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Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE

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Title: Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4 Author: Stan & Cindy Hatfield Last modified by: Elizabeth Bartels Created Date: 12/18/2000 12:31:17 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE


1
Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE
  • Tarbuck Lutgens

?
2
Chapter 22
Origin of Modern Astronomy
3
Do Now
  • How does the red shift theory support the theory
    that the universe is continuing to expand?
  • If you had a pen pal that lived in a distant
    galaxy what address would you give him/her to
    send letters to?

4
Answers
  • Red shift is when waves of light get stretched
    and appear more red because the source of the
    light and the observer are moving away from each
    other
  • Milkyway Galaxy
  • Earth 3rd planet from the sun
  • Continent North America
  • Ms. Bartels
  • 1234 Pebble Rd
  • Apt 111
  • Charlotte NC 28269

5
Objective
  • Test Corrections
  • SWBAT Describe the accomplishments and
    discoveries made by early astronomers
  • Eratosthenes
  • Claudius Ptolemy
  • Nicolaus Copernicus
  • Tycho Brahe
  • Johannes Kepler
  • Galileo Galilei
  • Sir Isaac Newton

6
Test Corrections
My answer Correct answer Why my answer is incorrect
A C The lines of latitude run east and west. They are horizontal lines that run across the surface of our globe, which would indicate how far north or south we were from the equator.
T F The dependent variable is what is measured in an experiment. The independent variable is what you manipulate.
B D All of the above is the correct answer
?
?
X
7
22.1 Early Astronomy
? Astronomy is the science that studies the
universe. It includes the observation and
interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena.
? The Greeks used philosophical arguments to
explain natural phenomena.
? The Greeks also used some observational data.
8
Astrolabe
Used to track position of the sun and the stars
9
Calculating Earths Circumference
First successful attempt to establish the size of
the Earth Eratosthenes
Concluded that the circumference of the earth
must be 50 times the distance between the cities
Angles of noonday sun and 2 cities in Egypt
10
22.1 Early Astronomy
? Geocentric Model
In the ancient Greeks geocentric model, the
moon, sun, and the known planetsMercury, Venus,
Mars, and Jupiterorbit Earth.
? Heliocentric Model
In the heliocentric model, Earth and the other
planets orbit the sun.
11
Your Turn
  • In your notes sketch a geocentric model of the
    universe and a heliocentric model of the
    universe.
  • Write a caption for your sketches contrasting the
    different views

12
Check for understanding
  • Where did the early study of astronomy take
    place?
  • Answer
  • Greece

13
Geocentric and Heliocentric Models
14
22.1 Early Astronomy
? Ptolemaic System
Ptolemy created a model of the universe that
accounted for the movement of the planets.
Retrograde motion is the apparent westward
motion of the planets with respect to the stars.
15
Retrograde Motion
When viewed from Earth, Mars moves eastward among
the stars
Periodically it appears to stop and reverse
Retrograde motion Earth has a faster orbital
speed than Mars and over takes it
16
22.1 Early Astronomy
? Nicolaus Copernicus
Copernicus concluded that Earth is a planet.
He proposed a model of the solar system with the
sun at the center.
17
Check for understanding
  • What is retrograde motion?
  • Answer
  • The apparent westward motion of the planets with
    respect to the stars

18
22.1 Early Astronomy
? Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe designed and built instruments to
measure the locations of the heavenly bodies.
Brahes observations, especially of Mars, were
far more precise than any made previously.
19
22.1 Early Astronomy
? Johannes Kepler
Kepler discovered three laws of planetary
motion
1. Orbits of the planets are elliptical.
2. Planets revolve around the sun at varying
speed.
3. There is a proportional relationship between a
planets orbital period and its distance to the
sun.
20
22.1 Early Astronomy
? Johannes Kepler
An ellipse is an oval-shaped path.
An astronomical unit (AU) is the average
distance between Earth and the sun it is about
150 million kilometers.
21
Planet Revolution
22
22.1 Early Astronomy
? Galileo Galilei
Galileos most important contributions were
his descriptions of the behavior of moving
objects.
He developed his own telescope and made
important discoveries
1. Four satellites, or moons, orbit Jupiter.
2. Planets are circular disks, not just points of
light.
3. Venus has phases just like the moon.
4. The moons surface is not smooth.
5. The sun has sunspots, or dark regions.
23
The Solar System Model Evolves
Galileo observed Venus goes through phases
similar to the moon
Ptolemaic system orbit of Venus lies between the
sun and Earth
Copernican system Venus orbits the sun and all
phases visible from Earth
24
22.1 Early Astronomy
? Sir Isaac Newton
Although others had theorized the existence of
gravitational force, Newton was the first to
formulate and test the law of universal
gravitation.
? Universal Gravitation
Gravitational force decreases with distance.
The greater the mass of an object, the greater
is its gravitational force.
25
Count off 1-6
  • 1 Claudius Ptolemy
  • 2 Nicolas Copernicus
  • 3 Tyco Brahe
  • 4 Johannes Kepler
  • 5 Galileo Galilei
  • 6 Sir Isaac Newton

26
Astronomer brochure project
  • Where is he from?
  • Life span?
  • At least one image
  • Major Accomplishments/ Discoveries?

