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Modern Europe II

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Title: Modern Europe Since French Revolution HIS-107 Author: Cat Graney Last modified by: Kitty Created Date: 1/18/2009 3:26:00 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Modern Europe II


1
Modern Europe II
  • Unit 4 European Politics and Economy, 1871-1914

2
Advance of Democracy
  • Characteristics of 1871-1914 Europe
  • Expansive material and industrial growth
  • Domestic stability
  • International peace
  • New wave of imperialism
  • Expansion of global economy
  • Period after 1871 was marked by stability
  • Period of constitutional and representative
    governments
  • Extension of voting rights to working class
  • Extension of self-government (democracy)
  • Growth of the welfare state to counteract growth
    of socialism

3
Third French Republic
  • France had troubles establishing a democratic
    republic
  • The Second Empire fell after its surrender to
    Prussia in January 1871
  • New government was to be established with
    universal male suffrage
  • Conservative provisional government moved to
    Versailles
  • Elections of 1871
  • Monarchists won the majority in the National
    Assembly
  • Divided mainly between two groups Legitimists
    and Orléanists
  • Legitimists wanted Bourbon dynasty (Charles X)
    reinstated
  • Orléanists wanted the Orléans dynasty
    (Louis-Philippe)
  • Only 150 republicans were elected as many French
    distrusted them as too radical

4
  • Makeup of the 1871 National Assembly

5
Third French Republic
  • Parisian working class refused to accept the new
    government
  • Were the ones who sacrificed the most during the
    war and the subsequent siege of Paris
  • Paris refused to surrender to the Germans
  • Paris Commune (March 18 May 28, 1871)
  • Paris proclaimed itself to be the true government
    of France
  • Set up a government called the Paris Commune
  • Pitted the nation against the radical city of
    Paris
  • Policies were similar to the Jacobins
  • Very anti-bourgeoisie and upper class
  • Contained some socialists but mainly republicans

6
  • Paris Commune Barricade (March 18, 1871)

7
Third French Republic
  • Government sends troops to Paris in March 1871
  • Barricades and street fighting
  • Troops were able to take the city in May
  • In total, over 25,000 died, most of them executed
  • Over 30,000 were arrested and 7,500 deported to
    New Caledonia
  • What form should the new government take?
  • Monarchists had the majority but could not agree
  • Legitimists and Orléanists ended up cancelling
    each other out
  • Third Republic continued to exist
  • Worked different constitutional plans

8
Third French Republic
  • French Constitutional Laws of 1875
  • Formally established a republic headed by a
    president
  • Senate elected by an indirect system
  • Chamber of Deputies elected by universal male
    suffrage
  • Included a Council of Ministers headed by a
    Premier
  • Passed by one vote
  • Over the next few years the political roles would
    become more defined
  • President essentially became a ceremonial figure
  • True power rested in the hands of the Premier

9
Third French Republic
  • Stable government?
  • Became difficult to form majority in the
    parliament due to dozens of political parties
  • Control formed through alliances or blocs
  • Neither President nor Premier could dissolve the
    Chamber to hold new elections
  • Kept the government stable for the rest of 19th
    century
  • Troubles of the Third Republic
  • Many were fearful of the concept of a republic
  • Rise in anti-Semitism
  • Numerous political scandals in the 1880s and 1890s

10
  • Édouard Drumont
  • (1844-1917)

11
Rise of Anti-Semitism
  • French Anti-Semitism
  • Rose out of the defeat in 1870
  • Right-wing movement that was nationalist,
    anti-liberal, and antiparliamentary
  • Nationalism was no longer associated with the
    left and was now linked to xenophobia
  • Édouard Drumont (18441917)
  • Successful anti-Semitic journalist
  • Attributed all of Frances problems to a Jewish
    conspiracy
  • Merged three strands of anti-Semitism
  • Christian Jews as Christ killers
  • Economic Rothschild as representative of all
    Jews
  • Racial thinking - Jews as an inferior race

12
Rise of Anti-Semitism
  • Drumont helped to spread an ideology of hatred
  • Claimed that Jews in the army subverted national
    purpose
  • Mass culture corrupted French culture
  • Greedy Jewish socialists and trade unionists
    preyed on the peasants and small shopkeepers
  • La France Juive (Jewish France, 1886)
  • Called for the exclusion of Jews from French
    society
  • Sold 100,000 copies in the first two months
  • La Libre Parole (Free Speech)
  • Very popular newspaper
  • Founded through his Anti-Semitic League

13
  • Alfred Dreyfus
  • (1859-1935)

14
Dreyfus Affair
  • Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935)
  • Jewish captain in the French army
  • Officers accused him of selling secrets to the
    Germans
  • Was convicted in November 1894
  • Sentenced to life imprisonment in the Devils
    Island penal colony in French Guiana
  • The Affair
  • In 1896, evidence was found that identified
    another officer as the true spy
  • Documents used against Dreyfus were found to be
    forgeries
  • However, Dreyfus was not exonerated

15
Dreyfus Affair
  • Émile Zola (18401902) backed Dreyfus
  • Wrote an open letter in 1898 accusing the
    government of being anti-Semitic and unjust
  • Described the lack of evidence in the letter
  • Was published on the front page of L'Aurore
  • Zola was found guilty of libel and was forced to
    leave France
  • Dreyfus eventually pardoned by the president in
    1899
  • Cleared of all guilt in 1906 by the supreme court
  • Reinstated into the army
  • Republican reaction against the church
  • Saw both the church and army as hostile to the
    state
  • Passed laws (1901-1905) separating church and
    state

