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Unit 4: Imperfect Competition

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Title: Unit IV: Imperfect Competition Author: jclifford Last modified by: Jacob Created Date: 10/25/2005 4:18:36 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 4: Imperfect Competition


1
Unit 4 Imperfect Competition
1
2
Memorizing vs. Learning
12-35711131-71923
Try memorizing the above number How effective is
memorizing it? The point If you try to MEMORIZE
all the graphs of economics you will forget them.
You must LEARN them!
3
FOUR MARKET STRUCTURES
Pure Monopoly
Pure Monopoly
Perfect Competition
Monopolistic Competition
Monopolistic Competition
Oligopoly
Oligopoly
Imperfect Competition
  • Every product is sold in a market that can be
    considered one of the above market structures.
  • For example
  • Fast Food Market
  • The Market for Cars
  • Market for Operating Systems (Microsoft)
  • Strawberry Market
  • Cereal Market

3
4
Monopoly
4
5
Characteristics of Monopolies
5
6
5 Characteristics of a Monopoly
  • Single Seller
  • One Firm controls the vast majority of a market
  • The Firm IS the Industry
  • 2. Unique good with no close substitutes
  • 3. Price Maker
  • The firm can manipulate the price by changing the
    quantity it produces (ie. shifting the supply
    curve to the left).
  • Ex California electric companies

6
7
5 Characteristics of a Monopoly
4. High Barriers to Entry
  • New firms CANNOT enter market
  • No immediate competitors
  • Firm can make profit in the long-run

5. Some Nonprice Competition
  • Despite having no close competitors, monopolies
    still advertise their products in an effort to
    increase demand.

7
8
Examples of Monopolies
8
9
  • What do you already know about monopolies?
  • True or False?
  • All monopolies make a profit.
  • Monopolies are usually efficient.
  • All monopolies are bad for the economy.
  • All monopolies are illegal.
  • Monopolies charge the highest price possible
  • The government never prevents monopolies from
    forming.

9
10
10
11
Four Origins of Monopolies
  • Geography is the Barrier to Entry
  • Ex Nowhere gas stations, De Beers Diamonds, San
    Diego Chargers, Cable TV, Qualcomm Hot Dogs
  • -Location or control of resources limits
    competition and leads to one supplier.
  • 2. The Government is the Barrier to Entry
  • Ex Water Company, Firefighters, The Army,
    Pharmaceutical drugs, rubix cubes
  • -Government allows monopoly for public benefits
    or to stimulate innovation.
  • -The government issues patents to protect
    inventors and forbids others from using their
    invention. (They last 20 years)

11
12
Four Origins of Monopolies
  • 3. Technology or Common Use is the Barrier to
    Entry
  • Ex Microsoft, Intel, Frisbee, Band-Aide
  • -Patents and widespread availability of certain
    products lead to only one major firm controlling
    a market.
  • 4. Mass Production and Low Costs are Barriers to
    Entry
  • Ex Electric Companies (SDGE)
  • If there were three competing electric companies
    they would have higher costs.
  • Having only one electric company keeps prices low
  • -Economies of scale make it impractical to have
    smaller firms.
  • Natural Monopoly- It is NATURAL for only one firm
    to produce because they can produce at the lowest
    cost.

12
13
Drawing Monopolies
13
14
  • Good news
  • Only one graph because the firm IS the industry.
  • The cost curves are the same
  • The MR MC rule still applies
  • Shut down rule still applies

14
15
  • The Main Difference
  • Monopolies (and all Imperfectly competitive
    firms) have downward sloping demand curve.
  • Which means, to sell more a firm must lower its
    price.
  • This changes MR
  • THE MARGINAL REVENUE DOESNT EQUAL THE PRICE!

15
16
Why is MR less than Demand?
P Qd TR MR
11 0 0 -







16
17
Why is MR less than Demand?
P Qd TR MR
11 0 0 -
10 1 10 10






10
17
18
Why is MR less than Demand?
P Qd TR MR
11 0 0 -
10 1 10 10
9 2 18 8





10
9
9
18
19
Why is MR less than Demand?
P Qd TR MR
11 0 0 -
10 1 10 10
9 2 18 8
8 3 24 6




10
9
9
8
8
8
19
20
Why is MR less than Demand?
P Qd TR MR
11 0 0 -
10 1 10 10
9 2 18 8
8 3 24 6
7 4 28 4



10
9
9
8
8
8
7
7
7
7
20
21
Why is MR less than Demand?
P Qd TR MR
11 0 0 -
10 1 10 10
9 2 18 8
8 3 24 6
7 4 28 4
6 5 30 2


10
9
9
8
8
8
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
21
22
Why is MR less than Demand?
P Qd TR MR
11 0 0 -
10 1 10 10
9 2 18 8
8 3 24 6
7 4 28 4
6 5 30 2
5 6 30 0

