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Cloud Computing

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Cloud Computing * * * * * * Source: Scalable definition, Andr B. Bondi, 'Characteristics of scalability and their impact on performance', Proceedings of the 2nd ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cloud Computing


1
Cloud Computing
2
  • Cloud computing is simply a buzzword used to
    repackage grid computing and utility computing,
    both of which have existed for decades.

whatis.com Definition of Cloud Computing
3
Cloud Computing
  • Cloud computing is a model for enabling
    convenient, on-demand network access to a shared
    pool of configurable computing resources (e.g.,
    networks, servers, storage, applications, and
    services) that can be rapidly provisioned and
    released with minimal management effort or
    service provider interaction.
  • This cloud model promotes availability and is
    composed of five essential characteristics, three
    service models, and four deployment models.

4
(No Transcript)
5
History
  • Cloud used as a metaphor for the Internet,
    based on the cloud drawing used in the past to
    represent the telephone network later to depict
    the Internet in computer network diagrams as an
    abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it
    represents.
  • Details abstracted from end-users, who no longer
    have need for expertise in, or control over, the
    technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that
    supports them.

6
Evolution of cloud computing
7
Comparison
  • Cloud computing shares characteristics with
  • Mainframe computer
  • Autonomic computing
  • Clientserver
  • Grid computing
  • Peer-to-peer

8
Foundational Elements of Cloud Computing
Primary Technologies
Other Technologies
  • Virtualization
  • Grid technology
  • Service Oriented Architectures
  • Distributed Computing
  • Broadband Networks
  • Browser as a platform
  • Free and Open Source Software
  • Autonomic Systems
  • Web 2.0
  • Web application frameworks
  • Service Level Agreements

9
The Traditional Server Concept
Web Server Windows IIS
App Server Linux Glassfish
DB Server Linux MySQL
EMail Windows Exchange
10
Traditional Server Concept Explained
  • Servers considered as a whole unit that includes
    the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the
    applications.
  • Often referred to by their function i.e. the
    Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server,
    etc.
  • If the File server fills up, or the Exchange
    server becomes overtaxed must add in a new
    server.

11
Traditional Server Concept Contd.
  • Unless there are multiple servers, if a service
    experiences a hardware failure, the service is
    down.
  • Can implement clusters of servers to make them
    more fault tolerant.
  • Even clusters have limits on their scalability,
    and not all applications work in a clustered
    environment.

12
Pros and Cons
  • Pros
  • Easy to conceptualize
  • Fairly easy to deploy
  • Easy to backup
  • Virtually any application/service can be run from
    this type of setup
  • Cons
  • Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware
  • Not very scalable
  • Difficult to replicate
  • Redundancy is difficult to implement
  • Vulnerable to hardware outages
  • In many cases, processor is under-utilized

13
And if something goes wrong ...
Web Server Windows IIS
App Server DOWN!
DB Server Linux MySQL
EMail Windows Exchange
14
The Virtual Server Concept
Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest
OS and hardware
15
Close-up
adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper,
Virtualization Overview
Clustering Service Console
Server 1 Guest OS
Server 2 Guest OS
VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor)
x86 Architecture
Intercepts hardware requests
16
The Virtual Server Concept
  • Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server
    software away from the hardware
  • This includes the OS, the applications, and the
    storage for that server.
  • A virtual server can be serviced by one or more
    hosts, and one host may house more than one
    virtual server.

17
Virtual Server Concept Contd.
  • Virtual servers can still be referred to by their
    function i.e. email server, database server, etc.
  • If the environment built correctly, virtual
    servers will not be affected by the loss of a
    host.
  • Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at
    will to accommodate maintenance.

18
Virtual Server Concept Contd.
  • Can be scaled out easily.
  • If the resources supporting a virtual server are
    being taxed too much, admin can adjust the amount
    of resources allocated to that virtual server
  • Server templates can be created in a virtual
    environment to be used to create multiple,
    identical virtual servers
  • Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from
    host to host almost at will.