16
  • Dreyfus hut on Guiana

17
Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Strengths of the Third French Republic
  • Garnered the loyalty of most of the French
    population
  • Showed that democratic republicanism can work
  • Most classes lived in economic comfort
  • Weaknesses
  • Still lagged behind in industry compared to
    Britain and Germany
  • Excessive fragmentation of political parties
  • More than 50 ministries from 1871-1914
  • Working class was still unhappy
  • Continued rise of socialism

18
  • Victoria
  • (1837-1901)

19
British Constitutional Monarchy
  • Characteristics of Britain under Victoria
    (1837-1901)
  • Era of expanding industry and material progress
  • Numerous literary accomplishments
  • Political stability
  • Two major political parties Liberals and
    Conservatives
  • Victoria in seclusion
  • In 1861, Prince Consort Albert died of typhoid
    fever
  • Victoria went into a period of seclusion
  • This seclusion helped to bolster the republican
    movement inside of England

20
British Constitutional Monarchy
  • Parties alternated control during this period
  • Conservatives had the support of the landed
    aristocracy
  • Liberals had the support of industrial and
    commercial interests
  • Both sought the support of the working class
  • Increasing suffrage
  • Second Reform Bill (1867) extended suffrage to
    1/3 male population
  • In 1884, another law extended it to ¾ of the male
    population
  • Universal male suffrage and limited womens
    suffrage were enacted in 1918

21
  • William E. Gladstone
  • Prime Minister of Britain
  • (1868-1885)

22
British Constitutional Monarchy
  • William E. Gladstone (1809-1898)
  • Liberal Prime Minister four times during the
    Victorian Era
  • Gladstones First ministry (1868-1874)
  • Cardwell Reforms (1869) terminated the sale and
    purchase of army commissions
  • Forster's Education Act (1870) set framework for
    public schools for children 5-12
  • University Test Act (1871) abolished religious
    tests for Cambridge and Oxford
  • Ballot Act (1872) introduced the use of secret
    ballot
  • Formally legalized labor unions

23
British Constitutional Monarchy
  • Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1888)
  • Conservative who held position of Prime Minister
    twice
  • Second Disraeli Ministry (1874-1880)
  • Supported laissez-faire policies
  • Public Health Act (1875) regulated public
    sanitation to stop the spread of diseases such as
    cholera and typhus
  • Regulated workplace safety in the mines
  • Allowed for peaceful picketing
  • Gladstones Second Ministry (1880-1885)
  • Granted a form of workmans compensation
  • Included calls for shorter work days

24
  • Benjamin Disraeli
  • Prime Minister
  • (1874-1880)

25
British Politics after 1900
  • Independent Labour Party (1901)
  • Labor emerged as a third political party
  • Called for more protective measures for the
    working class
  • Changes to the Liberal Party
  • Changed from laissez-faire policies to more
    government regulation
  • Focused more on social legislation to help the
    working poor
  • Liberal welfare reforms (1906-1914)
  • Done during the ministry of Herbert Asquith
    (1906-1916)
  • Illustrated the shift to more progressive
    liberalism

26
British Politics after 1900
  • Reforms included
  • New forms of insurance (e.g., unemployment,
    sickness, accident)
  • Minimum wage laws
  • Removing restrictions on strikes and picketing
  • Peoples Budget of 1909
  • Pushed through by Chancellor of the Exchequer
    Lloyd George
  • Designed to help pay new social reforms
  • Called for progressive income and inheritance
    taxes
  • Aimed primarily at the landed aristocracy
  • Met tough resistance in both houses

27
British Politics after 1900
  • Parliament Act of 1911
  • Removed the right of the House of Lords to veto
    any economic matters
  • Put in a two-year delaying veto for other
    legislation
  • Liberals also worked on getting salaries for
    House of Commons
  • Hoped it would get working class to run for seats
  • However, Liberals were showing signs of collapse
  • Wages were starting to fall after 1900
  • Major coal and railway strikes occurred in
    1911-1912
  • Labour Party continued to grow in popularity

28
  • Liverpool Transit Strike (1911)

29
Irish Question
  • Act of Union (1800)
  • Ireland had been incorporated into the United
    Kingdom
  • Part had to do with the Irish Rebellion of 1798
  • Other part was due to French sympathies generated
    during the French Revolution
  • Irish had numerous grievances
  • Tenant farmers had no recourse against their
    landlords
  • Were subjugated to the Church of Ireland
    (Anglican) while most of the population was
    Catholic
  • Gladstone attempted to address these issues
  • Church of Ireland was no longer the official
    state church after the Irish Church
    Disestablishment Act 1869

30
Irish Question
  • Home Rule Bills
  • First initiated by Gladstone in 1886 but it did
    not pass the Commons
  • Started a split amongst the Liberals
  • Were attempted again in 1893 and 1914
  • Passed in 1914 but suspended due to World War I
  • Ulstermen
  • Irish Protestants who strongly opposed the Home
    Rule Bill
  • Were afraid of being outnumbered by the Catholics
  • Gained the support of the Conservatives
  • Began arming themselves to fight if the bill
    passed
  • Signed Ulster Covenant in 1912 to support armed
    opposition

