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MIS Project Management Chapter 8


Title: Chapter 10 Project Communications Management Author: Allmerica Financial Last modified by: MAx Created Date: 9/3/2002 2:23:59 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MIS Project Management Chapter 8

MIS Project Management Chapter 8
  • Project Human Resource Management

What is Project Human Resource Management?
  • The processes required to make the most effective
    use of the people involved with the project.
  • It includes all the project stakeholders-sponsors,
    customers, partners, individual contributors,
    performing organization, project and team

Project Human Resource Management Major Processes
  • Organizational Planning
  • Identify, document, and assign project roles,
    responsibilities, and reporting relationships
  • Staff Acquisition
  • Getting the human resources needed assigned to
    and working on the project
  • Team Development
  • developing individual and group competencies to
    enhance project performance

Organizational Planning Process
  • Usually done as part of the earliest project
  • Results should be reviewed throughout the project
  • Organizational planning is often tightly linked
    with communications planning
  • involves identifying, documenting and assigning
    project roles, responsibilities, and reporting

Organizational Planning Process Inputs
  • Project Interfaces
  • Organizational interfaces - formal and informal
    reporting relationships
  • Technical interfaces - relationships among
    different technical disciplines
  • Interpersonal interfaces - relationships among
    individuals on the project
  • Staffing Requirements - kinds of competencies and
    individuals needed and in what time frame

Organizational Planning Process Inputs Cont.
  • Constraints - factors that limit a project teams
    options such as
  • Organizational structure
  • Collective bargaining agreements
  • Preferences of the project management team
  • Expected staff assignments

Organizational Planning Types of Organizations
  • Functional - stove pipe/ managers and territories
    and no crossovers (do have a clear chain of
  • Project Expeditor - functional organization with
    recognition of project activities, PM reports to
    functional management
  • Project coordinator - PM reports to higher

Organizational Planning Types of Organizations
  • Weak Matrix - Functional managers and project
    managers in a matrix organization with all money
    done within the functions of the organizations
  • Strong Matrix - PMs have budget authority with
    firing/hiring/rewards decisions
  • Projectized - PM is a supervisor in control of
    all activities

Organizational Planning Process Tools and
  • Templates - Often prior projects role and
    responsibility definitions or reporting
    relationships can help expedite the process
  • Human Resource Practices - Knowledge of HR
    policies, guidelines, and procedures can help
    with organizational planning
  • Organizational Theory - Understanding
    organizational theory will better enable the PM
    to respond to project requirements
  • Stakeholder Analysis - Identification and
    analysis of needs of stakeholders will ensure
    that their needs will be met

Organizational Planning Outputs
  • Role and responsibility assignments
  • A responsibility Assignment Matrix is often used
    to closely link assignments to the project scope
  • Staffing management Plan
  • describes when and how human resources will be
    brought onto and taken off of the project team

Organizational Planning Outputs Cont.
  • Organization chart
  • Any graphic display of project reporting
  • Supporting detail - includes such detail as
  • Organizational impact
  • Job descriptions
  • Training needs

Human Resource Management Roles and
  • Roles and responsibilities
  • PMI states that it is the project managers
    responsibility to plan, estimate, and schedule a
    project, interface management and integration of
    our projects subsystems.
  • The teams role is to help plan what needs to be
    done (WBS), the project flow (Network Diagram),
    as well as to estimate times for their tasks.
  • Senior managements role is to approve the
    overall project plan, budget, and schedule and to
    approve any changes to these.

Human Resource Management Roles and
Responsibilities Cont.
  • Roles of a PM - Integrator, communicator, team
    leader, decision maker, and climate creator
  • Qualifications - works well with others
    experienced in particular areas of expertise
    (such as technical, contract negotiations,
    supervisory, etc.) level of education previous
    project management experience
  • PMs leadership skills - Directive, facilitating,
    coaching, supportive

Human Resource Management Responsibility Chart
  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix
  • A chart that cross references team members with
    the tasks they are to accomplish.
  • It may also cross reference team members and
  • NOTE The matrix does not show when people will
    do their jobs (time).

