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MONDAY, MAY 4 2009

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Title: AP UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT &POLITICS Author: JSANDERS Last modified by: laptop1 Created Date: 4/22/2009 1:25:24 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MONDAY, MAY 4 2009


1
AP UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT POLITICS
  • MONDAY, MAY 4 2009
  • 800 AM TAC HOUSE

2
THE TEST
  • Two parts
  • Multiple choice 60 questions 45 mins.
  • Free response 4 questions 100 mins. (must do
    all 4 questions)
  • Scoring
  • Mid 80s 120 5
  • 70s Mid 80s 4
  • High 40s 70 3
  • High 20s high 40s 2
  • 0 high 20s 1
  • (The ranges change from year to year use this
    only as an approximate guideline.)

3
Multiple-choice
  • Structure of Multiple-choice questions
  • Straight forward questions may involve defining
    terms or making a generalization.
  • Negative questions might include all of the
    following except and requires extra time because
    it demands that you consider every possibility.
  • Multiple multiple-choice questions uses Roman
    numerals to list several possible correct
    answers.
  • The stimulus-based question involves interpreting
    a chart, graph, table, quote, etc. to determine
    the anwer.

4
Multiple-choice
  • Scoring
  • Number (number wrong x .25) raw score rounded
    up or down to nearest whole number
  • Ex) 47 correct (8 wrong x .25) 45 section I
    Raw Score
  • Guessing
  • Always go with your first answer.
  • Only change if you are 200 sure that the answer
    is wrong.
  • Only guess if you can eliminate one or more of
    the answers, otherwise leave the question blank
  • No points for blank answers

5
Free-Response (Essay Questions)
  • 4 questions 100 min (all 4 required)
  • You will have about 25 min per question
  • Read question carefully
  • Underline what the question asks you to do
  • Label each part to make sure that you answer all
    of the parts
  • Bulleting is acceptable but writing the answer
    scores better
  • If you bullet the answer make sure you explain
    your bullet

6
Free-Response (Essay Questions)
  • Prompt vocabulary
  • Analyze evaluate
  • Define briefly tell what something means
  • Describe create a mental picture by using
    details or examples
  • Discuss give details about
  • Explain make something clear by giving reasons
    or examples
  • Argue/defend/justify/support give evidence to
    show why an idea or view is right or good
  • Categorize/classify sort into groups according
    to a given set of traits or features

7
Free-Response (Essay Questions)
  • Prompt vocabulary (cont.)
  • 8. Compare and contrast point out similarities
    and differences
  • 9. Determine cause and effect decide what leads
    to an event or circumstance (cause) and what
    results from an event or circumstance (effect)
  • 10. Evaluate/judge determine the worth or wisdom
    of an opinion, belief, or idea

8
Free-Response (Essay Questions) Hints
  • Dont use words that you are uncomfortable using
    or not familiar with.
  • Dont try to fake out the reader.
  • Dont preach, moralize, editorialize, or use
    cute comments.
  • Dont data dump or create laundry lists.
  • Do write neatly and legibly.
  • Do use correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

9
Free-Response (Essay Questions) Hints cont.
  • Do answer all questions and all parts of each
    question
  • Do support your essay with specific evidence and
    examples.
  • Do pay attention to dates and terms like
    modern.
  • Do stop when you finish your essay.
  • Do your best!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

10
Constitutional underpinnings of United States
Government
11
Architecture and Development of U.S. Government
  • Purpose of Government
  • Found in Preamble of US Constitution
  • Forming a more perfect union
  • Establishing justice
  • Insuring domestic tranquility
  • Providing for common defense
  • Promoting the general welfare
  • Securing the blessing of liberty

12
Architecture and Development of U.S. Government
  • Forms of Government
  • Anarchy
  • Autocracy
  • Absolute monarchy
  • Constitutional monarchy
  • dictatorship
  • Oligarchy
  • Aristocracy
  • Theocracy
  • Democracy
  • Direct democracy
  • Representative democracy

13
Architecture and Development of U.S. Government
  • Theories of Democratic Government
  • Traditional democratic theory
  • Pluralist theory
  • Elitist theory
  • Bureaucratic theory
  • Hyperpluralism

14
Architecture and Development of U.S. Government
  • Influences on American Government
  • Ancient Greeks and Romans
  • Enlightenment philosophers
  • Magna Carta
  • Parliament
  • Petition of Right
  • English Bill of Rights

