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Religion

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Title: Religion


1
Religion
  • The International Geography of Religion

2
Major Foci
  • To describe the distribution of major religions
  • To explain variations in diffusion of religions
  • To discuss religious imprints on the physical
    environment
  • To identify conflicts between followers of
    different religions

3
Distribution of Religions
  • Universalizing religions
  • Christianity
  • Islam
  • Buddhism
  • Ethnic religions
  • Hinduism
  • Other ethnic religions

4
Variations in Distribution of Religions (1)
  • Origin of religions
  • Origin of universalizing religions
  • Origin of Hinduism
  • Diffusion of religions
  • Diffusion of universalizing religions
  • Lack of diffusion of ethnic religions

5
World Distribution of Religions
Fig. 6-1 World religions by continent.
6
Geographical Distribution Of Major World
Religions
7
World Population by Religion
Fig. 6-1a Over two thirds of the worlds
population adhere to Christianity, Islam,
Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the
single largest world religion.
8
Major Religious Hearths
9
Diffusion of Universalizing Religions
Fig. 6-4 Each of the three main universalizing
religions diffused widely from its hearth.
10
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11
Diffusion of Christianity
Fig. 6-5 Christianity diffused from Palestine
through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing
through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was
later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast
and North Africa.
12
More Detail on the Diffusion of Christianity
13
Christian Branches in Europe
Fig. 6-2 Protestant denominations, Catholicism,
and Eastern Orthodoxy are dominant in different
regions of Europe a result of many historic
interactions.
14
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15
The Religious Situation in Europe, 1560
16
Population Loss in Germany During the Thirty
Years War
17
Religious Wars Exhaust and Reshape the Geography
of Europe Treaty of Westphalia
  • Resulted from exhaustion after the Thirty Years
    War (1618-1648)
  • Attempted to assert the imperial authority of the
    Pope and the Church of Rome.
  • Central Principle - He who rules a region
    determines its religion.
  • Ended the war and gave the key elements for a
    modern nation-state a people, a territory in
    which they lived, a bureaucracy, and the kings
    authority over his people formed international
    law

18
Diffusion of Islam
  • Origin Mecca 613 a.d.
  • Prophets death in 1632
  • Military expansion
  • Combined with hierarchical diffusion (social)
  • Created an Arab empire
  • Trade as important as religion
  • Culture, not just religion

19
Diffusion of Islam
Fig. 6-6 Islam diffused rapidly and widely from
its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually
stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
20
Distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims
21
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22
Major Religions of Asia
23
Diffusion of Buddhism
Fig. 6-7 Buddhism diffused gradually from its
origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka,
southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.
24
Spread of Buddhism
25
Buddhism
  • Third major proselytizing religion
  • No longer a major presence in the country of its
    origin
  • Dissident offshoot of Hinduism
  • Founded 6th century BC in northern India by
    Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, or
    Enlightened One
  • Born in southern Nepal

26
Buddhism
  • Beliefs originally spread through India
  • Made state religion of India in 3rd century BC
  • Carried elsewhere by missionaries, monks
    merchants
  • While expanding elsewhere it declined at home
  • 4th century AD Hinduism revived
  • By 15th century had all but disappeared from
    India
  • Spread throughout Asia outside India
  • About 350 million adherents today worldwide

27
Spread of Hinduism
28
Oriental Folk Religions
  • Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism in China
  • Shintoism in Japan
  • Confucianism
  • Not a true religion (no worship of deity)
  • Moral system, way of life
  • Origins with Confucius (551-479? BC)
  • Later challenged by Taoism and Buddhism

29
Shinto
  • Ancient native religion of Japan
  • Practiced today as a set of rules and customs
    involving reverence of ancestors, celebration of
    popular festivals, and pilgrimages to shrines
  • Developed from other early Japanese religions

30
Shintoism Buddhism in Japan
Fig. 6-8 Since Japanese can be both Shinto and
Buddhist, there are many areas in Japan where
over two-thirds of the population are both Shinto
and Buddhist.
31
Traditional Religions - Animism
  • Belief that a spirit or force resides in every
    animate and inanimate object
  • Worship of nature
  • Practiced in sub-Saharan Africa, among natives of
    North and South America, Polynesia, native
    peoples of Siberia, natives of Asia, Australian
    Aborigines
  • As many different forms as there are people
    practicing it

