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Properties of Minerals

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Table of Contents Properties of Minerals How Minerals Form Using Mineral Resources * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Producing Metals From Minerals To produce metal ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Properties of Minerals


1
Table of Contents
  • Properties of Minerals
  • How Minerals Form
  • Using Mineral Resources

2
What Is a Mineral?
- Properties of Minerals
  • Mineral naturally occurring, inorganic solid
    that has a crystal structure and a definite
    chemical composition.
  • A substance must have 5 characteristics in order
    to be considered a mineral
  • Naturally occurring substance cannot be man
    made
  • Inorganic - the substance cannot form from
    materials that were once part of a living thing

3
What Is a Mineral?
  • 3. Solid substance must be a solid with a
    definite volume and shape
  • Crystal - a solid in which the atoms are arranged
    in a pattern that repeats again and again
  • Definite Chemical Composition the substance
    always contains certain elements in definite
    proportions

4
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5
Identifying Minerals
  • Geologists have identified about 3,800 minerals.
    Each mineral has characteristic properties that
    can be used to identify it.
  • Color can be used to identify only those few
    minerals that always have their own
    characteristic color
  • Ex Malachite is always green Azurite is always
    blue

6
Identifying Minerals
  • Streak the color of a minerals powder.
  • Observe a streak by rubbing a mineral against a
    piece of unglazed porcelain tile
  • Streak color and mineral color are often
    different.

7
Identifying Minerals
  • Luster the way a mineral reflects light from
    its surface.
  • There are many different terms used to describe
    various lusters. They include metallic, glassy,
    earthy, waxy, brilliant, and pearly

8
Identifying Minerals
  • Density mass in a given space or volume
  • No matter what the size of a mineral sample, the
    density of that mineral always remains the same.

9
Calculating Density
- Properties of Minerals
  • To calculate the density of a mineral, divide the
    mass of the mineral sample by its volume.
  • Density Mass/Volume
  • For example, if a sample of olivine has a mass of
    237 g and a volume of 72 cm3, then the density is
  • 237 g/72 cm3 3.3 g/cm3

10
Calculating Density
- Properties of Minerals
  • Practice Problem
  • A sample of calcite has a mass of 324 g and a
    volume of 120 cm3. What is its density?
  • 324 g 120 cm3 2.7 g/cm3

11
Identifying Minerals
  • Hardness refers to the minerals ability to
    resist scratching.
  • Mohs hardness scale ranks ten minerals from
    softest to hardest

12
  • Talc 1 Easily scratched by fingernail
  • Gypsum 2 Can be scratched by fingernail
  • Calcite 3 Can be scratched by copper penny
  • Fluorite 4 Easily scratched with steel
    file/glass
  • Apatite 5 Easily scratched with steel file/glass
  • Feldspar 6 Scratches glass with difficulty
  • Quartz 7 Easily scratches both glass and steel
  • Topaz 8 Scratches quartz
  • Corundum 9 No simple tests
  • Diamond 10 Scratches everything

13
Identifying Minerals
  • Crystal systems - crystals of each mineral grow
    atom by atom to form that minerals crystal
    structure.
  • Classified into six groups based on the number
    and angle of the crystal faces
  • Cleavage minerals ability to split easily
    along flat surfaces.
  • Fracture the way a mineral looks when it breaks
    apart in an irregular way.

14
Identifying Minerals
  • Special properties - some minerals can be
    identified by special physical properties
  • Ex magnetism (Magnetite), fluorescence
    (Sheelite), radioactivity, reaction to acids,
    optical and electrical properties

15
Identifying Minerals
- Properties of Minerals
16
Mineral Density
- Properties of Minerals
  • Use the line graph of the mass and volume of
    pyrite samples to answer the questions.

17
Mineral Density
- Properties of Minerals
  • Reading Graphs
  • What is the mass of Sample B? What is the volume
    of Sample B?
  • 50 g 10 cm3

18
Mineral Density
- Properties of Minerals
  • Calculating
  • What is the density of Sample B?
  • 5 g/cm3

19
Mineral Density
- Properties of Minerals
  • Reading Graphs
  • What is the mass of Sample C? What is the volume
    of Sample C?
  • 100 g 20 cm3

20
Mineral Density
- Properties of Minerals
  • Calculating
  • What is the density of Sample C?
  • 5 g/cm3

21
Mineral Density
- Properties of Minerals
  • Comparing and Contrasting
  • Compare the density of Sample B to that ofSample
    C.
  • The density of samples B and C is the same.

