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Phylogeny and Systematics

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Phylogeny and Systematics Cladistics Analysis of phylogenetic relationships based on shared characters Characters may be primitive or derived Clade = Group of species ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phylogeny and Systematics


1
  • Phylogeny and Systematics
  • Cladistics
  • Analysis of phylogenetic relationships based on
    shared characters
  • Characters may be primitive or derived
  • Clade Group of species that includes ancestral
    species and all descendents
  • Cladogram Diagram that illustrates evolutionary
    relationships among clades
  • Outgroup Used to distinguish primitive from
    derived characters

2
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3
  • Phylogeny and Systematics
  • Relationships among Taxa
  • Taxa may be categorized according to how they
    reflect evolutionary relationships

4
Fig. 26.10
5
  • Phylogeny and Systematics
  • Traits in Classification
  • Establishing relationships among taxa requires
    careful examination of characters
  • Ancestral characters plesiomorphies
  • Shared ancestral characters (symplesiomorphies)
    unite descendants of a single ancestor into a
    monophyletic clade
  • Ex Vertebral column in vertebrates
  • Derived characters apomorphies
  • Shared derived characters (synapomorphies)
    unite derived clades and separate them from
    ancestral clades
  • Ex Amniote egg and feathers in reptiles/birds
    and birds

6
Fig. 26.11
7
  • Ecology
  • Ecology from Greek Oikos (house)
  • Interactions among groups of organisms and
    between organisms and physical environment
  • Includes abiotic and biotic components

8
Fig. 52.17
9
  • Physiological
  • Behavioral
  • Evolutionary

Fig. 52.2
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