31
  • Signing the Ulster Covenant (September 28, 1912)

32
German Empire (1871-1890)
  • After 1871, Bismarck worked not with the
    Conservatives but with the National Liberals
  • Conservatives were still against the concept of a
    united Germany
  • Liberals were more eager to help centralize the
    state
  • Setting up the new administration
  • Sought to create the centralizing institutions of
    a modern state
  • Created a bicameral parliament
  • Bundesrat Upper house with appointed delegates
  • Reichstag - Lower house elected through universal
    male suffrage
  • Executive power rested solely with Wilhelm who
    was both king and kaiser (emperor)

33
German Empire (1871-1890)
  • Three problems facing Bismarck
  • Divide between Catholics and Protestants
  • Growing Social Democratic party
  • Divisive economic interests of agriculture and
    industry
  • Addressing the Catholic Church
  • Bismarck wanted to subordinate the Church to the
    state
  • First Vatican Council reaffirmed papal
    infallibility in 1870 which would cause issues
    for Catholics in Germany
  • Catholics created a strong Center party that
    upheld church pronouncements

34
German Empire (1871-1890)
  • Kulturkampf (cultural struggle)
  • Bismarck unleashed an anti-Catholic campaign
  • Appealed to sectarian tensions over public
    education and civil marriages
  • Popular with Liberals who were strongly
    anticlerical
  • Passed laws that imprisoned priests for political
    sermons
  • Banned Jesuits from Prussia
  • The campaign backfired
  • Catholic Center party won seats in the Reichstag
    in 1874
  • Bismarck negotiated an alliance with the Catholic
    Center

35
German Empire (1871-1890)
  • Economic downturn of the late 1870s forced
    Bismarck to create a new coalition
  • Combined agricultural and industrial interests as
    well as socially conservative Catholics
  • Passed protectionist legislation that upset
    laissez-faire supporters and the working class
  • Social Democrats became the new enemies
  • German Social Democratic party (SPD) was formed
    in 1875
  • Blend of Marxian socialists and moderate
    reformers
  • Attempted assassinations
  • In 1878, there were two failed assassination
    attempts against Wilhelm

36
German Empire (1871-1890)
  • Anti-SPD legislation
  • Bismarck associated socialism with the anarchy
  • Passed numerous antisocialist laws between 1878
    and 1880
  • Expelled socialists from major cities
  • The party still managed to win elections even
    though it was technically illegal
  • Bismarck did pass some social welfare
  • Workers guaranteed sickness and accident
    insurance
  • Rigorous factory inspection
  • Limited working hours for women and children
  • Old-age pensions
  • Still failed to win over the working class

37
  • Wilhelm II
  • (1888-1918)

38
Wilhelm II (1888-1918)
  • By 1890, support for the SPD continued to grow
  • Votes for SPD quadrupled between 1881 and 1890
  • William II (18881918)
  • Wanted Germany to go on a new course in 1890
  • He wanted to rule Germany, not Bismarck
  • Called for the resignation of Bismarck
  • Suspended antisocialist legislation and legalized
    the SPD
  • SPD continued to gain in popularity
  • Received 1/3 total votes in election of 1912
  • Received 110 members into the Reichstag
  • However, they were still excluded from the
    highest government positions

39
  • Political cartoon depicting Wilhelm I dropping
    the pilot (Bismarck)

40
Russia Road to Revolution
  • Russia was plagued with problems after 1871
  • The autocratic political system was unable to
    handle the conflict and pressures from modern
    society
  • Threatened by Western industrialization and
    political doctrines
  • Russia responded with some reform but repression
    as well
  • Russian industrialization (1880s1890s)
  • State-directed industrial development
  • Serfs emancipated in 1861
  • No independent middle class capable of raising
    capital
  • Rapid industrialization heightened social
    tensions
  • Workers left their villages temporarily to work
    in factories, and then returned for planting and
    harvest

41
Russia Road to Revolution
  • The legal system had not been modernized
  • No recognition of trade unions or employers
    associations
  • Still distinguished between nobles and peasants
    rather than modern society
  • Contained outdated banking and finance laws
  • Alexander III (18811894)
  • Steered the country toward the right
  • Believed Russia had nothing in common with the
    west
  • Focused on repression, especially of liberal
    ideas
  • Curtailed power of the zemstvos
  • Increased authority of the secret police

42
Russia Road to Revolution
  • Nicholas II (18941917)
  • Continued these counter-reforms
  • Advocated Russification over non-Russian subjects
  • Targeted the Jews with pogroms and open
    anti-Semitism
  • Rise of the Populists
  • Believed that Russia should modernize on its own
    terms, not those of the West
  • Wanted egalitarianism based on the village
    commune (mir)
  • Formed secret bands with the hope of overthrowing
    the tsar through anarchy and insurrection
  • Read Marxs Das Capital and emphasized peasant
    socialism
  • Played a role in the creation of the Social
    Revolutionary Party in 1901