15
Architecture and Development of U.S. Government
  • Colonial Experiences
  • Colonial charters
  • House of Burgesses
  • Mayflower Compact
  • Difficulties with Britain
  • Continental Congress

16
Architecture and Development of U.S. Government
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Articles of Confederation
  • Constitutional Convention

17
Architecture and Development of U.S. Government
  • Compromises
  • Connecticut (Great) Compromise
  • The Three-Fifths Compromise
  • The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise

18
Architecture and Development of U.S. Government
  • Basic principles within the Constitution
  • Limited Government
  • Popular Sovereignty
  • Separation of Powers
  • Checks and Balances
  • Federalism

19
Formal Amendment Process
Amend
2/3
2/3
Votes by each House of Congress
Of states call for a national convention
N
N
S
S
3/4
3/4
Of state legislatures
Of special state conventions
Ratify
20
Architecture and Development of U.S. Government
  • Informal Amendment Process
  • Legislative actions
  • Executive actions
  • Judicial interpretation/judicial review
  • Custom and useage

21
Federalism
  • Constitutional basis of Federalism
  • Delegated powers
  • Implied powers
  • Inherent powers
  • Concurrent powers
  • Reserved powers (State governments)
  • Prohibited powers

22
Federalism
  • Interstate Relations
  • Full faith and credit clause
  • Privileges and immunities clause
  • Extradition
  • Interstate compacts

23
Federalism
  • Guarantees to the State
  • Republican form of government
  • Protections against foreign invasion
  • Protections against domestic violence
  • Respect for the geographic integrity of states

24
Federalism
  • Establishing national supremacy
  • McCulloch v. Maryland
  • Established the implied powers of the national
    government and national supremacy
  • Gibbons v. Ogden
  • Defined commerce as including all business
    dealings, and powers to regulate interstate
    commerce belonging exclusively to the national
    government.

25
Federalism
  • Federalism today
  • Dual Federalism (layer cake federalism)
  • Cooperative Federalism (marble cake federalism)
  • New Federalism (devolution)
  • Fiscal Federalism (granting or withholding money
    to pay for programs)
  • Grant-in-aid
  • Categorical grants
  • Block grants
  • Revenue sharing
  • Mandates
  • Unfunded mandates

26
Political beliefs and Political Behaviors
27
Political Culture
  • American Democratic Values
  • Majority rules/minority rights
  • Equality
  • Private property
  • Individual freedoms
  • Compromise
  • Limited government

28
Political Culture
  • Political Socialization
  • Family
  • Education
  • Group affiliation
  • Demographics
  • Mass Media
  • Opinion leaders
  • Events

29
Political Culture
  • Public Opinion is a collection of shared
    attitudes of many different people in matters
    relating to politics, public issues, or the
    making of public policy.
  • Measuring public opinion
  • Sampling
  • Preparing valid questions
  • Controlling how the poll is taken
  • Analyzing and reporting results

30
Political Culture
  • Ideology A political spectrum
  • Radical
  • Liberal
  • Moderate
  • Conservative
  • reationary

31
Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Mass media
32
Political Parties
  • Roles of Political Parties
  • Party in the electorate
  • Party in government
  • Party in organization

33
Political Parties
  • Party systems
  • One-party system
  • Two-party system
  • Multi-party system

34
Political Parties
  • What do political parties do?
  • Recruit candidates
  • Nominate and support candidates for office
  • Educate the electorate
  • Organize the government

35
Political Parties
  • Party identification and membership
  • Ideology
  • Education
  • Income
  • Occupation
  • Race or ethnicity
  • Gender
  • Religion
  • Family tradition
  • Region of the country
  • Marital status

36
Political Parties
  • Two-Party tradition in America
  • Why a two-party tradition?
  • Historical roots
  • Electoral system
  • Election laws

37
Political Parties
  • Rise of political parties
  • Party Development (1789 1800)
  • Democratic Domination (1800 1860)
  • Republican Domination (1860 1932)
  • Return of Democrats (1932 1968)
  • Divided Government (1968 present)

38
Voting and Elections
  • Forms of Political Participation
  • Voting
  • Discussing politics and attending political
    meetings
  • Forming interest groups and PACs
  • Contacting public officials
  • Campaigning
  • Contributing money
  • Running for office
  • Protesting government decisions