10
9
9
8
8
8
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7
7
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6
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5
5
5
5
22
23
Why is MR less than Demand?
P Qd TR MR
11 0 0 -
10 1 10 10
9 2 18 8
8 3 24 6
7 4 28 4
6 5 30 2
5 6 30 0
4 7 28 -2
10
9
9
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8
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6
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5
5
5
5
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4
4
4
4
23
24
Why is MR less than Demand?
P Qd TR MR
11 0 - -
10 1 10 10
9 2 18 8
8 3 24 6
7 4 28 4
6 5 30 2
5 6 30 0
4 7 28 -2
10
9
9
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8
8
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7
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6
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5
5
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4
4
4
24
25
Why is MR less than Demand?
P Qd TR MR
11 0 - -
10 1 10 10
9 2 18 8
8 3 24 6
7 4 28 4
6 5 30 2
5 6 30 0
4 7 28 -2
10
9
9
MR IS LESS THAN PRICE
8
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6
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5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
25
26
Calculating Marginal Revenue
26
27
To sell more a firm must lower its price. What
happens to Marginal Revenue?
Price Quantity Demanded Total Revenue Marginal Revenue
6 0
5 1
4 2
3 3
2 4
1 5
Does the Marginal Revenue equal the price?
27
28
To sell more a firm must lower its price. What
happens to Marginal Revenue?
Price Quantity Demanded Total Revenue Marginal Revenue
6 0 0
5 1 5
4 2 8
3 3 9
2 4 8
1 5 5
Does the Marginal Revenue equal the price?
28
29
To sell more a firm must lower its price. What
happens to Marginal Revenue?
Price Quantity Demanded Total Revenue Marginal Revenue
6 0 0 -
5 1 5 5
4 2 8 3
3 3 9 1
2 4 8 -1
1 5 5 -3
MR DOESNT EQUAL PRICE
Draw Demand and Marginal Revenue Curves
29
30
Plot the Demand, Marginal Revenue, and Total
Revenue Curves
15 10 5
P
Q
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18
TR
64 40 20
Q
30
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18
31
Demand and Marginal Revenue Curves
What happens to TR when MR hits zero?
15 10 5
P
D
Q
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18
TR
MR
64 40 20
Total Revenue is at its peak when MR hits zero
TR
Q
31
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18
32
Elastic vs. Inelastic Range of Demand Curve
32
33
Elastic and Inelastic Range
P
Elastic
Inelastic
15 10 5
Total Revenue Test If price falls and TR
increases then demand is elastic.
D
Q
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18
TR
A monopoly will only produce in the elastic range

MR
64 40 20
Total Revenue Test If price falls and TR falls
then demand is inelastic.
TR
Q
33
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18
34
Maximizing Profit
34
35
What output should this monopoly produce?
MR MC
How much is the TR, TC and Profit or Loss?
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
P
MC
ATC
Profit 6
D
MR
Q
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
35
36
Conclusion A monopolists produces where MRMC,
buts charges the price consumer are willing to
pay identified by the demand curve.
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
P
MC
ATC
D
MR
Q
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
36
37
What if cost are higher?
How much is the TR, TC, and Profit or Loss?
MC
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
P
ATC
AVC
D
TR 90 TC 100 Loss10
MR
Q
6 7 8 9 10
37
38
TR TC Profit/Loss Profit/Loss per Unit
70
Identify and Calculate
56
14
2
P
MC
10 9 8 7 6 5 4
ATC
D
MR
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Q
38
39
Are Monopolies Efficient?
39
40
  • Monopolies are inefficient because they
  • Charge a higher price
  • Dont produce enough
  • Not allocatively efficiency
  • Produce at higher costs
  • Not productively efficiency
  • Have little incentive to innovate

Why? Because there is little external pressure to
be efficient
40
41
Monopolies vs. Perfect Competition
S MC
P
CS
In perfect competition, CS and PS are maximized.
Ppc
PS
D
Q
Qpc
41
42
Monopolies vs. Perfect Competition
S MC
P
At MRMC, A monopolist will produce less and
charge a higher price
Pm
Ppc
D
MR
Q
Qpc
Qm
42
43
Monopolies vs. Perfect Competition
Where is CS and PS for a monopoly?
S MC
P
CS
Total surplus falls. Now there is DEADWEIGHT LOSS
Pm
PS
Monopolies underproduce and over charge,
decreasing CS and increasing PS.
D
MR
Q
Qm
43
44
Are Monopolies Productively Efficient?
No. They are not producing at the lowest cost
(min ATC)
Does Price Min ATC?
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
P
MC
ATC
D
MR
Q
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
44
45
Are Monopolies Allocatively Efficiency?
No. Price is greater. The monopoly is under
producing.
Does Price MC?
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
P
MC
ATC
Monopolies are NOT efficient!
D
MR
Q
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
45
46
Natural Monopoly
One firm can produce the socially optimal
quantity at the lowest cost due to economies
scale.
P
It is better to have only one firm because ATC is
falling at socially optimal quantity
MC
ATC
D
MR
Q
46
Qsocially optimal
47
Lump Sum vs. Per Unit Taxes and Subsidies
ACDC Econ Video
47
48
2007 FRQ 1
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