43
Russia Road to Revolution
  • Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP)
  • Main form of Russian Marxism
  • Grew in response to growing Populism
  • Concentrated on urban workers rather than
    peasantry
  • Believed that Russian autocracy would give way to
    capitalism
  • Capitalism would eventually give way to a
    classless society
  • Blended radicalism with a scientific approach to
    history
  • In 1903, the Social Democratic party split
  • Occurred at the Second Congress which met in
    London
  • Was over the major points of the Partys program

44
Russia Road to Revolution
  • Bolsheviks (majority)
  • Called for a central party organization of active
    revolutionaries
  • Rapid industrialization meant they did not have
    to follow Marx
  • Could skip a stage straight into revolution
  • Eventually would become the foundation of the
    Communist Party
  • Mensheviks (minority)
  • Believed in a gradualist approach of slow
    changes
  • Reluctant to depart from Marxist orthodoxy
  • Able to regain control of the Social Democratic
    Party

45
  • Vladimir Lenin
  • (1870-1924)

46
Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
  • Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
  • Older brother was executed for his involvement in
    the assassination of Alexander II
  • Was under suspicion for a plot against Alexander
    III in 1896
  • In exile in Siberia from 1897-1900
  • Remained in political exile from 1900 to 1917 in
    western Europe
  • Becomes the leader of the Bolsheviks
  • Believed in the need for a coordinated socialist
    movement
  • What Is to Be Done? (1902)
  • Denounced gradualists and called for revolution
  • Wanted to form a smaller organization of
    vanguards to lead the working class

47
First Russian Revolution (1905)
  • Took most of the revolutionaries by surprise
  • Number of factors led to it
  • The defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War
    (1904-1905)
  • Rapid industrialization had transformed Russia
    unevenly
  • Economic downturn of the 1900s lead to high
    unemployment
  • Low grain prices eventually led to peasant
    uprisings
  • All combined with student radicalism to turn it
    all into a politically based movement
  • Russian government was not able to handle the
    problems
  • Radical workers organized strikes and
    demonstrations
  • Trust in the tsar declined dramatically

48
First Russian Revolution (1905)
  • Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905)
  • Group of 200,000 workers demonstrated at the
    Winter Palace
  • Guard troops killed 130 and wounded several
    hundred
  • Led to mass strikes throughout the country
  • Stores and factories were shut down
  • The autocracy had lost control
  • Nicholas II issued October Manifesto (October 14,
    1905)
  • Guaranteed individual liberties
  • Established the Duma as the legislative body
    based on moderate suffrage
  • Effectively ended the strikes and protests
  • Designed to set up a constitutional monarchy

49
  • Demonstration of October 17 - Ilya Repin

50
Russia After 1905 Revolution
  • Not everyone was happy with the October Manifesto
  • Radicals wanted greater changes included
    universal male suffrage
  • Nicholas failed to see that fundamental change
    was needed
  • Wanted to hold on to autocratic power
  • Revoked most of the promises made in October
  • Deprived the Duma of its principal powers
  • Pyotr Stolypin (18621911)
  • Was the Prime Minister under Nicholas II
  • Wanted to repress revolutionary movement in
    Russia
  • At the same time wanted to bring in agrarian
    reforms

51
Russia After 1905 Revolution
  • Stolypin Reforms (19061911)
  • Included the sale of five million acres of royal
    land to peasants
  • Granted peasants permission to withdraw from the
    mir to form independent farms
  • Canceled peasant property debts
  • Legalized trade unions
  • Established sickness and accident insurance
  • Problems for Russia
  • Liberals and radicals wanted more changes
  • Nicholas II refused to budge
  • Russian agriculture suspended between emerging
    capitalism and the peasant commune

52
  • Close-up of a Bessemer Converter

53
Second Industrial Revolution
  • Second Industrial Revolution
  • Usually dated from 1870-1914
  • Focused mainly on four industries steel,
    electric, chemical, and petroleum
  • Steel
  • Between the 1850s and 1870s, the cost of
    producing steel decreased
  • Iron was too soft and wore down too quickly for
    use as railroad tracks so there was a need to
    develop a tougher metal
  • Three main role players in development of steel
    Bessemer, the Sieman brothers, and Pierre Martin

54
Second Industrial Revolution
  • By the late 1890s, there were a variety of
    cheaper ways to make steel
  • Led to the rapid expansion of the steel industry
  • Britain embraced the use of steel for its ships
  • Steel industry was dominated by Germany and the
    U.S.
  • Electricity
  • Alessandro Volta invented the chemical battery in
    1800
  • Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic
    induction which led to the first electromagnetic
    generator in 1866
  • By the 1880s, alternators and transformers
    produce high-voltage alternating current
  • Edison invented the incandescent-filament lamp in
    1879

55
Second Industrial Revolution
  • Chemicals
  • Efficient production of alkali and sulfuric acid
  • Transformed manufacture of paper, soaps,
    textiles, and fertilizer
  • British led the way in soaps and cleaners and in
    mass marketing
  • German production focused on industrial uses
    (e.g., synthetic dyes and refining petroleum)
  • Petroleum
  • Development of liquid-fuel internal combustion
    engine
  • Mainly pushed by the rise of the automotive and
    aviation industries
  • By 1914, most navies had converted from coal to
    oil
  • Discovery of oil fields in Russia, Borneo,
    Persia, and Texas