39
Voting and Elections
  • Expansion of Suffrage
  • Elimination of religious, property ownership, and
    tax payment qualifications after 1800
  • Elimination of race disqualifications (15th
    amendment)
  • Elimination of gender disqualification (19th
    amendment)
  • Elimination of grandfather clause, white
    primaries, and literacy requirements with passage
    of federal civil rights legislation and court
    decisions
  • Allowing Washington D.C. residents to vote (23rd
    amendment)
  • Elimination of poll taxes (24th amendment)
  • Lowering voting age to 18 (26th amendment)

40
Voting and Elections
  • Issue or policy voting
  • Direct primary
  • Recall
  • Referendum
  • Initiative

41
Voting and Elections
  • Low voter turnout
  • Expansion of electorate
  • Failure of political parties to mobilize voters
  • No perceived difference between candidates or
    parties
  • Mistrust of government
  • Apathy
  • Satisfaction with the way things are
  • Lack of political efficacy
  • Mobility of electorate
  • Registration process

42
Voting and Elections
  • Factors affecting voting
  • Education
  • Occupation and income
  • Age
  • Race
  • Gender
  • Religion
  • Marital status
  • Union membership
  • Community membership
  • Party identification
  • geography

43
Voting and Elections
  • Types of elections
  • Primary elections
  • Closed primary
  • Open primary
  • Blanket primary
  • Run-off primary
  • General elections
  • Special elections

44
Voting and Elections
  • Campaign finance regulations and reforms
  • Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) 1971
  • Amended in 1974 to establish the Federal Election
    Commission (FEC)
  • In 1976, Buckley v. Valeo ruled that spending
    limits established by FEC in 1974 were
    unconstitutional, ruling that those restrictions
    were in violations of the 1st amendment of
    freedom of expressions
  • Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform (BCRA) 2002
  • Banned use of soft money

45
Interest Groups and the Mass Media
  • Function of Interest Groups
  • Raise awareness and stimulate interest in public
    affairs
  • Represent membership
  • Provide information to government
  • Provide channels for political participation

46
Interest Groups and the Mass Media
  • Types if interest Groups
  • Economic Interest Groups
  • Groups that Promote Causes
  • Public Interest Groups

47
Interest Groups and the Mass Media
  • Strategies of Interest Groups
  • Influencing elections
  • Lobbying
  • Direct lobbying
  • Grassroots lobbying
  • Coalition lobbying
  • Litigation
  • Going public

48
Interest Groups and the Mass Media
  • Political Action Committees (PACs)
  • Political arms of interest groups
  • Regulation of Interest Groups
  • Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act 1946
  • Lobbying Disclosure Act 1995
  • Mass Media
  • Mass media refers to all forms of communication
    that transmit information to the general public

49
Interest Groups and the Mass Media
  • Development of the Modern Media
  • Newspapers
  • Magazines
  • Radio
  • Television
  • Internet as Media

50
Interest Groups and the Mass Media
  • Roles if the Media
  • Informing the public
  • Shaping public opinion
  • Providing a link between citizens and government
  • Serving as watchdog
  • Agenda-setting

51
Interest Groups and the Mass Media
  • Media Ownership and Government Regulation
  • Technical regulation
  • Structural regulation
  • Content regulation

52
Institutions of the Federal Government
53
The Legislative Branch
  • Organization of Congress
  • Two houses meet for terms of two years beginning
    on January 3 of odd number years each term is
    divided into two 1-year sessions
  • President may call special sessions in cases of
    national emergency
  • Each house of Congress chooses its own leadership
    and determines its own rules

54
The Legislative Branch
  • Getting Elected to the House of Representatives
  • Apportionment
  • Reapportionment
  • Congressional districting
  • gerrymanding

55
The Legislative Branch
  • Getting Elected to the Senate
  • Members were originally chosen by state
    legislatures in each state
  • Since 1913, the 17th Amendment allows for the
    direct elections of senators by the people of the
    state

56
The Legislative Branch
  • Incumbency effect
  • Name recognition
  • Credit claiming
  • Case work for constituents
  • More visible to constituents
  • Media exposure
  • Fundraising abilities
  • Experience in campaigning
  • Voting record

57
The Legislative Branch
  • Leadership of Congress
  • House of Representatives
  • Speaker of the House
  • Majority and Minority Floor Leaders
  • Whips
  • Senate
  • Vice President
  • President Pro Tempore
  • Majority and Minority floor leaders
  • Whips

