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Title: War in Europe Author: Student Last modified by: install Created Date: 5/3/2013 1:06:46 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Standard(s)

  • SSWH18 The student will demonstrate an
    understanding of the global political, economic,
    and social impact of World War II.
  • a. Describe the major conflicts and outcomes
    include Pearl Harbor, El-Alamein, Stalingrad, D-
    Day, Guadalcanal, the Philippines, and the end of
    the war in Europe and Asia.

Essential Question
  • EQ How does WWII still affect the politics and
    economics of todays world?

  • Activator
  • Vocabulary Quiz/Quick Check
  • War in Europe Notes

  • First they came for the communists,
  • and I didnt speak out because I wasnt a
  • Then they came for the socialists,
  • and I didnt speak out because I wasnt a
  • Then they came for the trade unionists,
  • and I didnt speak out because I wasnt a trade
  • Then they came for the Jews,
  • and I didnt speak out because I wasnt a Jew.
  • Then they came for me,
  • and there was no one left to speak for me.
  • Pastor Martin Niemoller

War in Europe
  • The Belligerents
  • The Axis Powers Germany, Italy, Japan, other
    minor countries
  • The Allies UK Commonwealth Nations, France,
    USSR, Netherlands, Belgium, China, later U.S. ,
    over 30 minor countries

  • In general, the war was the result of a failure
    of the League of Nations to deal with Hitler
  • Battle of Poland
  • Poland defeated in 4 weeks
  • Germans and Soviets split Poland in ½
  • Russo-Finnish War (Nov. 1939)
  • Soviets invaded Finland
  • USSR expelled from the League of Nations

  • German invasion of Denmark Norway (April 1940)
  • Denmark defeated in one day
  • Norway fell with in one month
  • Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as
    Prime Minister of Great Britain (May)
  • Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat Speech

  • Very little action on the Western Front between
    September and April 1940 Sitzkrieg
  • Battle of France
  • May 1940 German invasion of Netherlands,
    Belgium, Luxembourg
  • Germans invaded France through Belgium AGAIN
    through a 50 mile gap in the Maginot Line
  • France surrendered in 6 weeks on June 22

  • France divided into 2 parts
  • German-occupied France (most of the country
  • Vichy France SE France, a puppet government.
  • General Charles de Gaulle headed Free France from
    London organized resistance movements

  • Battle of Britain (Aug Oct 1940)
  • Operation Sea Lion the German plan to invade
  • Luftwaffe began bombing of English cities
    intentional targeting of civilians (The Blitz)
  • RAF launched attacks against German planes
  • Germans lost 2375 vs. 800 British
  • British had advantage of radar

  • Destruction of cities devastating, but Germans
    abandoned plans of invasion
  • First military defeat for the Germans turning
    point of the early war

U.S. increasingly giving support with weapons
planes in exchange for bases in Britain U.S.
implements first peacetime draft Develops plan to
fight Germany and then concentrate on Japan if at
war with both
  • Balkan Italian Front
  • Mussolini invaded Greece in Oct. 1940 Greek
    resistance was too great
  • Yugoslavia was resisting joining the Axis
    Germany invaded defeated
  • Germans invaded Greece to relieve Italians, by
    April 1941 Greece is under Axis control

  • African Campaigns 1940-43
  • Italians initially invaded to secure a source of
    oil for the Axis nations
  • Germans came to help losing Italians
  • Italian-German forces under Gen. Rommel (the
    Desert Fox)
  • British-American forces under Gen. Montgomery
  • Rommel ran out of supplies because Hitler wanted
    to focus on Stalingrad
  • Montgomery crushed the Italian-German troops

General Erwin Rommel - a German Field Marshal of
World War II. Popularly known as The Desert Fox
for his battles in Northern Africa, he earned the
respect of both his own troops and the enemies he
  • The Invasion of the USSR
  • Called Operation Barbarossa
  • A surprise invasion Hitlers greatest mistake
  • 3 million troops attack a 3 points (Leningrad,
    Stalingrad, Moscow) along a 2000 mile front

