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Second Language Acquisition and Oral Language Development

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Second Language Acquisition and Oral Language Development Educ 388 Language Policies and Practices Jan. 31, 2008 Objectives STUDENTS WILL be able to . – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Second Language Acquisition and Oral Language Development


1
Second Language Acquisition and Oral Language
Development
  • Educ 388
  • Language Policies and Practices
  • Jan. 31, 2008

2
Objectives
  • STUDENTS WILL be able to.
  • 1. State CELDT proficiency levels identify at
    least 1-2 characteristics of each
  • 2. State how expectations and prompts can be
    adjusted according to proficiency levels
  • 3. State 4-5 key issues in second language
    acquisition and how they might be useful in
    supporting English Language Development.
  • 4. State the role of the state English Language
    Development Standards and how they came about in
    relation to the English Language Arts Standards.
  • 5. Use information from the lecture to help
    complete Assignment 2

3
Todays line-up
  • Claude.
  • Second language development levels (SOLOM, CELDT)
  • Adjusting questioning strategies by levels
  • Language development and reading development
  • Kenji
  • (wrap up some topics from last week)
  • Language instruction
  • California ELD standards
  • ELD standards and the policy context

4
Second language development
  • 4 levels (natural approach cartoons)
  • Cartoons provide global view
  • SOLOM provides analytical view of 5 dimensions or
    aspects of language

Comprehension Pronunciation
Fluency Grammar
Vocabulary
5
Debrief student ELD level
  • Use SOLOM, notes from your interview
  • Discuss with partner your initial assessment
    students ELD level
  • Give reasons for your assessment
  • Be prepared to share out with class

6
California English Language Development Test
(CELDT)
  • Standardized test given to all students who speak
    a language other than English at home
  • Must be administered within 30 days of first
    enrollment in a CA school (site coordinator)
  • K-1 oral language only gr 2 up, reading and
    writing added
  • Required for accountability purposes
    (redesignation and yearly progress)

7
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels
SOLOM SCORE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT (ELD) LEVEL ESTIMATED CELDT LEVEL (ORAL PROFICIENCY ONLY)
1-5 Preproduction/ Early production Beginning
12-16 Speech Emergence Early Intermediate
17-20 Intermediate fluency Intermediate
21-25 Advanced fluency Advanced
(see CELDT Proficiency Level Descriptions)
8
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels sort of
SOLOM SCORE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT (ELD) LEVEL ESTIMATED CELDT LEVEL (ORAL PROFICIENCY ONLY)
1-5 1. Preproduction/ 2. Early production 1. Beginning
12-16 3. Speech Emergence 2. Early Intermediate
17-20 4. Intermediate fluency 3. Intermediate
21-25 (5.) Advanced fluency 5. Advanced
9
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels sort of
SOLOM SCORE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT (ELD) LEVEL ESTIMATED CELDT LEVEL (ORAL PROFICIENCY ONLY)
1-5 1. Preproduction/ 2. Early production 1. Beginning
12-16 3. Speech Emergence 2. Early Intermediate
17-20 4. Intermediate fluency 3. Intermediate
21-25 (5.) Advanced fluency 5. Advanced
4. Early Advanced
10
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels sort of
SOLOM SCORE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT (ELD) LEVEL ESTIMATED CELDT LEVEL (ORAL PROFICIENCY ONLY)
1-5 1. Preproduction/ 2. Early production 1. Beginning
12-16 3. Speech Emergence 2. Early Intermediate
17-20 4. Intermediate fluency 3. Intermediate
21-25 (5.) Advanced fluency 5. Advanced
4. Early Advanced
11
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels sort of
SOLOM SCORE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT (ELD) LEVEL ESTIMATED CELDT LEVEL (ORAL PROFICIENCY ONLY)
1-5 1. Preproduction/ 2. Early production 1. Beginning
12-16 3. Speech Emergence 2. Early Intermediate
17-20 4. Intermediate fluency 3. Intermediate
21-25 (5.) Advanced fluency 5. Advanced
4. Early Advanced
12
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels sort of
SOLOM SCORE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT (ELD) LEVEL ESTIMATED CELDT LEVEL (ORAL PROFICIENCY ONLY)
1-5 1. Preproduction/ 2. Early production 1. Beginning
12-16 3. Speech Emergence 2. Early Intermediate
17-20 4. Intermediate fluency 3. Intermediate
21-25 (5.) Advanced fluency 5. Advanced
4. Early Advanced
early advanced?
13
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels sort of
SOLOM SCORE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT (ELD) LEVEL ESTIMATED CELDT LEVEL (ORAL PROFICIENCY ONLY)
1-5 1. Preproduction/ 2. Early production 1. Beginning
12-16 3. Speech Emergence 2. Early Intermediate
17-20 4. Intermediate fluency 3. Intermediate
21-25 (5.) Advanced fluency 5. Advanced
4. Early Advanced
14
Comparing ELD CELDT
  • Look at ELD levels (cartoons) and compare to
    CELDT (written) levels
  • Discuss with your table 3 ways in which they are
    different
  • Which scheme do you think is more useful?
  • Be prepared to share out with class