56
Second Industrial Revolution
  • Other technological developments included
  • First of the great tunnels Mount Cenis (1873)
    and the Simplon (1906) in the Alps
  • Large canals Suez (1869), Kiel (1895), and
    Panama (1914)
  • Telephone (1875)
  • Transatlantic wireless communications (1902)
  • Started in Britain and Belgium
  • Spread to the rest of Europe and the United
    States
  • Major European manufacturers were Britain,
    Germany, and France
  • Accounted for 7/10s manufacturing in 1914
  • Produced 4/5 of Europes steel, coal, and
    machinery

57
  • Paris Bon Marché Department Store

58
Effects of Technology on Industry
  • New technology brought changes in scope and scale
    to industry
  • Part of the race toward a bigger, faster,
    cheaper, and more efficient world
  • Rise of heavy industry and mass marketing
  • Creation of national mass cultures
  • Followed the news and how Europe spread its
    influence throughout the world
  • Feats of engineering mastery including canals,
    railroads, and dams
  • Generated enormous income for builders,
    investors, and entrepreneurs

59
Effects of Technology on Industry
  • Impact of these changes on Europe
  • Population grew constantly, especially in central
    and eastern Europe
  • Food shortages declined due to improvements in
    crop yields and shipping
  • Improvements in medicine and hygiene led to the
    decline of many diseases including cholera and
    typhus
  • Led to longer life spans and reduced infant
    mortality rates
  • Creation of consumption culture
  • Consumption as a center of economic activity and
    theory
  • Appearance of the department store
  • Development of modern advertising
  • Introduction of credit payments to help the
    working class

60
  • Advertisement for Motocycles Comiot (1899)

61
Rise of the Corporation
  • Prior to this period, most businesses were
    financed either by individual investors or
    joint-stock operations
  • This began to change in the late 19th century
  • Due to economic growth and demands of mass
    consumption
  • Needed to mobilize funds to help grow large-scale
    enterprises
  • Rise of the modern corporation
  • Limited-liability laws gave protection to
    stockholders
  • Would only lose their share value in the event of
    bankruptcy
  • Middle classes now considered corporate
    investment promising

62
Rise of the Corporation
  • Larger corporations became necessary for survival
  • Focused mainly on the desire for increased
    profits
  • Shifted control from the family to distant
    bankers and financiers
  • Demand for technical expertise which led to the
    rise of technical degrees
  • Creation of the white collar class middle-level
    salaried managers, neither owners nor laborers
  • Consolidation of smaller businesses would protect
    industries from cyclical fluctuations and
    unbridled competition

63
Rise of the Corporation
  • Vertical integration
  • Industries controlled every step of production
  • From acquisition of raw materials to distribution
    of finished goods
  • Horizontal integration
  • Organized into cartels
  • Companies in the same industry would band
    together
  • Fixing prices and controlling competition
  • Coal, oil, and steel were particularly
    well-adapted
  • Dominant trend was increased cooperation between
    government and industry
  • Appearance of businessmen and financiers as
    officers of state

64
  • Carville Power Station Newcastle upon Tyne (c.
    1904)

65
International Economics
  • Rapid industrialization led to stronger
    competition amongst nations
  • Search for markets, goods, and influence fueled
    imperial expansion
  • Creation of an interlocking, worldwide system of
    manufacturing, trade, and finance
  • Trade barriers arose to protect home markets
  • All nations except Britain raised tariffs
  • Needs of nation-states trumped laissez-faire
    economics
  • Near-universal adoption of the gold standard
  • Allowed for the exchange of currency
  • Also allowed the use of a third country to
    mediate trade imbalances

66
European Balance of Payments
  • Development of free trade
  • Initiated by Britain after the repeal of Corn
    Laws in 1846
  • France adopted free trade in 1860
  • By 1914, most European countries adopted free
    trade
  • Most European countries imported more goods than
    they exported
  • Britain and other industrial countries (Europes
    inner zone) imported mainly raw materials for
    its manufacturing and food
  • This led to an unfavorable balance of trade
  • Big question how to pay for all the goods
    imported?
  • How to develop a favorable balance of payments?

67
European Balance of Payments
  • Invisible Exports
  • Included shipping and insurance and interested on
    money lent
  • Example British ship owners would be paid to
    bring goods to across the Atlantic
  • Development of insurance Lloyds of London
  • Helped bridge the gap in trade
  • Export of European capital
  • European financiers would invest in foreign
    companies
  • Included areas such as U.S., South America, and
    Asia
  • Europe also exported people to colonies
  • Mainly poorer classes would be used to help
    jump-start economies in the colonies

68
The Gold Standard
  • International economy was dependent on an
    international money system
  • Development of the gold standard
  • First adopted by England in 1821
  • 1 Sterling 113g of fine gold
  • Value of most European currencies remained stable
    through 1914
  • Problems
  • Gold production lagged behind expanding
    industries
  • Led to a fall of prices between 1870-1900
  • Farming class was hit hardest as they were
    constantly borrowing money

69
The Gold Standard
  • Some did benefit from falling prices
  • Included wage earners and wealthy
  • Financiers did well as the money they received in
    payments was worth more than the original loan
  • London was center of global economy
  • Benefitted from large indemnities post-Napoleon
  • Banks gave out loans for countries fighting in
    wars
  • Because they began the gold standard, many people
    outside of Britain kept their funds in British
    sterling
  • Also became the main center for currency exchange
  • Center of worlds shipping and international
    corporations

