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Digital Libraries In a Nutshell

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Title: Digital Libraries In a Nutshell


1
Digital Libraries In a Nutshell
Roy Tennant
The California Digital Library
2
Outline
  • The Vision
  • Definitions
  • Perspectives
  • Research
  • Production
  • Services
  • Collections
  • How to Keep Current

3
The Vision
  • Anyone, anywhere, will be able to easily locate
    and use any image, text, database, or other type
    of digital resource often in sophisticated ways
    or in association with other related objects
  • The only requirements
  • access to the Internet
  • authorization or payment if required

4
Definitions Part I
  • electronic
  • information stored and accessed by electronic
    devices
  • digital
  • information stored and accessed by computers (an
    electronic device)
  • virtual
  • in essence rather than in actual fact

5
Definitions Part II
  • From the Association of Research Libraries
    -http//sunsite.berkeley.edu/ARL/definition.html
  • Not a single entity
  • Requires technology to link the resources of many
  • Linkages are transparent to the user
  • Collections are not limited to document
    surrogates, but include items that are
    exclusively digital

6
Perspectives Research
  • Research Perspective
  • Goal to further knowledge
  • Participants computer science/library/information
    science faculty, a few line librarians
  • Example
  • U.S. Digital Library Initiatives (also called the
    National Science Foundation DL projects)

7
Sample Research Issues
  • Advanced search techniques
  • e.g., query by image content
  • Federation of large, disparate, and distant
    collections
  • Complex digital object behaviors
  • GIS overlays, moving image navigation, etc.

8
Perspectives Production
  • Production Perspective
  • Goal to create digital library collections and
    services
  • Participants libraries (mainly larger research
    libraries, but not exclusively)
  • Examples
  • Library of Congress American Memory
    (memory.loc.gov/)
  • eLib Programme (www.ukoln.ac.uk/services/elib/)
  • Digital Library Federation (www.clir.org/diglib/)

9
Production Issues
  • Services
  • Collections
  • Selecting
  • Acquiring
  • Organizing
  • Providing Access
  • Preserving

10
Services
  • The challenge providing services when and where
    they are needed
  • Examples
  • Guides to Internet resources
  • Librarians Index - lii.org/
  • KidsClick! - kidsclick.org/
  • Network-based reference
  • Reference 24x7 - 247ref.org/

11
Selecting Digital Material
  • The process
  • how do you discover what is available?
  • how can you evaluate the quality of resources?
  • how can cost effectiveness be determined? (books
    remain, databases frequently dont)
  • Considerations
  • Purchase or license agreement
  • funding source
  • infrastructure required
  • staff time to mount and maintain

12
Selecting Material to Digitize
  • Focus on unique materials that are likely to have
    broad interest
  • Build on strengths (seek critical mass)
  • Consider infrastructure required
  • Consider technical limitations

13
Acquiring Digital Collections
  • The digital acquisition continuum
  • New procedures and workflows are required
  • tape loading, scanning, format translation, etc.

mirroring
hosting
archiving
linking
LESS
MORE
Amount of Responsibility
14
Acquiring Non-Digital Collections
  • Digitization methods
  • scanner (flatbed, slide, handheld, etc.)
  • digital camera
  • low-resolution - US300-3,000
  • high-resolution - US25,000-35,000
  • Kodak PhotoCD
  • Additional step for text conversion
  • Optical Character Recognition or Re-keying

15
Acquiring Image File Formats
  • Archival version high-resolution TIFF
  • Online versions
  • Preview low-resolution GIF
  • Full medium-resolution JPEG
  • High med./high-resolution JPEG or TIFF
  • Up-and-coming MrSID, Flashpix, PNG

16
Acquiring Text File Formats
  • Original
  • MS Word, Adobe Pagemaker, etc.
  • Adobe Acrobat
  • Plain text
  • HTML
  • SGML or XML

17
Organizing Naming and Addressing
  • Object naming
  • Objects should be named in a fashion that
    promotes longevity (e.g., stay away from any kind
    of implied meaning)
  • Object addressing
  • URLs (www.w3.org)
  • DOI/Handles (www.cnri.reston.va.us)
  • PURLs (purl.org)
  • ARKs (www.ckm.ucsf.edu/people/jak/home/)

18
Organizing Metadata
  • Structured description of an object or collection
    of objects
  • Three basic types
  • descriptive e.g., title, creator, subject
    used for discovery
  • administrative e.g., resolution, bit depth
    used for managing the collection
  • structural e.g., table of contents page, page
    34, etc. used for navigation

19
Organizing Metadata
  • Appropriate standards or draft standards
  • Collection Level
  • Encoded Archival Description (EAD)
    -lcweb.loc.gov/ead/
  • Item Level
  • MARC
  • Dublin Core - dublincore.org
  • METS - www.loc.gov/standards/mets/

20
Providing Access
  • How can we make our resources easily available to
    a diversity of users with a multiplicity of
    purposes?
  • How can we integrate access to both print and
    digital resources?
  • How can we interoperate with other digital
    collections?

21
Preserving
  • Accepted preservation methods
  • Acid-free paper
  • microfilm
  • photographic reproduction
  • The digital preservation strategy
  • Storing
  • Refreshing
  • Migrating
  • The single most important aspect institutional
    commitment

22
Interoperability
  • The capability of two or more different digital
    collections to be used as one in a transparent
    fashion
  • One example
  • Open Archives Initiative http//www.openarchives.
    org/
  • Requires standards (at minimum) or a common
    platform

23
How to Keep Current
  • Electronic Discussions
  • DIGLIB www.ifla.org/II/lists/diglib.html
  • Web4Lib sunsite.berkeley.edu/Web4Lib/
  • XML4Lib sunsite.berkeley.edu/XML4Lib/
  • Publications
  • Digital Libraries column in LJ
    libraryjournal.reviewsnews.com
  • D-Lib Magazine www.dlib.org
  • Current Cites sunsite.berkeley.edu/CurrentCites/
  • RLG DigiNews www.rlg.org/preserv/diginews/
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