58
The Legislative Branch
  • Committee system
  • Leadership of Committees
  • Members of the majority party in each house
  • Membership of committees
  • Reflects the percentage of each party in each
    house
  • Types of committees
  • Standing
  • Select
  • Joint
  • Conference

59
The Legislative Branch
  • Roles of members of Congress
  • Policymakers
  • Representative
  • Delegate
  • trustee
  • Constituent servant
  • Committee member
  • Politician/party member

60
The Legislative Branch
  • Powers of Congress
  • Legislative powers
  • Expressed powers
  • Implied powers
  • Limitations on powers
  • Nonlegislative powers
  • Electoral powers
  • Amendment powers
  • Impeachment
  • Executive powers of Senate
  • Investigation/oversight powers

61
The Legislative Branch
62
The Legislative Branch
  • Legislative Tactics
  • Caucuses
  • Filibuster and cloture
  • Pork barrel legislation
  • Logrolling
  • Riders
  • Amendments
  • Lobbying
  • Conference committees
  • Legislative veto

63
The Legislative Branch
  • Influences on Congress
  • Constituents
  • Other lawmakers and staff
  • Party influences
  • President
  • Lobbyists and interest groups

64
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • President qualifications
  • Formal
  • Natural-born citizen
  • At least 35 years old
  • Resident of U.S. 14 years prior to election
  • Informal
  • Political or military experience
  • Political acceptability
  • Married
  • White male
  • Protestant
  • Northern European ancestry

65
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Succession and Disability
  • 25th amendment
  • Provides that Vice President takes over for
    President
  • Also provides for Presidential disability
  • The President informs Congress of the inability
    to perform the duties of president
  • The Vice President and a majority of the cabinet
    inform Congress, in writing, that the president
    is disabled and unable to perform those duties

66
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Impeachment and Removal
  • House of Representatives votes to impeach
  • Senate tries and votes for removal from office
  • Trial presided over by Chief Justice of the
    Supreme Court
  • Two presidents have been impeached
  • No President has been removed from office

67
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Electoral College
  • 12th amendment provides for election of President
    and Vice President
  • Each state gets electors equal to the number of
    states representatives in Congress
  • In December of election year, electors cast
    ballots for President and Vice President
  • In January after election, President of Senate
    counts votes before a joint session of Congress
  • If no Presidential candidate has majority of
    electoral votes, House of Representatives decides
    election
  • If no Vice Presidential candidate receives
    majority of electoral votes, Senate decides
    election.

68
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Vice Presidency
  • Constitution sets out two duties for Vice
    President
  • Preside over the Senate
  • Determine presidential disability (25th
    amendment) and take over the presidency if
    necessary

69
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Presidential Powers (Article II)
  • Executive powers
  • Enforces laws, treaties, and court decisions
  • Issues executive orders to carry out policies
  • Appoints officials, removes officials
  • Assumes emergency powers
  • Presides over cabinet and executive branch
  • Legislative powers
  • Gives annual State of the Union message
  • Issues annual budget and economic reports
  • Signs or vetoes bills
  • Proposes legislation and uses influences to get
    it passed
  • Calls for special sessions of Congress

70
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Presidential Powers (Cont.)
  • Diplomatic powers
  • Appoints ambassadors and other diplomats
  • Negotiates treaties and executive agreements
  • Meets with foreign leaders in international
    conferences
  • Accords diplomatic recognition to foreign
    governments
  • Receives foreign dignitaries
  • Military powers
  • Serves as commander in chief of armed forces
  • Has final decision-making authority in matters of
    national and foreign defense
  • Provides for domestic order

71
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Presidential Powers (Cont.)
  • Judicial powers
  • Appoints members of the federal judiciary
  • Grants reprieves, pardons, and amnesty
  • Party powers
  • Is the recognized leader of the party
  • Chooses vice presidential nominee
  • Strengthens party by helping members get elected
    (coattails)
  • Appoints party members to government positions
    (patronage)
  • Influences policies and platform of party

72
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Limitations on Presidential Powers
  • Congressional Checks
  • Override vetoes
  • Power to purse Agency budgets (money must be
    authorized and appropriated)
  • Power of impeachment
  • Legislative acts that limit presidents power
    (War Powers Act)
  • Legislative vetoes
  • Judicial Checks
  • Judicial review of executive orders
  • Political Checks
  • Public opinion
  • Media attention
  • popularity

73
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Presidential Character
  • Active-positive (FDR, Truman, JFK, Ford, Carter,
    Bush)
  • Active-negative (Wilson, Hoover, LBJ, Nixon)
  • Passive-positive (Taft, Harding, Reagan)
  • Passive-negative (Coolidge, Eisenhower)

