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Ukrainian culture as spiritual phenomena.

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Ukrainian culture as spiritual phenomena. Vladimir I Chose Eastern Orthodoxy Mongol Rule in Russia 13th century, Mongols conquered Russia & forced Russian princes to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ukrainian culture as spiritual phenomena.


1
  • Ukrainian culture as spiritual phenomena.

2
Germanic Kingdoms
  • Germanic people began moving into Rome in the 3rd
    century
  • Visigoths occupied Spain Italy until the
    Ostrogoths took control of Italy in the 5th
    century
  • By 500 Western Roman empire had became of
    states ruled by German kings
  • Germanic Angles Saxons Anglo-Saxons moved
    into Britain in 5th century
  • Clovis-Christian convert, established Frankish
    kingdom -500

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4
Germanic Kingdoms
  • Clovis converted to Christianity after calling
    for Jesus help during battle the enemy fled
    after the plea
  • Clovis gained support of the Roman Catholic
    Church
  • By 510, Clovis established Frankish kingdom from
    Pyrenees to present day Germany
  • After Clovis death, his sons divided the kingdom
  • Germans Romans intermarried German customs
    had an important role
  • Extended family was center of society

5
Clovis
6
Germanic Kingdoms
  • Extended families in German society worked
    together defended each other during violent
    times
  • Germanic law was personal, one injuring another
    led to a savage blood feuds
  • Wergild (money for a man) system was developed to
    avoid bloodshed after crimes such as murder/
    wrongdoer paid the injured partys family a set
    amount of money which varied by social status

7
Role of the Church
  • Christianity became main religion of Roman empire
    by 4th century
  • Roman church developed a system of organization
  • Priests was head of parishes local communities
  • Bishop was head of diocese - a group of parishes
    or bishopric
  • Archbishop head of groups of diocese
  • Bishop of Rome became known as Pope the head of
    what is now known as the Roman Catholic Church

8
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Pope
Patriarch
Archdiocese/Archbishop
Bishop/Diocese
______
Priest/Parish
10
Roman Catholic Church
  • Pope claim was based on the belief that Jesus
    gave Peter the keys to Heaven
  • Peter was considered to be the chief apostle
    the first bishop of Rome
  • Bishops who succeeded Peter were called popes
    Latin word for papa father
  • Western Christians accepted the pope as the
    churchs leader, but could not agree on the
    popes powers
  • Gregory I strengthened power by taking political
    control of Rome surrounding territories

11
Gregory I
12
Role of Church
  • Gregory pope from 590-604, extended papal
    authority over the Western Church actively
    converted non-Christians
  • Monk man who separates himself from the rest of
    the world to become closer to God/ Monasticism is
    the practice of living like a monk
  • Saint Benedict founded an order of Monks wrote
    rules for their practice
  • Benedicts rules divided the day into activities
    emphasizing prayer physical labor to keep monks
    busy

13
Role of Church
  • Monks meditated read privately/ They prayed
    together seven times a day
  • All aspects of Benedict life was communal
  • Abbot (father) ruled each Benedictine monastery
  • Monks were to obey the Abbot/ took a vowel of
    poverty/monks dedication made then new heroes of
    Christian civilization/ were social workers in
    communities
  • Monks spread Christianity throughout Europe/Irish
    English monks were enthusiastic missionaries

14
Role of Church
  • Nuns women who withdrew from the world to
    dedicate themselves to God
  • Nuns lived in convents headed abbesses
  • Abess Hilda founded a monastery in Whitby in 657
    where she educated five future bishops

15
St. Benedict
16

Roles
17

18
Nuns Monks
19
Charlemagne
  • 600 700s, Frankish kings lost their power to
    the chief officers of the kings household
    mayors of the palace
  • Pepin assumed the kingship
  • Pepins son became king after his death in 768
    son was Charles the Great Charlemagne
  • Charlemagne one of historys great kings/
    curious, driven, intelligent, strong warrior,
    devout Christian/ was illiterate, but strongly
    supported learning
  • Ruled from 768 to 814/ Expanded the Frankish
    kingdom into Carolingian empire covered much of
    western central Europe

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22
Charlemagne
  • Charlemagne established missi dominci (messengers
    of the lord king) two men who were sent to make
    for sure the kings wishes were followed
  • 800, he was crowned emperor of the Romans/ the
    coronation symbolized the coming together of the
    Roman, Christian, Germanic elements that forged
    European civilization
  • Carolingian Renaissance was promoted by
    Charlemagne desire to promote learning
  • Benedictine monks played important role in
    revival of learning

