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Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 7 Bone Tissue & Chapter 8 The Skeletal System Targets: 1. Name the tissues and organs that compose the skeletal system. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anatomy and Physiology


1
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Chapter 7
  • Bone Tissue
  • Chapter 8
  • The Skeletal System

2
Targets
  • 1. Name the tissues and organs that compose the
    skeletal system.
  • 2. State the functions of the skeletal system.
  • 3. Describe four types of bones classified by
    shape.
  • 4. List and describe the cells, fibers, and
    ground substances of bone tissue.
  • 5. Compare the histology of the two types of bone
    tissue.
  • 6. Distinguish between the two types of bone
    marrow.
  • 7.Define and describe the axial and appendicular
    skeletons.
  • 8. State the approximate number of bones in the
    adult body.
  • 9. Define terms that denote surface features of
    bone.
  • 10. Identify and name the bones of the skull and
    their anatomical features.
  • 11. Describe the development of the skull from
    infancy including fontanels.
  • 12. Identify and describe the general features of
    the vertebral column.
  • 13. Describe the special features of vertebrae in
    different regions of the vertebral column and
    discuss the functional significance of the
    differences.
  • 14. Describe the anatomy of the sternum and ribs.
  • 15. Identify and describe the features of the
    bones in the pectoral girdle, and upper limb.
  • 16. Identify and describe the features of the
    bones in the pelvic girdle, and the lower limb.

3
Introduction
  • Osteology is the study of bones
  • Skeletal system consists of bones, cartilage, and
    ligaments
  • Bones are very active connective tissues
  • Each bone is made up of several types of tissue
  • Bone is an organ
  • Constantly remodels

4
Bone Structure
  • Bones differ in size and shape
  • Long levers
  • femur
  • Short move in multiple directions
  • carpals
  • Flat protect underlying tissue/organs
  • patella
  • Irregular dont fall in any other category
  • vertebrae
  • The shape of the bone allows it to function as it
    should

5
Compact Bone
  • Hard
  • The surface of bones
  • Cylinders formed from layers (lamellae) of matrix
    around central canal (osteonic canal)

6
Spongy Bone
  • Porous lattice of bony trabeculae
  • Trabeculae are oriented along lines of stress
  • Provides strength with little weight
  • More vascularized
  • Spongy with few osteons, not arranged in circular
    canals
  • Interior of bones and in epiphysis

7
Compact vs. Spongy
  • Compact
  • In osteons
  • Found in diaphysis
  • Spongy
  • Not arranged concentrically
  • In trabeculae
  • Found in epiphysis and major portions of bones

8
Bone Matrix
  • Composite of collagen fibers, proteins, and
    minerals
  • Minerals enable bones to resist compression and
    support weight
  • Proteins enable bones to bend slightly without
    breaking

9
Parts of a Long Bone
  • Epiphysis - expanded ends of the bone that forms
    the joint w/adjacent bones
  • Covered w/articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage)
  • Filled w/spongy bone
  • Reduces the weight of the skeleton
  • Diaphysis - shaft of the bone
  • Wall is made up of compact bone
  • Provides strength and resistance to bending
  • Contains a hollow medullary cavity
  • lined w/endosteum
  • filled w/yellow marrow
  • Periosteum is the tough layer of vascular
    connective tissue
  • Covers the bone and is continuous w/ligaments and
    tendons
  • Bony processes or grooves indicate places of
    attachment for muscles

10
Osseous Tissue
  • Contains four types of cells
  • Stem cells (osteogenic cells)
  • Osteoblasts
  • Matrix depositing cells
  • Osteocytes
  • Strain detectors
  • Enclosed in lacunae
  • Osteoclasts
  • Matrix dissolving cells

11
Microscopic Structure of Bone
  • Bone cells (osteocytes) are located w/in the
    lacunae (bony chambers)
  • Lacunae lie in concentric circles around central
    canals
  • These canals contains blood vessels and nerves
  • In compact bone, osteocytes and intercellular
    material are organized into osteons around a
    central canal
  • Osteons are cylinder-shaped units
  • Central (osteonic) canals contain blood vessels
    and nerves
  • Extend longitudinally through the bone
  • Connected by perforating canals that travel
    transversely