15
So WHAT?
  • Planning instruction
  • Prompts, questions to students
  • Realistic expectations (careful..)

16
Questions for your student
  • Think of the student you assessed
  • Think of a lesson you might teach to the student
    (and classmates)
  • Use QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES and write down
    prompts, questions you would use
  • Share with partner

17
ELD and Reading Development
  • ELD and content SIMULTANEOUSLY
  • The case of reading development
  • Look at reading development and CELDT levels side
    by side
  • What will be relatively easier at Stage 1?
  • What gets harder as reading development
    progresses?

18
As reading develops.
  • Vocabulary and background knowledge become
    increasingly important
  • Building vocab and BK cant wait until 4th grade
    gaps just get larger
  • Teach academic content, K-12, both for content
    and for literacy
  • Students can read orally (important!) but lack
    the vocab and BK to really deal with content as
    they go up the grades.

19
Relationship between ELD and reading development
  • What, if anything, do you think is important
    about this knowledge for you as a teacher?

20
My turn!
21
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22
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23
The learning curve it is gradual and bumpy.
24
Variability is a characteristic of language
acquisition, and learning appears gradual in most
cases.
http//www.stanford.edu/hakuta/www/research/publi
cations/(1976)20-20A20CASE20STUDY20OF20A20J
APANESE20CHILD20LEARNING20ENGLISH20A.pdf
25
It can take a few years, despite the will of
politicians!
Claiborne Pell
Ron Unz
26
It takes 4-7 years to develop English
proficiency, even under good circumstances.
http//www.stanford.edu/hakuta/www/research/publi
cations/(2000)20-20HOW20LONG20DOES20IT20TAKE
20ENGLISH20LEARNERS20TO20ATTAIN20PR.pdf
27
L2 Concepts
  • Language transfer and interference
  • Errors vs. mistakes
  • Learning vs. acquisition
  • Metalinguistic awareness
  • Affective filter
  • Semilingualism vs. bilingualism

28
Language transfer and interference
  • Pathway of second language acquisition is in part
    dependent on similiarities and differences
    between L1 and L2.

29
Errors vs. mistakes
  • Errors are systematic and come from developmental
    causes, e.g., He wented.
  • Errors are diagnostic of the developmental
    system, whereas mistakes are the result of
    sloppiness / fatigue and are random.

30
Learning vs. acquisitionand Metalinguistic
Awareness
  • According to Krashen there are two independent
    systems of second language performance 'the
    acquired system' and 'the learned system'.
  • The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the
    product of a subconscious process very similar to
    the process children undergo when they acquire
    their first language. It requires meaningful
    interaction in the target language - natural
    communication - in which speakers are
    concentrated not in the form of their utterances,
    but in the communicative act.
  • The 'learned system' or 'learning' is the product
    of formal instruction and it comprises a
    conscious process which results in conscious
    knowledge 'about' the language, for example
    knowledge of grammar rules. According to Krashen
    'learning' is less important than 'acquisition'.

http//www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html
31
Affective filter
  • Krashen's view that a number of 'affective
    variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal,
    role in second language acquisition. These
    variables include motivation, self-confidence
    and anxiety.

http//www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html
32
Vocabulary
  • Visual Thesaurus
  • http//www.visualthesaurus.com/

33
Coxheads Advice
  • Learners should read academic texts and listen to
    academic lectures and discussions.  Where
    possible, the written and spoken texts should not
    be too difficult for learners, with no more than
    about 5 of the running words in the texts being
    new words for the learners.
  • Learners should have the chance to speak in
    academic discussion and write academic texts
    using academic vocabulary.
  • Learners should directly study words from the
    list using word cards and doing intensive study
    of short academic texts.