  • Initially successful, but offensive was stopped
  • Soviet Scorched Earth
  • over-extended supply lines
  • poor roads
  • Russian WINTER!!
  • Russian Counter-Offensive (42-45)
  • 17 month siege broken at Leningrad
  • Entire German army of 330,000 surrendered at
  • Considered the turning point of the war
  • 4 million Axis soldiers dead, 30 million Soviets

  • The Defeat of the Axis in Europe
  • Defeat of Rommel in Africa eliminated that front
  • Russian Counter-offensive knocked Romania,
    Bulgaria, Finland out of the war
  • U.S. now involved in the war

  • The Collapse of Italy
  • Americans invaded Sicily in July 43
  • Mussolini dismissed by the king
  • Italy surrendered in Sept
  • Germans attempted to regain Italy failed after
    several major, deadly battles
  • Mussolini seized executed without a trial by
    Italians in April 45

Benito Mussolini an Italian politician and leader
of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country
from 1922 to his ousting in 1943. In 1926
Mussolini seized total power as dictator and
ruled Italy as Il Duce from 1930 to 1943.
  • Operation Overlord the creation of a Second
  • Stalin had been asking for a real western front
    to relieve some pressure in the east
  • Churchill Roosevelt wanted to avoid casualties

Winston Churchill a British politician who was
the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from
1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
  • Eisenhower named Supreme Commander of the Allied
    Forces in Western Europe Jan. 44
  • D-Day June 6, 1944
  • Invasion of Normandy, France by American,
    British, Canadians
  • 1 million troops landed in France within 1 month
  • Paris liberated Aug. 24

Dwight D. Eisenhower a general in the U.S. Army
during WW II, Supreme Commander of the Allied
Forces in Europe planned and supervised the
invasion of France and Germany in 194445 from
the Western Front. 34th President of the United
States from 1953 until 1961.
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • Hitlers last major offensive winter 44
  • Fought in the Ardennes Forest of Belgium France
  • Hoped to recapture France
  • Allies caught off-guard, but stopped Germans at
  • Germans on the retreat from this point on

Battle of the Bulge Hitlers last major
offensive. It was fought in the Ardennes Forest.
  • Battle of Germany (1945)
  • Soviets advancing from the east, US/British from
    the west
  • Soviets reached Berlin 1st - April 20
  • April 30 Hitler kills himself in his
    underground bunker
  • Berlin falls May 2nd with the official
    surrender on May 7th
  • V-E Day May 8, 1945

  • What is Blitzkrieg?
  • Do armies still use Blitzkrieg?
  • Is it easier or harder to use Blitzkrieg in
    warfare today?

Put the following events in Chronological Order
  • ____ Hitler annexed Austria
  • ____ Mussolini invaded Ethiopia
  • ____ German-Russian nonaggression
  • pact
  • ____ Germany and Italy form an alliance
  • ____ France surrenders

  • Define Blitzkrieg.
  • What was the Blitzkrieg based on?
  • What was the effect of the civil population
  • What were the effects on the defenses?
  • What were the results?

Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • The attack on Pearl Harbor occurred on December
    7, 1941 without warning.
  • The attack lasted 110 minutes, from 755 a.m.
    until 945 a.m.
  • A total of 2,335 U.S. servicemen were killed and
    1,143 were wounded. Sixty-eight civilians were
    also killed and 35 were wounded.
  • The Japanese lost 65 men, with an additional
    soldier being captured.

  • Japan and the Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • Plans for a surprise attack against the United
    States were begun as early as January of 1941.
  • The Japanese used the codename "Operation Hawaii"
    for the attack on Pearl Harbor. This later
    changed to "Operation Z."
  • The Japanese specifically chose to attack on a
    Sunday because they believed Americans would be
    more relaxed and thus less alert on a weekend.
  • The Japanese attack force stationed itself
    approximately 230 miles north of the Hawaiian
    island of Oahu.