27
Exit Ticket
  • True or False? The greater the mass of an object
    the grater the gravitational force
  • Who discovered the 3 laws of planetary motion?
  • What is retrograde motion?

28
Gravitys Influence on Orbits
29
22.2 The EarthMoonSun System
? The two main motions of Earth are rotation and
revolution. Precession is a third and very slow
motion of Earths axis.
30
Stonehenge, an Ancient Observatory
31
22.2 The EarthMoonSun System
? Rotation
Rotation is the turning, or spinning, of a
body on its axis.
Two measurements for rotation
1. Mean solar day is the time interval from one
noon to the next, about 24 hours.
2. Sidereal day is the time it takes for Earth to
make one complete rotation (360º) with respect to
a star other than the sun23 hours, 56 minutes, 4
seconds.
32
Sidereal Day
33
22.2 The EarthMoonSun System
? Revolution
Revolution is the motion of a body, such as a
planet or moon, along a path around some point in
space.
Perihelion is the time in January when Earth
is closest to the sun.
Aphelion is the time in July when Earth is
farthest from the sun.
34
22.2 The EarthMoonSun System
? Earths Axis and Seasons
The plane of the ecliptic is an imaginary
plane that connects Earths orbit with the
celestial sphere.
Because of the inclination of Earths axis to
the plane of the ecliptic, Earth has its yearly
cycle of seasons.
35
The Ecliptic
36
22.2 The EarthMoonSun System
? Precession
Precession traces out a cone over a period of
26,000 years.
? EarthSun Motion
The solar system speeds in the direction of
the star Vega.
The sun revolves around the galaxy.
Earth is presently approaching one of its
nearest galactic neighbors, the Great Galaxy in
Andromeda.
37
Precession
38
22.2 The EarthMoonSun System
? Perigee is the point at which the moon is
closest to Earth.
? Apogee is the point at which the moon is
farthest from Earth.
39
22.2 The EarthMoonSun System
? Phases of the Moon
The phases of the moon are the progression of
changes in the moons appearance during the month.
Lunar phases are a result of the motion of the
moon and the sunlight that is reflected from its
surface.
40
Phases of the Moon
41
22.2 The EarthMoonSun System
? Lunar Motions
The synodic month is based on the cycle of the
moons phases. It lasts 29 1/2 days.
The sidereal month is the true period of the
moons revolution around Earth. It lasts 27 1/3
days.
42
22.2 The EarthMoonSun System
? Lunar Motions
The difference of two days between the synodic
and sidereal cycles is due to the Earthmoon
system also moving in an orbit around the sun.
The moons period of rotation about its axis
and its revolution around Earth are the same, 27
1/3 days. It causes the same lunar hemisphere to
always face Earth.
43
Lunar Motions
44
22.2 The EarthMoonSun System
? Solar eclipses occur when the moon moves in a
line directly between Earth and the sun, casting
a shadow on Earth.
? Lunar eclipses occur when the moon passes
through Earths shadow.
? During a new-moon or full-moon phase, the
moons orbit must cross the plane of the ecliptic
for an eclipse to take place.
45
Solar Eclipse
46
Lunar Eclipse
47
22.3 Earths Moon
? Craters
A crater is the depression at the summit of a
volcano or a depression produced by a meteorite
impact.
Most craters were produced by the impact of
rapidly moving debris.
Rays are any of a system of bright, elongated
streaks, sometimes associated with a crater on
the moon.
48
The Moons Surface
49
Formation of a Crater
50
22.3 Earths Moon
? Highlands
Most of the lunar surface is made up of
densely pitted, light-colored areas known as
highlands.
? Maria
Maria, ancient beds of basaltic lava,
originated when asteroids punctured the lunar
surface, letting magma bleed out.
A rille is a long channel associated with
lunar maria. A rille looks similar to a valley or
a trench.
51
22.3 Earths Moon
? Regolith
The lunar regolith is a thin, gray layer on
the surface of the moon, consisting of loosely
compacted, fragmented material believed to have
been formed by repeated impacts of meteorites.
52
Major Topographic Features of the Moon
53
22.3 Earths Moon
? The most widely accepted model for the origin
of the moon is that when the solar system was
forming, a body the size of Mars impacted Earth.
The resulting debris was ejected into space,
began orbiting around Earth, and eventually
united to form the moon.
54
Formation of Earths Moon
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