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Chapter: Matter and Its Changes

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What kind of information do you and your friend need to figure out the dog s breed? Everyday Examples Physical Properties and Changes 1 First, you need a thorough ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter: Matter and Its Changes


1
(No Transcript)
2
Table of Contents
Chapter Matter and Its Changes
Section 1 Physical Properties and Changes
Section 2 Chemical Properties and Changes
3
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Using Your Senses
  • Observing involves seeing, hearing, tasting,
    touching, and smelling.
  • Any characteristic of a material that can be
    observed or measured without changing the
    identity of the material is a physical property.

4
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Using Your Senses
  • It is important to never taste, touch, or smell
    any of the materials being used in the lab
    without guidance.
  • For safety reasons you will rely mostly on other
    observations.

5
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Physical Properties Color and Shape
  • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up
    space.
  • In a physical change, the physical properties of
    a substance change, but the identity of the
    substance does not change.

6
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Physical Properties Color and Shape
  • The detergent bottles shown are made of
    high-density polyethylene regardless of the
    differences in the physical properties of color
    or shape.

7
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Length and Mass
  • One useful and measurable physical property is
    length.
  • Length is measured using a ruler, meterstick, or
    tape measure.
  • Objects can be classified by their length.

8
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Length and Mass
  • Mass is a physical property that describes the
    amount of material in an object.
  • For example, two boxes of the same detergent may
    have different masses. One box may be heavier
    than the other but the formula of the detergent
    in each box is the same.

9
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Volume and Density
  • Volume measures the amount of space an object
    takes up.
  • Liquids usually are measured by volume.

10
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Volume and Density
  • Another measurable physical property related to
    mass and volume is densitythe amount of mass a
    material has in a given volume.
  • Density is found by dividing the mass of an
    object by its volume.
  • density mass/volume, or D m/V

11
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Same Volume, Different Mass
  • These balls take up about the same space, but the
    bowling ball has more mass than the other ball.
  • Therefore, the bowling ball is more dense.

12
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Same Volume, Different Mass
  • The density of a material stays the same as long
    as pressure and temperature stay the same.
  • Water at room temperature has a density of 1.00
    g/cm3. However, when you do change the
    temperature or pressure, the density of a
    material can change.

13
Physical Properties and Changes
1
States of Matter
  • The four states of matter are solid, liquid, gas
    and plasma (PLAZ muh).
  • The state of matter of a substance depends on its
    temperature and pressure.

Click image to view movie.
14
Physical Properties and Changes
1
States of Matter
  • The plasma state occurs at very high temperatures
    and is found in fluorescent (floo RE sunt)
    lightbulbs, the atmosphere, and in lightning
    strikes.
  • The state of matter of a material is another
    physical property.

15
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Moving Particles
  • Matter is made up of moving particles.
  • The particles of a solid vibrate in a fixed
    position.
  • They remain close together and give the solid a
    definite shape and volume.

16
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Moving Particles
  • The particles of a liquid are moving much faster
    and have enough energy to slide past on another.
  • This allows a liquid to take the shape of its
    container.

17
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Moving Particles
  • The particles of a gas are moving so quickly that
    they have enough energy to move freely away from
    other particles and will spread out to fill any
    container.

18
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Changes of State
  • You witness a change of state when you place ice
    cubes in a cup and they melt.
  • You still have water but in another form.
  • The opposite physical change happens when you put
    liquid water in ice-cube trays and pop them in
    your freezer.

19
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Melting and Boiling Points
  • The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
    is its melting point.
  • The melting point of a pure substance does not
    change with the amount of the substance.

20
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Melting and Boiling Points
  • When a substance melts, it changes from a solid
    to a liquid.
  • This is a physical change, and the melting point
    is a physical property.

21
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Melting and Boiling Points
  • The boiling point is the temperature at which a
    substance in the liquid state becomes a gas.