19
Pros and Cons
  • Pros
  • Resource pooling
  • Highly redundant
  • Highly available
  • Rapidly deploy new servers
  • Easy to deploy
  • Reconfigurable while services are running
  • Optimizes physical resources by doing more with
    less
  • Cons
  • Slightly harder to conceptualize
  • Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS,
    Apps, and now the abstraction layer)

20
The Clouds Snowball Effect
  • Maturation of Virtualization Technology
  • Virtualization enables Compute Clouds
  • Compute Clouds create demand for Storage Clouds
  • Storage Compute Clouds create Cloud
    Infrastructure
  • Cloud Infrastructure enables Cloud Platforms
    Applications
  • Multiple Cloud types lead to Cloud Aggregators
  • Niche requirements enable Cloud Extenders

21
Characteristics
  • Cost claimed to be reduced.
  • Reliability improved if multiple redundant sites
    used.
  • Performance monitored, and consistent and loosely
    coupled architectures constructed using web
    services as the system interface.
  • Security could improve due to centralization of
    data, increased security-focused resources, etc.
  • Maintenance is easier do not need to be
    installed on each user's computer.

22
Layers
  • Client
  • Computer hardware and/or computer software
    relying on cloud computing for application
    delivery.
  • Application
  • Application services (SaaS).
  • Platform
  • Platform services (PaaS).
  • Infrastructure
  • Infrastructure services (IaaS).
  • Server
  • Computer hardware, software products
    specifically designed for delivery of cloud
    services.

23
Service Model Architectures
24
Cloud Service Delivery Models
  • IaaS Infrastructure as a Service
  • provisions computing resources within provider's
    infrastructure upon which they can deploy and run
    arbitrary software, including OS and
    applications.
  • PaaS Platform as a Service
  • can create custom applications using programming
    tools supported by the provider and deploy them
    onto the provider's cloud infrastructure.
  • SaaS Software as Service
  • use providers applications running on provider's
    cloud infrastructure.

25
Three Features of Mature SaaS Applications
  • Scalable
  • Handle growing amounts of work in a graceful
    manner
  • Multi-tenancy
  • One application instance may be serving hundreds
    of companies
  • Opposite of multi-instance where each customer is
    provisioned their own server running one instance
  • Metadata driven configurability
  • Instead of customizing the application for a
    customer (requiring code changes), one allows the
    user to configure the application through metadata

25
26
SaaS Maturity Levels
  • Level 1 Ad-Hoc/Custom
  • Level 2 Configurable
  • Level 3 Configurable, Multi-Tenant-Efficient
  • Level 4 Scalable, Configurable,
    Multi-Tenant-Efficient

26
Source Microsoft MSDN Architecture Center
27
Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)
  • Definition
  • Platform providing all the facilities necessary
    to support the complete process of building and
    delivering web applications and services, all
    available over the Internet
  • Entirely virtualized platform that includes one
    or more servers, operating systems and specific
    applications

28
PaaS Example Google App Engine
  • Service that allows user to deploy users Web
    applications on Google's very scalable
    architecture
  • Providing user with a sandbox for users Java and
    python application that can be referenced over
    the Internet
  • Providing Java and Python APIs for persistently
    storing and managing data (using the Google Query
    Language or GQL)

29
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)
  • Definition
  • Provision model in which an organization
    outsources
  • the equipment used to support operations,
    including
  • storage, hardware, servers and networking
  • components.
  • Also known as Hardware as a Service (HaaS).
  • Service provider owns the equipment
    responsible for housing, running and maintaining
    it.
  • Client typically pays on a per-use basis.