23
Early Weapons of Mass Destruction
24
Fall of Carolingian empire
  • Charlemagne died in 814/ by 844 Carolingian
    empire divided into 3 kingdoms by grandsons
  • Muslims invaded southern France
  • Magyars settled on the plains of Hungary
  • Vikings (Norsemen of Scandinavia) attacked the
    empire
  • Vikings were superb warriors shipbuilders/
    famed dragon ships carrying about 50 men could go
    shallow rivers to attack inland
  • 9th century, Vikings settled in Europe
  • 911, Frankish king gave Vikings land of Normandy

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27
Feudalism
  • Invaders posed a threat to the safety of the
    people due to decentralized government
  • People began to turn landed aristocrats or nobles
    for protection/ led to feudalism
  • Feudalism arose between 800-900/ similar system
    in Japan- Samurai
  • Vassalage center of feudalism/ came from
    Germanic society where warriors swore oath to
    their leader
  • Vassal man who served a lord militarily

28


Feudalism Military Service for Land

29
Feudalism
  • Knights heavily armored warriors
  • Male armor made of metal links or plates
  • Frankish army initially set up foot soldiers in
    mail
  • Heavily armored knights dominated warfare for
    over 500 years
  • Knights had great prestige formed much of
    European aristocracy
  • Early Middle Ages (500-1000) wealth was based on
    owning land/very little trade
  • Nobles gave a piece of land to vassals in
    exchange for fighting fief

30
Feudalism
  • Vassals had political authority in their fief/in
    charge of keeping order
  • Feudalism became complicated kings had vassals
    who had vassals
  • Feudal contract unwritten rules that
    characterized feudalism/relationship between king
    vassal/knights for about 40-60 days a year
  • Vassals were to advise the lord, financial
    obligations to the lord, knighting of his eldest
    son,
  • Lord supported the vassal with land grant
    protection in military court

31
Feudal Obligations
  • Vassals
  • Military service for 40-60 days.
  • Homage.
  • Serve on the lords court.
  • Gifts for weddings and knighthoods.
  • Ransom.
  • Lords
  • Protection.
  • Justice.
  • Wardship oversee personal affairs and family if
    vassal dies in service.

32
Page, Squire, Knight
33
Joust
34
Feudalism
  • Castles permanent residences fortresses/s
    increased in high middle ages(1000-1300)
  • Middle Ages nobles dominated European society/
    main concern was warfare
  • Nobles kings, dukes, counts, barons, bishops,
    archbishops
  • Knighthood united lords knights in
    aristocracy
  • Knights trained as warriors/ no adult
    responsibility
  • Young knights held tournaments to show their
    skills/ joust became main attraction

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37
Feudalism
  • 11th 12th century, under influence of Church-
    chivalry became important to knights
  • Chivalry civilized behavior, knights were to
    defend the church defenseless people, treat
    captives as honored guests, fight for glory not
    rewards
  • Women could own property, but were under control
    of men/ first their fathers, then their husbands
  • Lady of the castle in charge of household
    estate
  • Eleanor of Aquitane married to king Louis VII
    of France Henry II of England/ 2 children
    became kings of England

38
Eleanor
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40
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41
Alfred the Great Unified The Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy
42
England
  • King Alfred the Great united the various kingdoms
    of England that had been ruled by Anglo-Saxon
    kings
  • Angles, Saxons, Germanic people were united

43
Norman Conquest
  • 10/4/1066, William of Normandy defeated King
    Harold of England at the battle of Hastings
  • William was then crowned King of England
  • Norman knights received land as a fief and swore
    allegiance to the king
  • Marriage of French Anglo-Saxons led to a new
    English culture
  • Normans adopted Anglo-Saxon institutions office
    of sheriff, census called Domesday Book
  • William further developed taxation royal courts

44
William I, the Conqueror Brought Norman Feudalism
To England
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46
Henry II
  • Henry II enlarged English monarchy
  • Expanded the power of the royal courts kings
    power/increased of criminal cases tried on the
    kings court
  • Common law replaced law codes across the kingdom
  • Tried to control Church but failed
  • Thomas Beckett, archbishop of Canterbury said
    only Roman Catholic Church could try clergy
  • Four knights murdered Beckett, Henry was outraged
    backed down