70
Labor Politics
  • Changes in the European working class
  • Workers resented corporate power
  • Labor unions had been frowned upon by European
    leaders
  • In the 18th century, extensive legislation was
    passed making them illegal
  • Even revolutionaries were against them
  • Changed with the rise of bourgeois liberalism
  • Unions started to become accepted and formally
    legalized in the second half of the 19th century
  • Bolstered by the prosperity of the 1850s

71
Labor Politics
  • New Model Unionism
  • Began in the 1850s in Britain
  • Restricted to a particular trade (e.g., coal
    miners) instead of all workers
  • Focused on the advancement of that specific trade
  • Took the unions out of politics
  • Gave labor power to negotiate wages and
    conditions of work
  • Leaders started working with employers to avoid
    strikes
  • Provided the framework for the socialist mass
    party
  • Industrial unionism
  • Brought unskilled workers into the ranks

72
Labor Politics
  • Britain led the pack in unions
  • Partially due to its advanced industrialism
  • Made it less socialist than its continental
    counterparts
  • Taff-Vale Decision (1901)
  • Court decision that stated a union was
    responsible for business losses during a strike
  • Opposition to this decision helped to bolster the
    Labour Party
  • Changes in national political structure
  • Opened the political process to new participants
  • New constituencies of working-class men
  • Labors struggle with capital cast on a national
    scale
  • Socialist organizations turned to reform

73
  • Membership form for the International Working
    Mens Association

74
Socialism After 1850
  • The Marxist appeal
  • Provided a crucial foundation for building a
    democratic mass politics
  • Made powerful claims for gender equality
  • The promise of a better future
  • First International (1864)
  • First meeting of the International Working Mens
    Association
  • Marx was eventually given leadership of the
    organization
  • Used it as means to publicize his ideas
  • Kicked out those whose ideas conflicted with his
    own
  • Believed workers should not negotiate with the
    state but take it over

75
Socialism After 1850
  • Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876)
  • Disagreed with Marx
  • Believed the state was the cause of workers
    problems
  • It should be attacked and abolished
  • Marx kicked him out of the First International in
    1872
  • Karl Marxs Das Kapital (1867)
  • Expanded upon the principles set forth in
    Communist Manifesto
  • Attacked capitalism in terms of political economy
  • A systematic analysis of production
  • Complete edition was not fully published until
    after Marxs death

76
Socialism After 1850
  • Reaction to the Paris Commune (1851)
  • Was looked upon with hope by the First
    International
  • Marx saw it as a precursor to the dictatorship
    of the proletariat
  • Ended up having a negative backlash against it
    instead
  • People associated Marxs ideas with violence and
    radicalism
  • Turned many people off
  • Britain would have nothing to do with Marxist
    supporters
  • Led to the end of the First International in 1876

77
Socialism After 1850
  • Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864)
  • German socialist who conflicted with Marxist
    ideas
  • Was willing to work with Bismarck to put through
    reforms
  • Founded the General German Workers' Association
    (ADAV) in 1863
  • Gotha Conference (1875)
  • Marxist socialists and Lassallean socialists put
    aside their differences
  • Merged the ADAV and the Social Democratic
    Workers' Party (founded 1869) into the SPD
  • Effective in helping spread socialism throughout
    Germany

78
Socialism After 1850
  • After 1880, socialist parties rose up throughout
    Europe
  • French Socialist parties
  • French Workers Party (1880) led by Jules Guesde
    called for strict Marxism
  • Federation of Socialist Workers of France (1882)
    led by Paul Brousse who wanted change through
    legislation
  • French Socialist Party (1902) led by Jean Jaurès
    who wanted to keep ties to the old revolutionary
    ideals
  • All were merged into the French Section of the
    Workers' International in 1905

79
Socialism After 1850
  • Other socialist parties
  • Belgian Socialist Party (1879)
  • Social Democratic Federation (1881) in England
  • Russian Social Democratic Party (1883) in Russia
    which would become the basis of communism
  • Second International (1889-1916)
  • Became the main organization of all the European
    socialist parties
  • Continued on the work of the First International
  • At its first meeting (July 14, 1889), 20
    countries participated
  • Met every three years until 1916

80
  • Jean Jaurès
  • (1859-1914)

81
Evolution of Socialism
  • Socialism post-1880 was inspired by Marx
  • Scientific socialism
  • Strongest in Germany and France
  • Unsuccessful in Italy, Spain, and England
  • Taming of socialism
  • Socialism became less revolutionary
  • Emerged as parliamentary socialism focused on
    reform
  • Wanted changes such as social insurance, minimum
    wages, maximum hours, and factory regulations
  • No workers impoverishment as Marx had predicted
  • Due to real wages dramatically increasing 50
    between 1870-1900

82
Evolution of Socialism
  • Revisionists
  • Believed that class conflict may not be
    inevitable
  • Capitalism may transform to benefit the working
    class
  • As long as workers had the vote, they did not
    need revolution
  • Supported in France by Jaurès
  • In Germany, Eduard Bernstein (18501932)
    published Evolutionary Socialism
  • Orthodox Marxism
  • First International argued that parliaments could
    be used as a forum but members were not allowed
    to run for office
  • One of the main reasons behind the split in
    Russian Marxism in 1903