22
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Melting and Boiling Points
  • Each pure substance has a unique boiling point at
    atmospheric pressure.
  • The boiling point of water is 100C at
    atmospheric pressure.

23
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Melting and Boiling Points
  • The boiling and melting point can help to
    identify a substance.
  • If you know the boiling points and melting points
    of substances, you can classify substances based
    on those properties.

24
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Metallic Properties
  • You already have seen how you can classify things
    as solids, liquids or gases or according to
    color, shape, length, mass, volume or density.
    What properties do metals have?

25
Physical Properties and Changes
1
How do metals look?
  • Metals have a shiny appearance.
  • This shine is called luster.
  • Words to describe the appearance of nonmetallic
    objects are pearly, milky, or dull.

26
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Uses of Metals
  • Many metals can be hammered, pressed or rolled
    into thin sheets.
  • This property of metals is called malleability
    (mal lee uh BIH luh tee).

27
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Uses of Metals
  • Many metals can be drawn into wires.
  • This property is called ductility (duk TIH luh
    tee).

28
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Uses of Metals
  • Some metals respond to magnets.
  • Some metals have groups of atoms that can be
    affected by the force of a magnet, and they are
    attracted to the magnet because of that force.

29
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Using Physical Properties
  • Physical propertiessuch as appearance, state,
    shape, length, mass, volume, ability to attract a
    magnet, density, melting point, boiling point,
    malleability, and ductilitycan be used to help
    you identify, separate, and classify substances.

30
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Sorting and Separating
  • When you do laundry, you sort according to
    physical properties. Perhaps you sort by color.
  • When miners during the Gold Rush panned for gold,
    they separated the dirt and rocks by the density
    of the particles.

31
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Sorting and Separating
  • Scientists who work with animals use physical
    properties or characteristics to determine the
    identity of a specimen.
  • They do this by using a tool called a dichotomous
    (di KAH tuh mus) key.

32
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Sorting and Separating
  • To begin the identification of you unknown
    animal, you are given two choices.
  • Your animal will match only one of the choices.
  • Based on your answer, you are either directed to
    another set of choices or given the name of the
    specimen you are identifying.

33
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Everyday Examples
  • Identification by physical properties is a
    subject in science that is easy to observe in the
    real world.
  • Suppose you volunteer to help your friend choose
    a family pet.
  • While visiting the local animal shelter, you spot
    a cute dog.

34
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Everyday Examples
  • What kind of information do you and your friend
    need to figure out the dogs breed?
  • First, you need a thorough description of the
    physical properties of the dog.
  • What does the dog look like?

35
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Everyday Examples
  • Second, you need to know the description of
    various breeds of dogs.
  • Then you can match up the description of the dog
    with the correct breed.

36
Physical Properties and Changes
1
Narrowing the Options
  • Often, determining the identity of something that
    is unknown is easiest by using the process of
    elimination.
  • Scientists use similar methods to determine the
    identities of living and nonliving things.

37
Section Check
Section Check
1
Question 1
What are the five ways of sensing objects?
Answer
Seeing, hearing, tasting, touching and smelling
are all ways that you observe the objects around
you.
38
Section Check
Section Check
1
Question 2
What is matter?
Answer
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up
space. This doesnt include sunlight, for
example, which is energy, not matter.
39
Section Check
Section Check
1
Question 3
In a physical change the _______ of a substance
change, but its identity does not.
A. chemical properties B. density properties C.
physical properties D. state of matter
40
Section Check
1
Answer
The correct answer is C. Crumple up a piece of
paper and it does not cease to be a piece of
paper.
41
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Ability to Change
  • Some properties do indicate a change of identity
    for the substances involved.
  • A chemical property is any characteristic that
    gives a substance the ability to undergo a change
    that results in a new substance.

42
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Common Chemical Properties
  • A chemical change is a change in the identity of
    a substance due to the chemical properties of
    that substance.
  • A new substance or substances are formed as a
    result of such a change.