12
Bone Development and Growth
  • Bones in the fetus are formed by replacing
    connective tissue (ossification)
  • Some form w/in sheet-like layers of connective
    tissue (intramembranous bones)
  • Some replace masses of cartilage (endochondral
    bones)
  • Most bones are these

13
Intramembranous Bones
  • Flat bones of the skull
  • Develop from layers of connective tissue
    (embryonic mesenchyme)
  • Cells of the membranous connective tissue that
    lie outside the developing bone give rise to the
    periosteum
  • Osteoblasts deposit an organic matrix that
    transforms the mesenchyme into soft collagenous
    osteoid tissue
  • Osteoblasts then deposit calcium salts that
    harden the osteoid tissue and transform it to
    spongy bone
  • The surface of this bone is gradually filled with
    calcified matrix to become compact bone

14
Endochondral Bones
  • Most bones are these
  • First develop as hyaline cartilage and then are
    replaced by bone
  • Begins w/enlargement of lacunae and death of
    chondrocytes in the primary ossification center
  • Primary ossification center then hollows out to
    from primary marrow space
  • Osteoblasts populate this space and create spongy
    bone
  • Secondary ossification centers appear in the
    epiphysis
  • Mature bones remodel throughout life

15
Endochondral Bone
16
Draw a long bone
  • Draw the structure of a long bone including the
    following structures
  • Epiphyseal disks
  • Epiphyses
  • Diaphysis
  • Articular cartilage
  • Spongy bone
  • Compact bone
  • Medullary canal
  • Periosteum

17
Homeostasis of Bone Tissue
  • Osteoclasts tear down bone
  • Osteoblasts build bone
  • An average of 3-5 of bone is replaced yearly

18
Bone Development and Repair
  • d/o the following
  • Nutrition
  • Need Ca, P, and other minerals
  • Need vitamin A and D
  • Hormone
  • Growth hormones etc.
  • Exercise
  • Stressing the bones
  • Aging
  • Loss of Ca as age increases

19
Bone Functions
  • Bone has many functions including
  • Support and protection
  • Movement
  • Blood cell formation
  • Storage of inorganic salts
  • Lg. amounts of CaPO4
  • Sm. amounts of Mg, Na, K, CO3-2

20
Support and Function
  • Bones give shape to the head, thorax, and limbs
  • Bones of the pelvis and lower limbs provide
    support
  • Bones of the head protect the brain, ears, and
    eyes

21
Movement
  • Bones act as levers
  • Move against resistance

22
Blood Cell Formation
  • Two kinds of marrow occupy the medullary cavities
    of bone
  • Red marrow
  • Functions in formation of RBC, WBC, and platelets
  • Found in spongy bone
  • Yellow marrow
  • Stores fat
  • Occupies cavities of most bones

23
Storage of Inorganic Salts
  • Stored in the matrix of bone in the form of
    calcium phosphate
  • 70 of weight of bone matrix
  • Calcium is released from the bone when the blood
    levels are low
  • Calcium is stored under the influence of
    calcitonin (parathyroid hormone) when blood
    levels are high
  • Bone also stores Mg, Na, K, and carbonate ions
  • Bones can also accumulate harmful elements
  • Lead, radium, and strontium

24
Skeletal Organization
  • 206 total bones
  • Axial skeleton
  • Consists of skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column,
    ribs and sternum
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Pectoral girdle
  • Scapula and clavicle
  • Upper limbs
  • Humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals,
    phalanges
  • Pelvic girdle
  • Coccyx, sacrum
  • Lower limbs
  • Femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals,
    metatarsals, and phalanges
  • Skeletal Video

25
Surface Features of Bones
26
Skull
  • 22 bones joined together by sutures
  • Cranial bones surround cranial cavity
  • 8 bones in contact with meninges
  • calvaria (skullcap) forms roof and walls
  • Facial bones support teeth and form nasal cavity
    and orbit
  • 14 bones with no direct contact with brain or
    meninges
  • attachment of facial and jaw muscles