Human Resource Management Powers
  • Powers of the project manager
  • Formal (legitimate) - power based on your
  • Reward - Giving rewards
  • Penalty (coercive) - being able to penalize team
  • Expert - Being the technical or project
    management expert
  • Referent - Referring to the authority of someone
    in a higher position

Human Resource Management Powers
  • Powers of the project manager cont.
  • Purse string - whoever has the money has the
  • Bureaucratic - Because you know the system and
    how to work it you have the power
  • Charismatic - your power derives from your charm
  • PMI says the best forms of power are EXPERT and
    and PENALTY are powers derived from the PMs
    position in the company. EXPERT power is earned
    on your own

Staff Acquisition Process
  • Getting the needed human resources assigned to
    and working on the project
  • Ensure that the resources that are available will
    meet project requirments
  • Usually provided or supported heavily by the HR

Staff Acquisition Process Inputs
  • Staffing management plan
  • Staffing pool description - considering
    characteristics such as previous experience,
    personal interests, personal characteristics,
    availability, competencies and proficiency
  • Recruitment practices

Staff Acquisition Process Tools and Techniques
  • Negotiations - with responsible functional
    managers, with other project management teams
  • Pre-assignment - usually in the case of a
    competitive proposal and staff was promised, or
    for an internal service project
  • Procurement

Staff Acquisition Process Outputs
  • Project staff assigned
  • Project team directory

Team Development Process
  • Team development includes both enhancing the
    ability of stakeholders to contribute as
    individuals as well as enhancing the ability of
    the team to function as a team.
  • Team development on a project is often
    complicated when individual team members are
    accountable to both a functional manger and the
    project manager.

Team Development Process Inputs
  • Project staff
  • Project plan
  • Staffing management plan
  • performance reports - provide feedback to the
    project team about performance against the
    project plan.
  • external feedback - periodical measure against
    the expectations of those outside the project.

Team Development Process Tools and Techniques
  • Team-building activities
  • General management skills
  • reward and recognition systems
  • collocation
  • training

Team Development Process Outputs
  • Performance improvements - can come from many
    sources and affect many areas of project
    performance for example
  • Improvement in individual skills
  • Improvements in team behaviors
  • Improvements in either individual or team
  • Input to performance appraisals

Team Development Team Building
  • Concerted team building at the start of a project
  • Look for opportunities to build the team
    throughout the project
  • Team members need to be aware of
  • interdependent - work together
  • Consensus - together on project goals and
  • committed - working together in a positive way
  • Accountable - to the organization and roles that
    each has
  • conflict/competition - acknowledge ahead of time
    that their will be conflict and competition

Team Development Symptoms of Poor Teamwork
  • Frustration
  • Unhealthy competition
  • Unproductive meetings
  • Lack of trust in the project manager

Team Development Team Building Rules
  • Start early in team building
  • Do it early and often
  • Recruit the best people
  • Everyone is ON THE TEAM (including part-timers,
    vendors etc.) and they recognize themselves as
    on the team
  • PM needs to behave as a role model
  • Trust and delegate (dont try to force or
  • Process Plan ahead, negotiate for team members,
    organize the team and have a kickoff

Team Development Team Building Exercises
  • Needed to get team members motivated
  • Understanding various motivational theories
  • Know personnel issues

Team Development Motivation Theories
  • Maslow - Hierarchy of needs people dont work
    for security or money, they work to get a chance
    to contribute and to use their skills (highest
    level is self actualization)
  • McGregor - Theory of X / Y all people are either
    X (people need to be watched every minute) or Y
    (people are willing to work without supervision
    and want to achieve) theory Z (put a firm
    environment around Y workers)

Team Development Motivation Theories
  • Herzberg - Hygiene factors and motivating agents
  • Hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction such
    as working conditions, salary, personal life,
    relationships at work, security, status
  • Motivators - relate to increased satisfaction
    such as responsibility, self-actualization,
    professional growth, recognition
  • To retain or maintain team members need to think
    of hygiene factors but to really jazz members
    need to consider motivations
  • Expectancy theory - Employees who believe that
    their efforts will lead to effective performance
    and who expect to be rewarded for their
    accomplishments stay productive as rewards meet
    their expectations

Team Development Personnel Issues
  • Arbitration
  • Perquisites (perks usually more individualized) -
    Parking spaces, corner offices, work from home,
  • Fringe benefits - (generally everybody gets)
    Education, benefits, insurance, profit sharing
  • Halo effect - tendency to rate high or low all
  • War room - project team located in one room also
    called co-location

Human Resource Management Conflict
  • Conflict is unavoidable because of the
  • Nature of projects
  • Limited power of the project manager
  • Necessity for obtaining resources from the
    functional managers
  • Conflict can be avoided by Informing the team,
    clearly assigned tasks, making work assignments
    interesting and challenging

Human Resource Management Sources of conflict in
actual order of frequency
  • Schedules
  • Project priorities
  • Resources
  • Technical opinions
  • Administrative procedures
  • Cost
  • Personality

Human Resource Management Conflict management
  • Problem solving / confrontation (same thing)
    confrontation is usually the correct choice
  • Compromising - favorite mode for dealing with
  • Smoothing - de-emphasizing the opponents
  • Withdrawal - Retreat or postpone
  • Forcing - (worst method) JUST DO IT usually
    results in a stalemate
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