Source Averil Coxhead http//www.vuw.ac.nz/lals/
research/awl/awlinfo.html
34
Other advice
  • Paraphrase when you can, but not to excess.
  • Notice, and clarify, idiomatic expressions.
  • Native language is OK.
  • Point out cognates when you can.
  • Maintain vocabulary lists for the class, and each
    student for his/herself.
  • Be aware of cognitive and background knowledge
    constraints on vocabulary reference.

35
Get me the silox.
36
Get me the silox.
37
Draw a circle around the silox.
38
Draw a circle around Silox.
39
Some Ellis Observations
  • Direct grammar instruction has limited impact on
    oral language production.
  • Test-like performance can be different from
    spontaneous oral language production.
  • Groupwork can be helpful quality of groupwork
    is very important.

40
Ellis Principles
  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based
    competence.
  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also
    important.
  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but
    explicit knowledge is also important.
  • Learners have a built-in syllabus
  • Extensive L2 input is important.
  • Opportunities for output and interaction are
    important.
  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.
  • Individual differences of learners matters.
  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.

41
Ellis Principles
  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based
    competence.
  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also
    important.
  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but
    explicit knowledge is also important.
  • Learners have a built-in syllabus
  • Extensive L2 input is important.
  • Opportunities for output and interaction are
    important.
  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.
  • Individual differences of learners matters.
  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.

42
Ellis Principles
  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based
    competence.
  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also
    important.
  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but
    explicit knowledge is also important.
  • Learners have a built-in syllabus
  • Extensive L2 input is important.
  • Opportunities for output and interaction are
    important.
  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.
  • Individual differences of learners matters.
  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.

43
Ellis Principles
  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based
    competence.
  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also
    important.
  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but
    explicit knowledge is also important.
  • Learners have a built-in syllabus
  • Extensive L2 input is important.
  • Opportunities for output and interaction are
    important.
  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.
  • Individual differences of learners matters.
  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.

44
Ellis Principles
  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based
    competence.
  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also
    important.
  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but
    explicit knowledge is also important.
  • Learners have a built-in syllabus
  • Extensive L2 input is important.
  • Opportunities for output and interaction are
    important.
  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.
  • Individual differences of learners matters.
  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.

45
Ellis Principles
  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based
    competence.
  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also
    important.
  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but
    explicit knowledge is also important.
  • Learners have a built-in syllabus
  • Extensive L2 input is important.
  • Opportunities for output and interaction are
    important.
  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.
  • Individual differences of learners matters.
  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.

46
Ellis Principles
  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based
    competence.
  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also
    important.
  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but
    explicit knowledge is also important.
  • Learners have a built-in syllabus
  • Extensive L2 input is important.
  • Opportunities for output and interaction are
    important.
  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.
  • Individual differences of learners matters.
  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.

47
Ellis Principles
  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based
    competence.
  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also
    important.
  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but
    explicit knowledge is also important.
  • Learners have a built-in syllabus
  • Extensive L2 input is important.
  • Opportunities for output and interaction are
    important.
  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.
  • Individual differences of learners matters.
  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.

48
Ellis Principles
  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based
    competence.
  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also
    important.
  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but
    explicit knowledge is also important.
  • Learners have a built-in syllabus
  • Extensive L2 input is important.
  • Opportunities for output and interaction are
    important.
  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.
  • Individual differences of learners matters.
  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.

49
Ellis Principles
  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based
    competence.
  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also
    important.
  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but
    explicit knowledge is also important.
  • Learners have a built-in syllabus
  • Extensive L2 input is important.
  • Opportunities for output and interaction are
    important.
  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.
  • Individual differences of learners matters.
  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.

50
(No Transcript)
51
Components of ELD Standards
  • Listening and Speaking
  • Reading
  • Word analysis
  • Fluency and systematic vocabulary development
  • Reading comprehension
  • Literary response and analysis
  • Writing
  • Strategies and applications
  • English language conventions
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