83
Evolution of Socialism
  • Syndicalism
  • Demanded that workers share ownership and control
    of the means of production
  • The capitalist state must be replaced by workers
    syndicates or trade associations
  • Called for mass forms of direct action, including
    general strike and industrial sabotage
  • Popular among agricultural laborers in France,
    Italy, and Spain
  • Even after 1900 when wages stagnated, socialism
    remained moderate
  • Capitalists had created safer and better working
    environments
  • Higher standard of living
  • Were politically enfranchised

84
  • Women's Social and Political Union poster (1909)

85
Feminism (1880-1914)
  • By 1884, Germany, France, and Britain had
    enfranchised most men
  • Women relegated to status as second-class
    citizens
  • Received less pay then men
  • Had restrictions on owning private property,
    voting, and attending universities
  • Women pressed their interests through independent
    organizations and forms of direct action
  • On the continent, efforts were on legal and
    social reform
  • In Britain, it was on the right to vote
  • In 1888, American and European feminists
    established the International Council of Women

86
Feminism (1880-1914)
  • Feminism in Britain
  • Main organization was the Womens Social and
    Political Union (founded in 1903)
  • Wanted equal voting rights in both local and
    national elections
  • All their measures were turned down by Parliament
  • Emmeline Pankhurst (18581928)
  • Founder of the WSPU
  • Adopted tactics of militancy and civil
    disobedience
  • Women chained themselves to the visitors gallery
    in the House of Commons
  • Slashed paintings in museums
  • Disrupted political meetings
  • Burned the homes of politicians

87
Feminism (1880-1914)
  • In 1910, large protest was organized against
    Parliament
  • Led by Emmeline Pankhurst
  • Largest suffragette protest held in Britain up to
    this date
  • Turned into a six hour riot
  • Emily Wilding Davison (1872-1913)
  • Joined WSPU in 1906
  • Turned to the more militant aspect of the
    movement
  • When she was arrested, she went on hunger strike
    and had to be force fed
  • Bombed Lloyd George's house in Surrey in 1913
  • Died in 1913 after being run over by a horse at
    the Epsom Derby as part of a possible protest
  • She was seen as a martyr to the cause

88
Feminism (1880-1914)
  • Suffragettes did not receive any accolades
  • Were ridiculed by the media and Parliament
  • British government countered this violence with
    repression
  • Women did not get the right to vote in Britain
    until 1918
  • Only women over the age of 30 could vote
  • German Feminism
  • General German Womens Association was founded in
    1875
  • Pressed for educational and legal reforms
  • Wanted women to be educated so they could find
    gainful means of employment

89
  • Cartoon regarding the British womens suffrage
    movement
  • (c. 1913)

90
Changing Roles of Women
  • Campaign for womens suffrage helped redefine
    Victorian gender roles
  • Increase of middle-class women in the workplace
  • Worked as social workers and clerks, nurses and
    teachers
  • More jobs led to changes in clothing
  • Expansion of educational opportunities
  • British women established their own colleges at
    Oxford and Cambridge in the 1870s and 1880s
  • Impact on politics and reform
  • Women worked towards a variety of movements
  • Included poor relief, prison reform, temperance
    movements, abolition of slavery, education

91
Changing Roles of Women
  • The new woman
  • Demanded education and a job
  • Claimed the right to be physically and
    intellectually active
  • Opposition
  • Never exclusively male opposition
  • Mrs. Humphrey Ward believed women in politics
    would sap the strength of the empire
  • Christian commentators criticized suffragists
  • Others argued that feminism would dissolve the
    family

92
  • Charles Darwin
  • (1809-1881)

93
Birth of Evolution
  • Organic evolution by natural selection
    transformed the conception of nature itself
  • An unsettling new picture of human biology,
    behavior, and society
  • Jean Lamarck (17441829)
  • Behavioral changes could alter physical
    characteristics within a single generation
  • New traits could be passed on to offspring
  • Charles Darwin (18091882)
  • The Origin of Species (1859)
  • Five years aboard H. M. S. Beagle
  • Observed manifold variations of animal life

94
Birth of Evolution
  • Darwin theorized that variations within a
    population made certain individuals better
    adapted for survival
  • Drew on the population theories of Thomas Malthus
    (17661834)
  • Malthusian competition led to adaptation and
    ultimately survival
  • Used natural selection to explain the origin of
    new species
  • Applied to plant and animal species as well as to
    man
  • The Descent of Man (1871)
  • The human race had evolved from an apelike
    ancestor

95
Birth of Evolution
  • Darwinian theory and religion
  • Challenged deeply held religious beliefs
  • Sparked a debate on the existence of God
  • For Darwin, the world was not governed by order,
    harmony, and divine will but by random chance and
    struggle
  • Thomas Henry Huxley (18251895)
  • Biologist who championed Darwins theory
  • Argued against Christians appalled by the
    implications of Darwinism
  • Called himself an agnostic
  • Opposed to all dogma
  • Follow reason as far as it can take you

96
  • Thomas Henry Huxley
  • (1825-1895)

97
Impact of Darwinism
  • Darwinism had a large influence on many of the
    social sciences
  • Included sociology, psychology, anthropology, and
    economics
  • New ways of quantifying and interpreting human
    experience
  • Social Darwinism
  • Applied the ideas of evolution to human society
  • Once again, it was a struggle for existence with
    the only the fit surviving
  • Very popular in both Europe and America