32
Taoism
  • Pronounced Dow
  • Roughly translated into English as The Path or
    The Way
  • Refers to a power which envelops, surrounds and
    flows through all living and non-living things
  • Founder Lao-Tse (604-531 BC)
  • Contemporary of Confucius, but historical
    authenticity cannot be proven
  • Seeking a way to avoid constant warfare and other
    conflicts that disrupted life

33
Variations in Distribution of Religions (2)
  • Holy places
  • Holy places in universalizing religions
  • Holy places in ethnic religions
  • The calendar
  • The calendar in ethnic religions
  • The calendar in universalizing religions

34
Holy Sites in Buddhism
Fig. 6-9 Most holy sites in Buddhism are
locations of important events in Buddhas life
and are clustered in northeastern India and
southern Nepal.
35
Mecca, Islams Holiest City
Fig. 6-10 Makkah (Mecca) is the holiest city in
Islam and the site of pilgrimage for millions of
Muslims each year. There are numerous holy sites
in the city.
36
Hindu Holy Places
Fig. 6-11 Hierarchy of Hindu holy places Some
sites are holy to Hindus throughout India others
have a regional or sectarian importance, or are
important only locally.
37
Organization of Space
  • Places of worship
  • Christian worship
  • Places of worship in other religions
  • Sacred space
  • Disposing of the dead
  • Religious settlements
  • Religious place names
  • Administration of space
  • Hierarchical religions
  • Locally autonomous religions

38
Place Names in Québec
Fig. 6-12 Place names in Québec show the impact
of religion on the landscape. Many cities and
towns are named after saints.
39
Roman Catholic Hierarchy in U.S.
Fig. 6-13 The Catholic church divides the U.S.
into provinces headed by archbishops. Provinces
are divided into dioceses, headed by bishops.
40
Hierarchical Religions
  • A hierarchical religion has a well-defined
    geographic structure and organizes territory into
    local administrative units, i.e. Roman
    Catholicism and Latter-Day Saints (Mormons)
  • Pope? Cardinal? Archbishop? Bishop? Priest

41
Hierarchy of the Catholic Church
42
Roman Provinces
43
Roman Catholic Church Membership as a Percentage
of Each Country's Population
44
Hierarchy of the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-Day Saints
45
Religious Conflicts
  • Religion vs. government policies
  • Religion vs. social change
  • Religion vs. Communism
  • Religion vs. religion
  • Religious wars in the Middle East
  • Religious wars in Ireland

46
Distribution of Protestants in Ireland, 1911
Fig 6-14 When Ireland became independent in
1937, 26 northern districts with large Protestant
populations chose to remain part of the United
Kingdom.
47
Religious Organization
  • Ecclesiae
  • Religious organization claiming to include most
    or all of the members of a society
  • Recognized as the national or official religion
  • Denominations
  • Large, organized religion not officially linked
    with the state or government

48
Religious Organization
  • Sects
  • Relatively small religious group that broke away
    from some other religious organization to renew
    the original vision of the faith

Sects are fundamentally at odds with society and
do not seek to become established national
religions.
49
Religious Organization
  • New Religious Movements or Cults
  • New religious movement (NRM) small secretive
    religious groups that represent either a new
    religion or a major innovation of an existing
    faith
  • Similar to sects
  • Tend to be small
  • Viewed as less respectable than more established
    faiths

50
Religious Organization
  • Comparing Forms of Religious Organization
  • Ecclesiae, denominations, sects, and new
    religious movements have different relationships
    to society
  • Electronic communication led to the electronic
    church

51
Topics of Discussion
  • Religious culture regions, diffusion
    distribution
  • Religious ecology, or the relationship between
    religion and the physical environment
  • How do different people view and use their
    environment?
  • What imprint do different religions leave on
    their environment?
  • Relationship between religion and culture,
    economic and political systems
  • Religious conflicts
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