22
Mineral Density
- Properties of Minerals
  • Predicting
  • A piece of pyrite has a volume of 40 cm3. What is
    its mass?
  • 8 g

23
Mineral Density
- Properties of Minerals
  • Drawing Conclusions
  • Does the density of a mineral depend on the size
    of the mineral sample? Explain.
  • No Larger samples have more mass, but the
    ratio between mass and volume is constant.

24
Crystal Systems Activity
- Properties of Minerals
  • Click the Active Art button to open a browser
    window and access Active Art about crystal
    systems.

25
Data Sharing Lab
- Properties of Minerals
  • Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity
    about sharing data for the Skills Lab Finding the
    Density of Minerals.

26
Where Minerals Form
- How Minerals Form
  • Minerals form on surfaces through evaporation of
    solutions containing dissolved minerals.
  • Minerals form beneath surfaces when dissolved
    elements and compounds leave a hot water solution
    or when magma cools and hardens.

27
Where Minerals Form
- How Minerals Form
  • Geode a hollow rock inside which mineral
    crystals have grown.
  • Crystallization process by which atoms are
    arranged to form a material with a crystal
    structure.

28
Minerals From Solutions
- How Minerals Form
  • Solution a mixture in which one substance is
    dissolved in another.
  • When elements and compounds that are dissolved in
    water leave a solution, crystallization occurs.
  • Some minerals form when solutions evaporate
  • Ex salt crystals (Halite), Gypsum, Calcite

29
- How Minerals Form
Minerals From Solutions
  • Other mineral crystals form from hot water
    solutions that begin to cool.
  • Many times the hot water is a result of
    geothermal (underground) heat
  • Ex Silver

Pure metals that crystallize from hot water
solutions underground often form veins Vein a
narrow channel or slab of a mineral that
is different from the surrounding rock.
30
More on Mineral Formation
- How Minerals Form
  • Click the PHSchool.com button for an
    activityabout mineral formation.

31
The Uses of Minerals
- Using Mineral Resources
  • Minerals are the source of gemstones, metals, and
    a variety of materials used to make many
    products.
  • Gemstone a hard, colorful mineral that has a
    brilliant or glassy luster.
  • Mainly used for decoration and jewelry, but can
    be used for grinding and polishing.

32
Rubies
- Using Mineral Resources
  • Click the Video button to watch a movie about
    rubies.

33
The Uses of Minerals
- Using Mineral Resources
  • Metals not as hard as gemstones but can be
    molded without breaking
  • Used in building supplies, tools, framings, etc.
  • People use materials from these minerals in
    foods, medicines, fertilizers, and building
    materials.

34
Producing Metals From Minerals
- Using Mineral Resources
  • To produce metal from a mineral
  • A rock containing the mineral must be located
    through prospecting and mined (removed from the
    ground)
  • Then the rock must be processed to extract the
    metal.

35
Producing Metals From Minerals
- Using Mineral Resources
  • Ore rock that contains a metal or economically
    useful mineral.
  • Prospector anyone who searches, or prospects,
    for an ore deposit.
  • Once found, miners outline a plan for digging up
    the ore. There are three types of mines
  • strip mines, open pit mines, and shaft mines

36
Producing Metals From Minerals
- Using Mineral Resources
  • Strip mine large pieces of equipment are used
    to scrape away soil to expose ore
  • Open pit large pieces of equipment are used to
    dig a tremendous pit and remove ore deposits
  • Shaft mines - have a network of tunnels that
    extend deep into the ground, following the veins
    of ore.

37
Links on Mining Minerals
- Using Mineral Resources
  • Click the SciLinks button for links on mining
    minerals.

38
Producing Metals From Minerals
- Using Mineral Resources
  • Smelting an ore is mixed with other substances
    and then melted to separate the useful metal from
    the other elements the ore contains.

39
Producing Aluminum
- Using Mineral Resources
  • Click the Video button to watch a movie
    aboutproducing aluminum.

40
Producing Metals From Minerals
- Using Mineral Resources
  • Once smelted, the impurities will be removed.
  • At this point some metals can be melted together
    to form alloys
  • Alloy a solid mixture of two or more elements,
    at least one of which is a metal.
  • Ex Steel

41
Graphic Organizer
Hematite
Brick
Naturally occurring
Man-made
Solid
Crystal structure
No crystal structure
Inorganic
Chemical composition varies
Definite chemical composition
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