98
Impact of Darwinism
  • Herbert Spencer (18201903)
  • Applied individual competition to classes, races,
    and nations
  • Coined the expression survival of the fittest
  • Condemned all forms of collectivism
  • Believed the individual who fit was
    all-important
  • Popularized notions of social Darwinism were easy
    to comprehend
  • Integrated into popular vocabulary
  • Justified the natural order of rich and poor
  • Nationalists used social Darwinism to rationalize
    imperialism and warfare
  • Also used to justify racial hierarchy and white
    superiority

99
  • Gregor Mendel
  • (1822-1884)

100
Genetics, Anthropology, and Psychology
  • Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
  • Austrian monk
  • Experimented with cross-pollination of garden
    peas
  • Explained how heredity works and how
    hybridization takes place
  • Became the foundation of genetics
  • Rise of Anthropology
  • Applied the theory of natural selection to
    evolution
  • Physical anthropologists worked on an analysis of
    superior races (e.g., those that survived
    evolution best)
  • Cultural anthropologists focused on a possibly
    superior culture
  • Discovered there was not one but everything was a
    matter of opinion

101
Genetics, Anthropology, and Psychology
  • Sir James Frazer (1854-1941)
  • Published The Golden bough
  • Examined how many practices of Christianity were
    not unique
  • Could be found in many pre-modern societies
  • Worked to undermine traditional religious beliefs
  • Psychology
  • Science of human behavior
  • Emerged in the 1870s
  • Analyzed the irrational and animalistic side of
    human nature
  • Would lead to upsetting implications about
    freedom and rationality

102
Genetics, Anthropology, and Psychology
  • Ivan Pavlov (18491936)
  • Classical conditioning
  • A random stimulus can produce a physical reflex
    reaction
  • Development of behaviorism focused on
    physiological responses to the environment
  • Sigmund Freud (18561936)
  • Viennese physician
  • Believed behavior largely motivated by
    unconscious and irrational forces
  • Unconscious drives and desires conflict with the
    rational and moral conscience
  • Believed the psyche drove all id, ego, and
    superego

103
  • Sigmund Freud
  • (1856-1939)

104
The New Physics
  • A revolution also took place in physics in the
    1890s
  • Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908)
  • French scientist who discovered radioactivity in
    1896
  • Occurred while he was investigating
    phosphorescence in uranium salts
  • Won the Nobel Prize in 1903
  • Marie Curie (1867-1934)
  • Gave the first theory of radioactivity that
    radiation emits from atoms themselves, not from
    any sort of reaction
  • Discovered two new elements polonium and radium
  • Also won the Nobel Prize in 1903

105
The New Physics
  • Max Planck
  • German physicist
  • Founder of quantum theory (1900)
  • Units of energy are emitted or absorbed in
    certain units or bundles (quantum)
  • Niels Bohr
  • Danish physicist
  • Developed the structure of the atom of a
    nucleus of protons with electrons revolving
    around the nucleus (1913)
  • Was awarded the Noble Prize in 1922 for his
    atomic work
  • Eventually will work on the Manhattan Project for
    the U.S.

106
The New Physics
  • Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
  • Earlier work was based on thermodynamics
  • Realized that matter could be turned into energy
    (emc2) in 1905
  • Theory of special relativity (1905) states that
    rest and motion are relative (not absolute) to
    the observer
  • Theory of general relativity (1915) unified
    Newton's law of universal gravitation and his own
    special relativity
  • Stated that gravity is a geometric property of
    space and time
  • Impact
  • Development of new science of nuclear physics

107
  • Albert Einstein
  • (1879-1955)

108
Modern Religion
  • Religion was displaced after 1870
  • Main cause was the growth of science
  • Also was attacked by Darwinists and
    anthropologists
  • Catholic church remained resistant to change
  • Went on the defensive
  • Pope Pius IX (1846-1878)
  • Syllabus of Errors (1864) denounced materialism,
    free thought, liberalism, science, and religious
    relativism
  • Reaffirmed the churchs belief in the
    supernatural and miracles
  • Convoked a church council (first one since
    Council of Trent in 1563)

109
Modern Religion
  • First Vatican Council (1869-1870)
  • Put forth the doctrine of papal infallibility
  • Denounced by the governments of several Catholic
    countries
  • Capture of Rome (1870)
  • Rome was captured by Italian nationalists during
    the Council
  • Popes refused to recognize the loss of Rome until
    1929
  • Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
  • Brought a more accommodating climate to the
    church
  • Declared socialism to be a Christian idea in
    principle
  • Acknowledged that there is good and evil in
    modern civilization
  • Added a scientific staff to the Vatican and
    opened archives

110
Modern Religion
  • Protestants
  • Little in the way of doctrine to help them defend
    their faith
  • Took on a very pragmatic attitude
  • Truth was whatever produced useful, practical
    results
  • If belief in God provided mental peace, then that
    belief was true
  • Division between modernists and fundamentalists
  • Modernists were able to embrace the ideas of
    science with the Bible being more allegorical
  • Fundamentalists believed in the literal word of
    the Bible and tended to deny science (found more
    in U.S. than in Europe)
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