: Khrushchev makes veiled references to a plot (How would the U.S. feel to have missiles ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Cuban Missile Crisis


1
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Andrew Wood and Dave Ryan

2
A Brief Chronology
  • May, 1962 Khrushchev makes veiled references to
    a plot (How would the U.S. feel to have missiles
    pointing at them, as they have missiles pointed
    at us?)
  • September JFK and Congress issue warnings to
    USSR that US will deal harshly with any threats
    to national security
  • October 14 U2 recon. flight over Cuba spots
    sites installing nuclear missiles
  • October 15 Presence of missiles is confirmed

3
The Missiles One Site
4
Chronology, Continued
  • October 16 President Kennedy notified
  • October 16-22 Secret deliberations on what
    should be done
  • October 22 Kennedy tells nation his plan for
    blockade and quarantine
  • October 23 OAS endorses naval quarantine
  • October 24 Naval quarantine begins and
    successfully changes course of many Soviet ships

5
Chronology, Continued
  • October 25 One Soviet ship challenges naval
    quarantine Kennedy lets it pass
  • October 25 At the UN, Adlai Stevenson directly
    challenges the Soviet ambassador to admit to the
    existence of missiles, when the ambassador
    refuses, Stevenson wheels out pictures of the
    missile sites
  • October 26 Soviets raise possibility for a deal
    if we withdraw missiles will America promise not
    to invade Cuba?

6
Chronology, Continued
  • October 27 Soviets demand that Americans also
    withdraw missiles from Turkey Major Andersons
    plane is missing over Cuba, presumably shot down
    U.S. recon plane strays over Soviet airspacehigh
    tensions
  • Kennedy tells Khrushchev that he will accept the
    proposal of the 26th, Kennedy tells his brother
    to tell the Soviet Ambassador that though the
    Turkey missiles would not be part of the bargain,
    they would be removed in time
  • October 28 USSR agrees to withdraw missiles

7
Soviet Decisions
  • Motivations
  • Close the missile gapCurrently far behind U.S.
    in terms of number of missiles
  • Verbal threats no longer effective with
    overwhelming evidence of U.S. superiority
  • Protect Cuba
  • Reciprocity The U.S. has missiles pointing at
    us, lets see how they feel now

8
Soviet Decisions, Continued
  • Inability to use the missiles
  • If fired a missile, repercussions would be severe

9
Why Khrushchev Settled
  • Effectiveness of naval quarantine
  • Conventional inferiority in the Caribbean
  • No possible countermove
  • Overwhelming world support for the U.S.
  • Other possible reasons
  • Got what he wanted?
  • No U.S. invasion of Cuba
  • U.S. missiles withdrawn from Turkey

10
The American Decision
  • In September Kennedy had stated and Congress had
    passed a resolution saying that if the Soviet
    Union placed offensive weapons in Cuba we would
    not tolerate it.
  • Could we then rely solely on diplomacy? Kennedys
    thought John could be impeached if he didnt
    act in accordance with his prior warnings
  • Determined in first 48 hours of crisis that the
    removal of missiles was the primary objective
  • This objective effectively ruled out isolated
    diplomacy, and left two options

11
The American Decision cont.
  • Option 1 - Air Strike
  • On October 17th, President Kennedy made the flat
    statement that there would definitely be an air
    strike, at least against the missile sites, and
    perhaps against wider targets (Bundy 394)
  • Reservations from others, airstrike may be using
    a sledgehammer to kill a fly
  • Later that day Robert McNamara suggests policy in
    between diplomacy and an air strike

12
The American Decision cont.
  • Option 2 Blockade
  • Advocated early on by McNamara and Robert
    Kennedy, blockade would not require instant
    killing, but critics feared it would not remove
    the missiles and would allow Soviets time to
    complete what they already had in Cuba
  • Douglas Dillon strengthened blockade argument by
    suggesting that it would only be a first step,
    that if Khrushchev did not remove the missiles to
    lift it, then more could be done
  • By Friday the 19th, the committee working on the
    blockade adapted it into a quarantine, on Sunday
    Kennedy accepted their plan as the course of
    action

13
Could America have acted differently?
  • Could we have used the crisis to remove Castro?
  • Our warnings all along had been against offensive
    weapons so once that warning is tested if we use
    it to attack Castro are we sticking to our word?
  • Could we have tried diplomacy before resorting to
    the quarantine?
  • If we didnt keep secrecy, Khrushchev could have
    proclaimed defiance, or denounced quarantinethen
    both countries would be in positions where
    theyre heading straight for each other and cant
    just turn back

14
Castros Role
  • No real role in decision making
  • Apparently out of touch with the situation
  • Oct. 26 Aggression imminent/imperialists
    disregarding world opinionClearly not the case
  • Khrushchev plays along to some extent but it is
    clear he disagrees with him (your suggestion
    would have started a thermonuclear world war)

15
Questions
  • Do you feel Major Andersons death justified more
    aggressive action?
  • Seeing as how our options in the crisis were
    somewhat dictated by the warnings we issued in
    Septembershould we have issued those warnings?
  • Robert Kennedy likened an air strike to Pearl
    Harbor (Bundy 394), was that a fair analogy?
  • If the missiles in Cuba were conventional, and
    neither the Soviet Union nor the U.S. possessed
    any nuclear weapons, would the crisis have been
    avoided?

16
The Cuban Missile Crisis
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