43
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Common Chemical Properties
  • Wood can burn.
  • This chemical property is called flammability.
  • Some products have warnings on their labels about
    keeping them away from heat and flame because of
    the flammability of the materials.

44
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Common Reactions
  • An unpainted iron gate will rust in time.
  • The rust is a result of oxygen in the air
    reacting with the iron and causing corrosion.
  • The corrosion produces a new substance called
    iron oxide, also known as rust.

45
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Common Reactions
  • Tarnish develops on silver when it reacts with
    sulfur in the air.
  • The ability to react with oxygen or sulfur is a
    chemical property.

46
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Heat and Light
  • Many vitamins will change when exposed to light.
  • This is a chemical property.
  • They are protected in colored bottles from
    undergoing a chemical change with light.

47
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Heat and Light
  • Some substances are sensitive to heat and will
    undergo a chemical change only when heated or
    cooled.
  • One example is limestone.
  • If limestone is heated, it goes through a
    chemical change and produces carbon dioxide and
    lime.

48
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Heat and Light
  • Another chemical property is the ability to
    change with electrical contact.
  • Electricity can cause a change in some substances
    and decompose some compounds.
  • Water is one compound that can be broken down
    with electricity.

49
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Something New
  • The important differences in a chemical change in
    that a new substance is formed.
  • If eggs, sugar, flour, and other ingredients
    didnt change chemically through baking, you
    couldnt enjoy birthday cake.
  • Cake begins as liquid and ends as solid. The
    baked cake clearly has different properties.

50
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Signs of Change
  • You can look for signs when evaluating whether
    you have a new substance as a result of a
    chemical change.

51
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Signs of Change
  • Bubbles are a sign that a chemical change has
    taken place.
  • Other signs of change include the production of
    heat, light, smoke, change in color, and sound.


52
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Is it reversible?
  • Chemical changes cant be reversed using physical
    means.
  • For example, the ashes in a fireplace cannot be
    put back together to make the logs that you had
    to start with.

53
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Classify According to Chemical Properties
  • The physical properties of a substance are easily
    observed, but the chemical properties cant be
    observed without changing the substance.

54
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Classify According to Chemical Properties
55
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Classify According to Chemical Properties
  • For example, if you try to burn what looks like a
    piece of wood but find that it wont burn, you
    can rule out the possibility that it is wood.

56
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
The Law of Conservation of Mass
  • The law of conservation of mass states that the
    mass of what you end with is always the same as
    the mass of what you start with.
  • One experiment done by French scientist Antoine
    Lavoisier was a small version of a campfire.
  • He determined that a fire does not make mass
    disappear or truly get rid of anything.

57
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Where did the mass go?
  • When flammable materials burn, they combine with
    oxygen. Ash, smoke, and gases are produced.
  • The smoke and gases escape into the air.

58
Chemical Properties and Changes
2
Where did the mass go?
  • If you could measure the mass of the oxygen and
    all of the original firewood that was burned and
    compare it to the remaining mass of the ash,
    smoke, and gas, they would be equal.
  • Mass is not destroyed or created during any
    chemical change.

59
Section Check
2
Question 1
Which is a chemical property?
A. flammability B. color C. density D. shape
60
Section Check
2
Answer
The answer is A. A chemical property is any
characteristic that gives a substance the ability
to undergo a change that results in a new
substance. Flammability, the ability to burn, is
a chemical property.
61
Section Check
2
Question 2
If you leave an iron nail outside for a while you
will find it begins to rust. This is the result
of its interaction with oxygen in the air. What
kind of a change is the nail undergoing?
Answer
The nail is undergoing a chemical change. If the
nail were in a vacuum, however, it would not
corrode.
62
Section Check
2
Question 3
When a chemical change takes place, what is
formed?
A. a new substance B. an unpredictable
substance C. more of the same substance D. nothing
63
Section Check
2
Answer
64
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