74
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • The Bureaucracy
  • Follow three basic principles
  • Hierarchial authority
  • Job specialization
  • Formal rules

75
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • History and Growth
  • Beginnings (standards included qualifications and
    political acceptability)
  • Spoils system
  • Reform movement
  • Pendleton Act Civil Service Act of 1883
  • Hatch Act of 1939 (amended 1993)
  • Civil Service Reform Act of 1978

76
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Organization
  • Four basic types
  • Cabinet dept.
  • Independent executive agencies (NASA)
  • Independent regulatory agencies (Securities and
    Exchange Commission, Nuclear Regulatory
    Commission, Federal Reserve Board)
  • Government corporations (TVA, AMTRAK, U.S. Postal
    Office)

77
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Influences on the Federal Bureaucracy
  • Executive influences
  • Congressional influences
  • Iron triangles (sub-governments)
  • Issue networks

78
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Executive Office of the President (EOP)
  • White House Office
  • National Security Council
  • Office of Management and Budget
  • Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy
  • Office of Policy Development
  • Council of Economic Advisors
  • Office of U.S. Trade Representatives

79
Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
  • Executive Departments (Cabinet)
  • State (1789)
  • Treasury (1789)
  • Defense (1789)
  • Interior (1849)
  • Justice (1870)
  • Agriculture (1889)
  • Commerce (1903)
  • Labor (1913)
  • Health and Human Services (1953)
  • Housing and Urban Development (1965)
  • Transportation (1967)
  • Energy (1977)
  • Education (1979)
  • Veterans Affairs (1989)
  • Homeland Security (2002)

80
National Judiciary
  • Jurisdiction
  • Original jurisdiction
  • Lower courts have authority to hear cases for
    first time
  • Appellate jurisdiction
  • Courts hear reviews or appeals of decisions from
    the lower courts
  • Concurrent jurisdiction
  • Allows certain types of cases to be tried in
    either the federal or state courts

81
National Judiciary
  • Structure of the Judicial Systems
  • Constitutional courts are federal courts created
    by Congress under Article III
  • Legislative courts hear cases arising from the
    powers given to Congress under Article I
    (Territorial Courts, U.S. Tax Courts, U.S. Court
    of Appeals for the Armed Forces)
  • District Courts
  • Judiciary Act of 1789
  • Courts of Appeals
  • Created in 1891 to lessen the work load of the
    Supreme Court
  • Supreme Court
  • Only court actually created directly by the
    Constitution
  • Highest court in the land

82
National Judiciary
  • Judicial Selection
  • President selects federal judges and the Senate
    confirms the nominations
  • No formal qualifications for federal judges
  • Serve during good behavior which means for life
  • The notion of the life term allows judges to be
    free from political pressures when deciding
    cases.
  • Can be removed from office through impeachment

83
National Judiciary
  • Supreme Court Appointees
  • When making appointments Presidents consider
  • Party affiliation
  • Judicial philosophy
  • Race, gender, religion, region
  • Judicial experience
  • Litmus test
  • Acceptability
  • Senate Judiciary Committee
  • Senate
  • American Bar Association
  • Interest Groups
  • Justices

84
National Judiciary
  • Accepting Cases
  • Rule of four Case must be accepted by four of
    the nine judges
  • Cases presented to the Supreme Court must be
    presented through
  • Writ of Certiorari
  • Certificate

85
National Judiciary
  • Writing Opinions
  • Majority opinion
  • Concurring opinion
  • Dissecting opinion (minority opinion)

86
National Judiciary
  • Courts as policymakers
  • New Deal Era
  • court-packing plan
  • New Deal legislation
  • Warren Court (1953 1969)
  • most liberal court ever
  • Heard Brown v. Board, Gideon v. Wainwright,
    Miranda v. Arizona
  • Berger Court (1969 1986)
  • Returned court to more conservative ideology
  • Heard Roe v. Wade and U.S. v. Nixon (executive
    privilege
  • Rehnquist Court (1986 2005)
  • Continued to limit but not reverse earlier more
    liberal decision