47
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48
Magna Carta
  • English nobles resented the growth of the kings
    power/ rebellion was raised against King John
  • 1215, King John was forced to put his seal on the
    Magna Carta
  • Magna Carta feudal document, written
    recognition that the power of the king was
    limited
  • 13th century, under Edward I English parliament
    emerged
  • Parliament 2 knights from every county, 2
    people from every town, and all the bishops
    nobles throughout England

49
John Was Forced To Sign the Magna Carta in 1215
50
English Parliament
  • Eventually 2 houses were formed
  • Nobles church lords formed House of the Lords
  • Knights townspeoples House of Commons
  • Parliaments granted taxes passed laws

51
Edward I Called a Parliament Of Lords and Commons
52
French Kingdom
  • Kingdom of France was 1/3 of the former
    Carolingian empire
  • Hugh Capet was chosen to be king by west Frankish
    nobles establishing the Capetian dynasty
  • Capetians had little power only controlled the
    land around Paris/ Dukes had more power than
    kings
  • Phillip II of Augustus was the turning point in
    the French monarchy
  • Phillip waged war against England gained
    control of the Normandy, Maine, Anjou, Aquitaine

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French Kingdom
  • Phillip II successors continued to add land to
    the Kingdom
  • 13th century, Louis IX ruled/ deeply religious
    man who later made a saint by the Catholic
    church/Known for his attempts bring justice to
    his people
  • Phillip IV, Phillip the Fair, effective in
    strengthening the French monarchy expanding the
    royal bureaucracy
  • Phillip IV started a French parliament/Estates
    General

55
Louis IX
56
Philip IV Called the Estates- General to Raise
Taxes
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Holy Roman Empire
  • German kings attempted to rule both German
    Italian lands but struggled to do so
  • Fredericks attempt to conquer northern Italy
    caused problems
  • Pope opposed him fearing that he wanted to
    include Rome the papal states
  • Northern Italian cities did not want to be his
    subjects
  • Alliance of Italian cities pope defeated
    Frederick I in 1176
  • Frederick II also waged a war against the pope
    northern cities lost

59
Otto I
60
East Central Europe
  • Slavic people divided into 3 groups western,
    eastern, southern Slavs
  • Western Slavs formed the Polish Bohemian
    kingdoms
  • Poles, Czechs, Hungarians were all converted to
    Christianity by German Monks
  • Eastern Slavic people were converted to Orthodox
    Christianity by two Byzantine missionary
    brothers Cyril Methodius
  • Croats, Serbs, Bulgarians were converted to
    Eastern Orthodoxy

61
St. Cyril and St. Methodius
62
Russia
  • Eastern Slavic people settled in present day
    Ukraine Russia
  • 8th century, Swedish Vikings began to move in
    search of plunder trade routes
  • Vikings eventually dominated the native people
  • Vikings named it Rus where word Russia is
    derived

63
Kievan Rus
  • Oleg, Viking leader, settled in Kiev at the
    beginning of 10th century created principality
    of Kiev
  • Oleg successors expanded Kiev until it reached
    territory between Baltic Black Seas, Danube
    Volga rivers
  • Vikings married Slavic wives gradually
    assimilated into the Slavic population
  • Rus leader, Vladimir, married sister of Byzantine
    Emperor officially accepted the Eastern
    Orthodox Church for all the people in 988
  • Kievan Rus prospered up until invasions brought
    an end to the 1st Russian state in 1169

64
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65
Oleg
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67
Vladimir I Chose Eastern Orthodoxy
68
Mongol Rule in Russia
  • 13th century, Mongols conquered Russia forced
    Russian princes to pay tribute to them
  • Alexander Nevsky, prince of Novgorood, defeated a
    German army in northwest Russia in 1242
  • Khan, leader of Mongolia, rewarded Nevsky title
    of grand prince
  • Nevsky descendants became princes of Moscow
    eventual leaders of Russia

69
Alexander Nevsky, Prince Of Novgorod
70
Reign of Justinian
  • 5th century, Eastern Roman empire was centered
    around Constantinople
  • Justinian became emperor in 527/ determined to
    reestablish the Roman empire in the
    Mediterranean/ reached his goals by 552
  • 3 years after Justinians death, the Lombards
    conquered Italy most of the area that Justinian
    had controlled
  • Justinian created the Body of Civil Law code of
    Roman laws that was the basis of imperial law in
    Eastern Roman empire until its end in 1453