27
Cranium
  • Encloses and protects the brain
  • Provides attachments for muscles
  • Contains air-filled sinuses
  • That reduce weight
  • Includes
  • Frontal bone
  • Parietal bone (2)
  • Occipital bone
  • Temporal bone (2)
  • Sphenoid bone
  • Ethmoid bone

28
Facial Bones
  • Maxilla (2) form the upper jaw
  • Hard palate, maxillary sinuses
  • Palatine bone (2) L-shaped bones located behind
    maxilla
  • Form floor of the nasal cavity and hard palate
  • Zygomatic bone (2) make up the cheek bones
  • Form zygomatic arch w/the temporal bones
  • Lacrimal bone (2) form part of the medial
    walls of the orbits
  • Nasal bone (2) form bridge of the nose
  • Inferior nasal conchae (2) scroll-shaped bones
    that support mucous membranes w/in the nasal
    cavity
  • Vomer makes up a portion of the nasal septum
  • Mandible lower jaw bone
  • Form the basic face and provide attachments for
    muscles of mastication and expression

29
Frontal Bone
  • Forms forehead and part of the roof of the
    cranium
  • Forms roof of the orbit
  • Contains frontal sinus

30
Parietal Bone
  • Cranial roof and part of its lateral walls
  • Bordered by 4 sutures
  • coronal, sagittal, lambdoid and squamous
  • Temporal lines of temporalis muscle

Temporal lines
31
Temporal Bone
  • Lateral wall and part of floor of cranial cavity
  • squamous part
  • zygomatic process
  • mandibular fossa and TMJ
  • tympanic part
  • external auditory meatus
  • styloid process
  • mastoid part
  • mastoid process
  • mastoiditis from ear infection

32
Petrous Portion of Temporal Bone
  • Part of cranial floor
  • separates middle from posterior cranial fossa
  • Houses middle and inner ear cavities
  • receptors for hearing and sense of balance
  • internal auditory meatus opening for CN VII
    (vestibulocochlear nerve)

33
Right Temporal Bone
34
Openings in Temporal Bone
  • Carotid canal
  • passage for internal carotid artery supplying the
    brain
  • Jugular foramen
  • irregular opening between temporal and occipital
    bones
  • passageway for drainage of blood from brain to
    internal jugular vein

35
Occipital Bone
  • Rear and base of skull
  • Foramen magnum holds spinal cord
  • Skull rests on atlas at occipital condyles

36
Sphenoid Bone
  • Lesser wing
  • Greater wing
  • Body of sphenoid
  • Medial and lateral pterygoid processes

37
Sphenoid Bone
  • Body of the sphenoid
  • sella turcica
  • houses pituitary gland
  • Lesser wing
  • optic foramen
  • Greater wing
  • foramen rotundum and ovale for brs. trigeminal
    nerve

38
Sphenoid Bone
  • Sphenoid sinus

39
Ethmoid Bone
  • Between the orbital cavities
  • Lateral walls and roof nasal cavity
  • Cribriform plate and crista galli
  • Ethmoid air cells form ethmoid sinus
  • Perpendicular plate forms part of nasal septum
  • Concha on lateral wall

40
Ethmoid Bone
  • Superior and middle concha
  • Perpendicular plate of nasal septum

41
Maxillary Bones
  • Forms upper jaw
  • alveolar processes are bony pointsbetween teeth
  • alveolar sockets hold teeth
  • Forms inferomedial wall of orbit
  • infraorbital foramen
  • Forms anterior 2/3sof hard palate

42
Locations of Paranasal Sinuses
  • Maxillary sinus fills maxillae bone
  • Other bones containing sinuses are frontal,
    ethmoid and sphenoid.