30
IaaS Contd.
31
Characteristics of Infrastructure-as-a-Service (I
aaS)
  • Utility computing and billing model
  • Automation of administrative tasks
  • Dynamic scaling
  • Desktop virtualization
  • Policy-based services
  • Internet connectivity

32
Service Delivery Model Examples
Amazon
Google
Microsoft
Salesforce



SaaS
PaaS
IaaS
33
4 Cloud Deployment Models
  • Private cloud
  • enterprise owned or leased
  • Community cloud
  • shared infrastructure for specific community
  • Public cloud
  • Sold to the public, mega-scale infrastructure
  • Hybrid cloud
  • composition of two or more clouds

34
Common Cloud Characteristics
  • Cloud computing often leverages
  • Massive scale
  • Homogeneity
  • Virtualization
  • Resilient computing
  • Low cost software
  • Geographic distribution
  • Service orientation
  • Advanced security technologies

35
Web-Scale Large data centers Problems
  • Characteristics
  • Definitely data-intensive
  • May also be processing intensive
  • Examples
  • Crawling, indexing, searching, mining the Web
  • Post-genomics life sciences research
  • Other scientific data (physics, astronomers,
    etc.)
  • Sensor networks
  • Web 2.0 applications

36
How much data?
  • Wayback Machine has 3 PB 100 TB/month (2009)
  • Google processes 20 PB a day (2008)
  • all words ever spoken by human beings 5 EB
  • NOAA has 1 PB climate data (2007)
  • CERNs LHC generates 15 PB a year (2010)

640K ought to be enough for anybody.
37
Large Data Centers
  • Web-scale problems? Throw more machines at it!
  • Clear trend centralization of computing
    resources in large data centers
  • Important Issues
  • Redundancy
  • Efficiency
  • Utilization
  • Management

38
The Cloud 10X Improvements
  • Ease of Use
  • Scalability
  • Risk
  • Reliability
  • Cost

39
Ease of Use
  • Deploy infrastructure with a mouse or API
  • Cloud computing providers deliver applications
    via the internet, which are accessed from web
    browsers and desktop and mobile apps
  • Do it yourself remotely from anywhere anytime

40
Scalability
  • Dynamic provisioning of resources on a
    fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time,
    without users having to engineer for peak loads
  • Control your infrastructure with your app

41
Risk
  • Nothing to buy
  • Cancel immediately
  • Change instantly, even operating systems
  • Throw it out
  • Rebuild it instantly after testing

RISK
42
Reliability
  • Based on enterprise grade hardware
  • Design for failures
  • Automatically spin up replacements
  • Use multiple clouds

43
Cost Control
  • Cost
  • Many systems have variable demands
  • Batch processing (e.g. New York Times)
  • Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes)
  • Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for
    Clunkers program)
  • Reduce risk
  • Don't need to buy hardware until you need it

44
Business Agility
  • More than scalability - elasticity!
  • Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care
    business
  • Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a
    server cluster, then they would hoard it!
  • Using EC2, about 5 minutes!
  • And they give it back when they are done!
  • Scaling back is as important as scaling up

45
Stick to Business
  • Most companies don't WANT to do system
    administration
  • Forbes says
  • We are is a publishing company, not a software
    company
  • But beware
  • Do you really save much on sys admin?
  • You don't have the hardware, but you still need
    to manage the OS!

46
Provisioning Service
  • Advantages
  • Rapid reconstitution of services
  • Enables availability
  • Provision in multiple data centers/multiple
    instances
  • Advanced honey net capabilities
  • Challenges
  • Impact of compromising the provisioning service

47
Data Storage Services
  • Advantages
  • Data fragmentation and dispersal
  • Automated replication
  • Provision of data zones (e.g., by country)
  • Encryption at rest and in transit
  • Automated data retention
  • Challenges
  • Isolation management / data multi-tenancy
  • Storage controller
  • Single point of failure / compromise?
  • Exposure of data to foreign governments

48
Cloud Processing Infrastructure
  • Advantages
  • Ability to secure masters and push out secure
    images
  • Challenges
  • Application multi-tenancy
  • Reliance on hypervisors
  • Process isolation / Application sandboxes

49
Cloud Support Services
  • Advantages
  • On demand security controls (e.g.,
    authentication, logging, firewalls)
  • Challenges
  • Additional risk when integrated with customer
    applications
  • Needs certification and accreditation as a
    separate application
  • Code updates

50
Cloud Network and Perimeter Security
  • Advantages
  • Distributed denial of service protection
  • VLAN capabilities
  • Perimeter security (IDS, firewall,
    authentication)
  • Challenges
  • Virtual zoning with application mobility