71
Constantinople
72
Emperor Justinian
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74
Beginning of Byzantine Empire
  • Justinians conquest left Eastern Roman empire
    with too much land to protect far from
    Constantinople
  • Arab Muslims were the biggest threat to Eastern
    Roman Empire
  • Islamic forces defeated an army of Eastern Roman
    at Yarmuk in 636 lost Syria Palestine
  • 679, Bulgars defeated the Eastern Roman empire
    took possession of the lower Danube Valley
  • 8th century, Eastern Roman empire was much
    smaller (Asia minor eastern Balkans)

75
Byzantine Empire
  • Both a Greek Christian state
  • Greek replaced Latin as the official language
  • Christian church became known as Eastern Orthodox
    Church
  • Byzantine emperor controlled the church the
    state
  • Emperor appointed the head of the church
  • Government religious officials were all bound
    together in the service of a spiritual ideal

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Life in Constantinople
  • Largest city in Europe in the Middle Ages
  • Based on trade until the 12th century/ Europes
    greatest center of Commerce
  • During Justinians reign, silkworms were smuggled
    from China to begin a silk industry
  • Hagia Sophia church of Holy Wisdom
  • Hippodrome arena where gladiator fights
    chariot races were held

78
Byzantine Empire
  • Macedonians ruled the Byzantine Empire from
    876-1081
  • Macedonians expanded the empire
  • Expanded trade relations w/ Western Europe
  • Late 11th century lot of political social
    disorder

79
EOC Catholic Split
  • Eastern Orthodox Church did not accept the popes
    claim as head of Church
  • 1054, Pope Leo IX Michael Cerularius (Head of
    Byzantine Church) excommunicated each other
  • Great Schism seperation between two great
    branches of Christianity

80
Byzantine Art Mosaics and Illuminated Manuscripts
81
Hagia Sophia
82
Crusades
  • 11th 13th centuries, European Christians
    carried out a series of military expeditions to
    take back the holy land from the Muslims
  • Seljuk Turks won the battle of Manzikert
    threatened Constantinople
  • Crusades began when Pope Urban II responded to
    the request of Alexius I to liberate Jerusalem
    Palestine
  • Urban II called for crusades _at_ infidels
  • Infidels were the non believers Muslims, Jews

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84
Alexius I Asked For Help and Urban II Called For
the First Crusade
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86
First Crusades
  • Mostly French knights captured Antioch in 1098
    Jerusalem in 1099
  • Massacred Muslim Jewish inhabitants
  • 4 Latin Crusader states were established that
    lasted 100 years
  • 1120s, Muslims began to strike back which led to
    another Crusade

87
2nd Crusade
  • The fall of a Latin Kingdom led to the call of
    another crusade
  • Saint Bernard of Clairvaux called for the crusade
    got the support of King Louis VII of France
    Conrad III of Germany
  • 2nd Crusade was a total failure
  • 1187, Jerusalem fell to Saladin
  • 3 important rulers then agreed to begin a third
    Crusade

88
Louis VII and Conrad III Respond To Bernard of
Clairvauxs Call For a Second Crusade
89

Saladins Capture of Jerusalem Sparked the Third
Crusade
90
3rd Crusade
  • Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard I
    (Richard the Lionhearted) of England, Phillip II
    of Augustus of France
  • Members of the 3rd arrived in the East by 1189
    encountered problems
  • Barbarossa drowned while swimming in a river
  • English French had success with their naval
    fleets against coastal cities, but failed as they
    moved inland
  • Richard I negotiated a settlement with Saladin to
    allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem

91
Philip II, Frederick I And Richard I Responded
92
4th Crusade
  • 6 years after the death of Saladin in 1193, Pope
    Innocent III initiated the 4th crusade
  • On their way to the East became involved a
    conflict with the Byzantine Empire over the
    succession to the Byzantine throne
  • Crusaders diverted to Constantinople sacked the
    city in 1204/ Byzantine empire was reestablished
    in 1261 but was never as powerful
  • Ottoman Turks eventually conquered Byzantine 190
    years later

93
Osman Founder Of the Ottoman Turks
Sultan Mahmet II Conqueror of Constantinople
94
Results of the Crusades
  • Increased wealth of Italian city-states like
    Genoa and Venice.
  • Began Jewish persecution and genocide.
  • Started the breakdown of feudalism and an
    increase in the power of kings.
  • Improved technology such as better ships and
    maps, and skills in siege techniques and weapons.
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