43
Palatine Bones
  • L-shaped bone
  • Posterior 1/3 of the hard palate
  • Part of lateral nasal wall
  • Part of the orbital floor

44
Zygomatic Bones
  • Forms angles of the cheekbones and part of
    lateral orbital wall
  • Zygomatic arch is formed from temporal process of
    zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of temporal
    bone

45
Lacrimal Bones
  • Form part of medial wall of each orbit
  • Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac in life
  • tears collect in lacrimal sac and drain into
    nasal cavity

46
Nasal Bones
  • Forms bridge of nose and supports cartilages of
    nose
  • Often fractured by blow to the nose

47
Inferior Nasal Conchae
  • A separate bone
  • Not part of ethmoid like the superior and middle
    concha or turbinates

48
Vomer
  • Inferior half of the nasal septum
  • Supports cartilage of nasal septum

49
Mandible
  • Only movable bone
  • jaw joint between mandibular fossaand condyloid
    process
  • Holds the lower teeth
  • Attachment of muscles of mastication
  • temporalis muscle onto coronoid process
  • masseter muscle onto angle of mandible
  • Mandibular foramen
  • Mental foramen

50
Mandible
51
Bones Associated With Skull
  • Auditory ossicles
  • malleus, incus, and stapes
  • Hyoid bone
  • suspended from styloid process of skull by muscle
    and ligament

52
Skull in Infancy and Childhood
  • Spaces between unfused bones called fontanels
  • filled with fibrous membrane
  • allow shifting of bones during birth and growth
    of brain
  • Is incompletely developed
  • Features fontanels (soft spots)
  • Allow passage through birth canal
  • Other features include
  • Small face
  • Prominent forehead
  • Large orbits
  • 2 frontal bones fuse by age six (metopic suture)
  • Skull reaches adult size by 8 or 9
  • Animation - Skull

53
Vertebral Column
  • From skull to pelvis
  • Forms the vertical axis of the skeleton
  • Composed of 26 vertebrae
  • Separated by intervertebral disks
  • Vertebrae support the weight of the head and
    trunk
  • Provide attachments for muscles
  • Intervertbral foramina provides passageways for
    spinal nerves
  • Includes five regions
  • Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx

54
General Structure of Vertebra
  • Body
  • Vertebral foramen form vertebral canal
  • Neural arch
  • 2 lamina
  • 2 pedicles
  • Processes
  • spinous, transverse and articular

55
Intervertebral Foramen and Discs
  • Intervertebral foramen
  • Notches between adjacent vertebrae
  • passageway for nerves
  • Intervertebral discs
  • bind vertebrae together
  • absorb shock
  • gelatinous nucleus pulposus surrounded by anulus
    fibrosus (ring of fibrocartilage)
  • herniated disc pressures spinal nerve or cord

56
Atlas and Axis
  • Atlas (C1) supports the skull
  • concave superior articular facet
  • nod your head in yes movement
  • ring surrounding large vertebral foramen
  • anterior and posterior arch
  • no vertebral body
  • Axis (C2)
  • dens or odontoid process is held in place inside
    the vertebral foramen of the atlas by ligaments
  • allows rotation of head -- no

57
Cervical Region
  • 7 bones
  • Smallest of the vertebrae
  • Comprise the neck
  • Support the head
  • Small body and larger vertebral foramen
  • Transverse process short with transverse foramen
    for protection of vertebral arteries
  • Bifid or forked spinous process in C2 to C6

58
Thoracic Region
  • 12 bones
  • Spinous processes are pointed and angled downward
  • Lack transverse foramin
  • Larger body than cervical but smaller than lumbar
  • Articulate w/the ribs
  • Rib attachment
  • costal facets on vertebral body and at ends of
    transverse processes for articulation of ribs

59
Lumbar Region
  • 5 bones
  • Largest vertebrae
  • Support the weight of the body
  • Short, blunt, horizontal spinous processes
  • Lack transverse foramin
  • lumbar region resistant to twisting movements

60
Saccrum
  • Triangular structure at the base of the vertebral
    column
  • 5 sacral vertebrae fuse by age 26
  • Anterior surface
  • smooth and concave
  • sacral foramina were intervertebral foramen
  • Provide passage for nerves and blood vessels
  • 4 transverse lines indicate line of fusion of
    vertebrae

61
Coccyx
  • Lowermost portion of the vertebral column
  • Single, small bone
  • 4 vertebrae fused by 30
  • Co1 to Co4
  • Attachment site for muscles of pelvic floor
  • Fractured by fall or during childbirth

62
Thoracic Cage
  • Consists of thoracic vertebrae, sternum and ribs
  • Attachment site for pectoral girdle and many limb
    muscles
  • Protects many organs
  • Rhythmically expanded by respiratory muscles to
    draw air into the lungs