87
National Judiciary
  • Judicial Philosophy
  • Judicial Activism
  • Judicial Restraint

88
Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
89
Civil Liberties
  • Protected by
  • Constitution
  • Writ of habeas corpus You must be brought
    before the court and informed of charges against
    you
  • No bills of attainder You cannot be punished
    without a trial
  • No ex post facto laws Laws applied to acts
    committed before laws passage are
    unconstitutional
  • Trial by jury
  • Bill of Rights
  • The Fourteenth Amendment
  • Provided for expansions of individual rights
  • Legislative actions
  • Court Decisions

90
Civil Liberties
  • Freedom of Religion
  • Establishment Clause
  • Emerson v. Board of Education
  • Engle v. Vitale
  • Abington School District v. Schempp
  • Lemon v. Kurtzman
  • Lynch v. Donnelly
  • Wallace v. Jaffree
  • Edwards v. Aguillard
  • Board of Education of Westside Community Schools
    v. Mergens
  • Lee v. Weisman
  • Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe

91
Civil Liberties
  • Free Exercise Clause
  • Reynolds v. United States
  • Wisconsin v. Yoder
  • Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith
  • Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah
  • City of Boerne, Texas v. Flores

92
Civil Liberties
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Several types
  • Pure speech
  • Symbolic speech
  • Speech plus

93
Civil Liberties
  • Regulating Speech
  • Schenck v. United States
  • Gitlow v. New York
  • Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire
  • Tinker v. Des Moines
  • Brandenberg v. Ohio
  • Miller v. California
  • Texas v. Johnson
  • Reno v. ACLU

94
Civil Liberties
  • Freedom of the Press
  • Near v. Minnesota
  • New York Times v. Sullivan
  • New York Times v. United States
  • Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

95
Civil Liberties
  • Freedom of Assembly and Petition
  • Dejonge v. Oregon
  • The courts have generally ruled
  • That to protect public order, government may
    require groups wanting to parade or demonstrate
    to first obtain a permit.
  • Certain public facilities (schools, airports,
    jails) not generally open to public may be
    restricted from demonstrations
  • Restrictions on assembly must be worded precisely
    and must apply to all groups equally
  • The right to assemble does not allow groups to
    use private property for its own use
  • Police may disperse demonstrations in order to
    keep the peace or protect the publics saftey

96
Civil Liberties
  • Right to privacy
  • Griswold v. Connecticut
  • Roe v. Wade

97
Civil Liberties
  • Rights of the Accused
  • Fourth Amendment Search and Seizure
  • Wolf v. Colorado
  • Mapp v. Ohio
  • Terry v. Ohio
  • Nix v. Williams
  • United States v. Leon
  • Fifth Amendment Self-Incrimination
  • Miranda v. Arizona

98
Civil Liberties
  • Rights of the Accused (Cont.)
  • Sixth Amendment Right to an Attorney
  • Powell v. Alabama
  • Betts v. Brady
  • Gideon v. Wainwright (overturned Betts v. Brady)
  • Eighth Amendment Cruel and Unusual Punishment
  • Furman v. Georgia
  • Gregg v. Georgia

99
Civil Rights
  • The Civil Rights Movement
  • Civil War Amendments
  • Thirteenth Amendment
  • Freed Slaves
  • Fourteenth Amendment
  • Defined citizenship
  • Due process and equal protection
  • Applied Bill of Rights to States
  • Fifteenth Amendment
  • Right to vote to all men
  • Black codes
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875
  • Jim Crowe Laws
  • Plessey v. Ferguson

100
Civil Rights
  • The Civil Rights Movement (Cont.)
  • Executive Order 8802 (1941)
  • Executive Order 9981 (1948)
  • Brown v. Board of Education
  • Brown v. Board of Education II
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1957
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • 24th Amendment
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Civil Rights Act of 1991

101
Public Policy
102
Policymaking Process
  • Policymaking process involves several steps
  • Agenda setting
  • Policy formulation
  • Policy adoption
  • Policy implementation
  • Policy evaluation

103
Domestic Policy
  • Crime Prevention
  • FBI
  • DEA
  • ATF
  • Education
  • Energy
  • Environment
  • Healthcare
  • Social Welfare

104
Economic Policy
  • Raising Revenue
  • Government Spending
  • Discretionary spending
  • National debt
  • Federal Budget
  • Foreign and Defense Policy

105
President and Foreign Policy
  • Department of State
  • Department of Defense
  • National Security Council
  • United States Information Agency
  • Central Intelligence Agency

106
Current Issues in Foreign Policy
  • Current foreign issues include
  • Nuclear proliferation
  • Terrorism
  • International trade
  • NAFTA
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