51
The NIST Cloud Definition Framework
Deployment Models
Service Models
Essential Characteristics
Massive Scale
Resilient Computing
Homogeneity
Geographic Distribution
Common Characteristics
Based upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor
- http//ornot.wordpress.com
52
Cloud Computing Case Studies
53
Google Cloud
  • Started with Google Apps
  • Platform as Service later on
  • Replace office software
  • Gmail
  • Google Docs (word processing and spreadsheets)
  • Google video for business
  • Google sites (intranet sites and wikis)
  • Google Cloud Connect
  • 500,000 organizations use Google Apps
  • GE moved 400,000 desktops from Microsoft Office
    to Google Apps

54
Microsoft Azure Services
55
Windows Azure Applications, Storage, and Roles
Three core components Compute, Storage and Fabric
n
m
Web Role
Worker Role
LB
Cloud Storage (blob, table, queue)
Source Microsoft Presentation, A Lap Around
Windows Azure, Manuvir Das
56
Amazon Cloud
  • Amazon cloud components
  • Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)
  • Simple Storage Service (S3)
  • SimpleDB
  • New Features
  • Availability zones
  • Place applications in multiple locations for
    failovers
  • Elastic IP addresses
  • Static IP addresses that can be dynamically
    remapped to point to different instances (not a
    DNS change)

57
Amazon Cloud Users New York Times and Nasdaq
  • Both companies used Amazons cloud offering
  • New York Times
  • Used EC2 and S3 to convert 15 million scanned
    news articles to PDF (4TB data)
  • Took 100 Linux computers 24 hours (would have
    taken months on NYT computers
  • It was cheap experimentation, and the learning
    curve isn't steep. Derrick Gottfrid, Nasdaq
  • Nasdaq
  • Uses S3 to deliver historic stock and fund
    information
  • Millions of files showing price changes of
    entities over 10 minute segments
  • The expenses of keeping all that data online in
    Nasdaq servers was too high. Claude Courbois,
    Nasdaq VP
  • Created lightweight Adobe AIR application to let
    users view data

58
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59
Salesforce Cloud
  • Started with information management service that
    could replace traditional business software
    technology
  • Pioneered software-as-a-service market (esp. CRM
    tools)
  • 5,000 Public Sector and Nonprofit Customers use
    Salesforce Cloud Computing Solutions
  • Moving beyond SaaS into the platform-as-a-service
    market

60
Salesforce.com in Government
  • President Obamas Citizens Briefing Book
  • 134,077 Registered Users
  • 1.4 M Votes
  • 52,015 Ideas
  • Peak traffic of 149 hits per second
  • US Census Bureau Uses Salesforce.com Cloud
    Application
  • Project implemented in under 12 weeks
  • 2,500 partnership agents use Salesforce.com for
    2010 decennial census
  • Allows projects to scale from 200 to 2,000 users
    overnight to meet peak periods with no capital
    expenditure

61
VMware Cloud (vCloud)
  • Goal
  • Federate resources between internal IT and
    external clouds
  • Application portability
  • Elasticity and scalability, disaster recovery,
    service level management
  • vServices provide APIs and technologies

62
Case Study IBM-Google Cloud
  • Google and IBM plan to roll out a worldwide
    network of servers for a cloud computing
    infrastructure
  • Initiatives for universities
  • Architecture
  • Open source
  • Linux hosts
  • Xen virtualization (virtual machine monitor)
  • Apache Hadoop (file system)
  • open-source software for reliable, scalable,
    distributed computing

63
Facebooks Use of Open Source and Commodity
Hardware
  • 400 million users 250,000 new users per day
  • 100,000 transactions per second, 10,000 servers
  • Built on open source software
  • Web and App tier Apache, PHP, AJAX
  • Middleware tier Memcached (Open source caching)
  • Data tier MySQL (Open source DB)
  • Thousands of DB instances store data in
    distributed fashion (avoids collisions of many
    users accessing the same DB)

64
Are Hybrid Clouds in our Future?
  • OpenNebula
  • Zimory
  • IBM-Juniper Partnership
  • VMWare Vcloud

65
  • Thank You

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