63
Rib Structure
Tubercle Head
  • Flat blade called a shaft
  • inferior margin has costal groove for nerves and
    vessels
  • Proximal head and tubercle are connected by neck
  • Articulation
  • head with body of thoracic vertebrae
  • tubercle with transverse process

64
Ribs
  • 12 pair
  • 1-7 true ribs
  • Join the sternum directly
  • 8-12 false ribs
  • 8-10 pair are vertebrochondral
  • 11-12 floating ribs

65
Sternum
  • Breastbone
  • Located along the anterior midline of the
    thoracic cage
  • Articulates w/clavicle
  • Consists of three parts
  • Upper manubrium
  • Middle body
  • Lower xiphoid process

66
Pectoral Girdle
  • Attaches upper extremity to the body
  • Scapula and clavicle
  • Clavicle attaches medially to the sternum and
    laterally to the scapula
  • sternoclavicular joint
  • acromioclavicular joint
  • Scapula articulates with the humerus
  • humeroscapular or shoulder joint
  • easily dislocated due to loose attachment

67
Clavicle and Scapula
  • Clavicle
  • S-shaped bone located at the base of the neck
  • Brace the scapulae
  • Scapula
  • Flat, triangular bones on either side of the
    upper back
  • Articulates w/the head of the humerus
  • Consists of a spine, acromion process, coracoid
    process, glenoid cavity, infraspinous fossa,
    supraspinous process, subscapular fossa

68
Scapular Features
69
Upper Limb
  • Form the framework for the arm, forearm, and hand
  • 30 bones per limb
  • Brachium (arm) humerus
  • Antebrachium (forearm) radius and ulna (radius
    on thumb side)
  • Carpus (wrist) 8 small bones
  • Manus (hand) 19 bones
  • 5 metacarpals in palm
  • 14 phalanges in fingers

70
Humerus
  • Upper arm bone
  • Extends from scapula to elbow
  • Articulates w/the scapula at its head and the
    radius and ulna at the elbow
  • Hemispherical head
  • Anatomical neck
  • Greater and lesser tubercles and deltoid
    tuberosity
  • Intertubercular groove holds biceps tendon
  • Rounded capitulum articulates with radius
  • Trochlea articulates with ulna
  • Olecranon fossa holds olecranon process of ulna
  • Forearm muscles attach to medial and lateral
    epicondyles

71
Radius
  • Located on the thumb side of the forearm
  • Extends from elbow to wrist
  • Flattened head articulates w/the humerus

72
Ulna
  • Longer of the two lower arm bones
  • Trochlear notch articulates w/the humerus
  • radial notch holds ulna

73
Wrist
  • Wrist consists of 8 carpal bones
  • 2 rows (4 bones each)
  • proximal row scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum and
    pisiform
  • distal row trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and
    hamate

74
Hand
  • Phalanges are bones of the fingers (14)
  • thumb or pollex has proximal and distal phalanx
  • fingers have proximal, middle and distal phalanx
  • Metacarpals are bones of the palm (5)
  • base, shaft and head

75
Sesamoid Bone
76
Pelvic Girdle
  • Supports the trunk on the lower limbs and
    protects the lower abdominal and pelvic organs
  • Girdle 2 hip bones (os coxae)
  • Pelvis hip bones and sacrum
  • Each os coxae is joined tothe vertebral column
    at thesacroiliac joint
  • Anteriorly, pubic bones are joined by pad of
    fibrocartilage to form pubic symphysis

77
Coxal Bones
  • Consist of three bones
  • Iilium largest and most superior portion
  • Joins the sacrum at the sacroiliac jt
  • Iliac crest and iliac fossa
  • Greater sciatic notch contains sciatic nerve
  • Ischium forms the L-shaped portion that
    supports weight when sitting
  • ischial tuberosity bears body weight
  • ischial spine
  • lesser sciatic notch between ischial spine and
    tuberosity
  • ischial ramus joins inferior pubic ramus
  • Pubis anterior portion articulates at the pubic
    symphysis
  • Structure is different btwn males and females
  • All three are fused
  • Acetabulum is hip joint socket