  • The Japanese launched their airplanes in two
    waves, approximately 45 minutes apart.
  • The first wave of Japanese planes struck Pearl
    Harbor at 755 a.m. The second wave reached Pearl
    Harbor around 840 a.m.
  • When Japanese Commander Mitsuo Fuchida called
    out, "Tora! Tora! Tora!" ("Tiger! Tiger! Tiger!")
    upon flying over Pearl Harbor, it was a message
    to the Japanese navy that they had caught the
    Americans by surprise.

  • The main target of the Japanese was to be the
    aircraft carriers however, since all three U.S.
    aircraft carriers were out to sea, the Japanese
    focused on the battleships.
  • There were eight battleships at Pearl Harbor that
    day, which included all the battleships of the
    U.S. Pacific fleet except for one (the Colorado).
  • Seven of the U.S. battleships were lined up in
    "Battleship Row."

  • To aid their airplanes, the Japanese sent in five
    midget subs to help target the battleships. The
    Americans sunk four of the midget subs and
    captured the fifth.
  • All eight U.S. battleships were either sunk or
    damaged during the attack. Amazingly, all but two
    (the Arizona and the Oklahoma) were eventually
    able to return to active duty.

  • When the Japanese left Pearl Harbor at 945 a.m.,
    the Americans didn't realize the attack was
    actually over. They expected another wave to hit.
  • The day following the attack on Pearl Harbor,
    U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared
    that December 7, 1941 would be "a date that will
    live in infamy."
  • The United States declared war on Japan on
    December 8, 1941, the day following the attack on
    Pearl Harbor.

Three Biggest Mistakes an Attack Force Ever Made
  • Admiral Chester A. Nimitz
  • On Sunday, December 7th, 1941, Admiral Chester
    Nimitz was attending a concert in Washington D.C. 
    He was paged and told there was a phone call for
    him. When he answered the phone, it was President
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt on the phone. He told
    Admiral Nimitz that he (Nimitz) would now be the
    Commander of the Pacific Fleet. 

  • Admiral Nimitz flew to Hawaii to assume command
    of the Pacific Fleet. He landed at Pearl
    Harbor on Christmas Eve, 1941. There was such a
    spirit of despair, dejection and defeat, you
    would have thought the Japanese had already won
    the war. On Christmas Day, 1941, Adm. Nimitz was
    given a boat tour of the destruction wrought
    on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese. Big sunken
    battleships and navy vessels cluttered the waters
    every where you looked.

  •   As the tour boat returned to dock, the young
    helmsman of the boat asked, Well Admiral, what
    do you think after seeing all this destruction?
    Admiral Nimitzs reply shocked everyone within
    the sound of his voice. Admiral Nimitz said, The
    Japanese made three of the biggest mistakes an
    attack force could ever make. Shocked and
    surprised, the young helmsman asked, What do
    mean by saying the Japanese made the three
    biggest mistakes an attack force ever made?

  • Nimitz explained . . . .
  • Mistake number one 
  • The Japanese attacked on Sunday morning. Nine
    out of every ten crewmen of those ships were
    ashore on leave. If those same ships had been
    lured to sea and been sunkwe would have lost
    38,000 men instead of 3,800.

  • Mistake number two 
  • When the Japanese saw all those battleships
    lined in a row, they got so carried away sinking
    those battleships, they never once bombed our dry
    docks opposite those ships. If they had destroyed
    our dry docks, we would have had to tow every one
    of those ships to America to be repaired. As it
    is now, the ships are in shallow water and can be
    raised. One tug can pull them over to the dry
    docks, and we can have them repaired and at sea
    by the time we could have towed them to America.
    And I already have crews ashore anxious to man
    those ships.

  • Mistake number three 
  • Every drop of fuel in the Pacific theater of war
    is in top of the ground storage tanks five miles
    away over that hill. One attack plane could have
    strafed those tanks and destroyed our fuel
    supply. Thats why I say the Japanese made three
    of the biggest mistakes an attack force could
    make or God was looking out for America.