78
Comparison of Male and Female
  • Female lighter, shallower pubic arch( gt100
    degrees), and pubic inlet round or oval
  • Male heavier, upper pelvis nearly vertical,
    coccyx more vertical, and pelvic inlet
    heart-shaped

79
Lower Limb
  • Provide the framework for the thigh, lower leg,
    and foot
  • Form the framework for the leg, lower leg, and
    foot
  • 30 bones per limb
  • Femoral (thigh) femr
  • Crural (lowerleg) tibia and fibula (lateral
    side)
  • Tarsus (ankle) 6 bones
  • Pedal (foot) 19 bones
  • 5 metatarsals in foot
  • 14 phalanges in toes

80
Femur
  • Thighbone
  • Extends from hip to the knee
  • Longest, largest, strongest bone in the body
  • Head articulates w/the acetabulum and medial and
    lateral condyles articulate w/the tibia
  • Nearly spherical head and constricted neck
  • ligament to fovea capitis
  • Greater and lesser trochanters for muscle
    attachment
  • Posterior ridge called linea aspera
  • Medial and lateral condyles and epicondyles found
    distally

81
Patella
  • Knee cap
  • Sesmoid bone located in the patella tendon that
    passes over the knee

82
Tibia
  • Shin bone
  • Supports the weight of the body
  • Articulates w/the femur and tarsal bones
  • Broad superior head with 2 flat articular
    surfaces
  • medial and lateral condyles
  • roughened anterior surface palpated below
    patella
  • tibial tuberosity
  • distal expansion medial malleolus

83
Fibula
  • Slender bone lateral to the tibia
  • Stabilizes ankle
  • Does not bear any body weight
  • Head proximal end
  • Joined to tibia by interosseous membrane
  • Lateral malleolus distal expansion

84
Ankle and Foot
  • Ankle consists of seven tarsal bones that form a
    tarsus
  • Talus is most superior tarsal bone
  • forms ankle joint with tibia and fibula
  • sits upon calcaneus and articulates with
    navicular
  • Calcaneous (heel bone) supports the body weight
  • Instep of the foot consists of five metatarsal
    bones that form the arch
  • cuboid, medial, intermediate and lateral
    cuneiforms
  • Tarsal bones are shaped and arranged differently
    from carpal bones due to load-bearing role of the
    ankle

85
The Foot
  • Remaining bones of foot are similar in name and
    arrangement to the hand
  • Metatarsals (5)
  • Metatarsal I is proximal to the great toe
    (hallux)
  • base, shaft and head
  • Phalanges
  • 2 in great toe
  • Proximal and distal
  • 3 in all other toes
  • proximal, middle and distal

86
Foot Arches
  • Sole of foot not flat on ground
  • 3 springy arches absorb stress
  • medial longitudinal arch from heel to hallux
  • lateral longitudinal arch from heel to little toe
  • transverse arch across middle of foot
  • Arches held together by short, strong ligaments

87
Left vs. Right
  • Make sure you can tell the difference between a
    bone from the right side of the body vs the left
    side.

88
Review
  • 1. Name the tissues and organs that compose the
    skeletal system.
  • 2. State the functions of the skeletal system.
  • 3. Describe four types of bones classified by
    shape.
  • 4. List and describe the cells, fibers, and
    ground substances of bone tissue.
  • 5. Compare the histology of the two types of bone
    tissue.
  • 6. Distinguish between the two types of bone
    marrow.
  • 7.Define and describe the axial and appendicular
    skeletons.
  • 8. State the approximate number of bones in the
    adult body.
  • 9. Define terms that denote surface features of
    bone.
  • 10. Identify and name the bones of the skull and
    their anatomical features.
  • 11. Describe the development of the skull from
    infancy including fontanels.
  • 12. Identify and describe the general features of
    the vertebral column.
  • 13. Describe the special features of vertebrae in
    different regions of the vertebral column and
    discuss the functional significance of the
    differences.
  • 14. Describe the anatomy of the sternum and ribs.
  • 15. Identify and describe the features of the
    bones in the pectoral girdle, and upper limb.
  • 16. Identify and describe the features of the
    bones in the pelvic girdle, and the lower limb.
  • Assignment
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