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Psychology of Aging

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Psychology of Aging Instructor: Genevi ve Quintin Lecture 1 September 12th, 2007 * * * * In 1996, almost one-half of seniors living alone had incomes below ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology of Aging


1
Psychology of Aging
  • Instructor Geneviève Quintin
  • Lecture 1
  • September 12th, 2007

2
Psy313 Psychology of Aging
  • Lectures Wednesdays, 6-9 pm, room SS 1073
  • Your Instructor Geneviève Quintin
  • Email Address geneviev_at_psych.utoronto.ca
  • Course Website
  • http//www.psych.utoronto.ca/geneviev

3
What Is Aging?
  • When you think about aging, what images does that
    bring to your mind?
  • What are the good aspects of aging?
  • What are some problems in aging?
  • What do you hope we will discuss in this course?

4
Date Topic
Sept 12th Course Introduction Demography Research Methods Biological Aging
Sept 19th Biological Aging (continued)
Sept 26th Attention and Perceptual Processing Explanations pertaining to the paper
October 3rd Memory
October 10th Intelligence Problem-Solving
October 17th Mental Health Disorders Outline Due
October 24th Midterm ?
October 31st Interventions and Care of Older Adults
November 7th Social Cognition Judgment, Stereotypes, and Beliefs
November 14th Personality
November 21st Relationships and Family Issues
November 28th Dying and Bereavement Paper Due
December 5th Work Retirement Review.
Mid December Final Examination
5
Evaluations
  • Midterm Exam 34 of the final grade
  • Research Proposal 32 of the final grade,
    including 2 for outline submission
  • Final Exam 34 of the final grade

6
Todays Lecture
  • What factors come into play when we talk about
    aging?
  • What do we know about older adults in Canada and
    around the world?
  • How do we study aging?

7
Percentage of Population Over 65 in 2000
8
Projected Percentage of Population Over 65 in 2030
9
Important Definitions
  • Gerontology Study of aging from maturity through
    old age.
  • Young-old vs. old-old.
  • Ageism A form of discrimination against older
    adults based on age.
  • Can you think of any examples?

10
Life-Span Development
  • Multidirectionality Development late in life
    does not only reflect losses but also growth.
    e.g. Decline in vision but increased
    wisdom/perspective on life
  • Plasticity Capacity for change learning. e.g.
    Learning to play an instrument.
  • Historical Context Environmental and cultural
    influences. Generational effects.
  • Multiple Causation Biological, psychological,
    sociocultural life-cycle influences.

11
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12
What Are These Influences?
  • What do you think we mean by biological,
    psychological, sociocultural, and life-cycle
    forces?
  • Example Reaction to being diagnosed with cancer
    in a young adult vs. an older adult.

13
How Do These Influences Act Over Time?
  • Normative Age-Graded Influences Experiences that
    tend to occur at a certain chronological age.
    e.g. Puberty, time at which people get married
    or have children.
  • Normative History-Graded Influences Events
    shared by most people in a certain culture at a
    certain point in time.
  • Nonnormative Influences Random or rare events
    that are specific to the life of an individual.

14
Children of the 80s vs. 90s?
  • You can name at least half of the members of the
    "Brat Pack".
  • You remember when ATARI was a state of the art
    video game system.
  • You owned any cassettes.
  • You could breakdance, or wished you could.
  • You wanted to be The Hulk for Halloween.
  • You thought that Transformers were more than
    meets the eye.
  • You wanted to be on Star Search.
  • You knew all the characters names and their life
    stories on Saved By The Bell.
  • You loved to play Mario 64 or Final Fantasy.
  • You played and or collected Pogs.
  • You knew the Macarena by heart.
  • You had or knew someone with the Rachel
    haircut.
  • You wore really baggy jeans.

15
Is Age Just A Number?
  • You meet two people who tell you they are both 40
    years old.
  • They are thus the same __________ age, but it
    doesnt tell you if they are the same ________
    age.
  • Primary vs. Secondary vs. Tertiary aging.
  • In this course, we will focus mostly on primary
    aging.

16
A Little Bit Of Demography
  • What do we know about older adults as a group?
    How can we describe them?
  • What are some characteristics of Canadian older
    adults? Are they different from younger adults?

17
Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved
from http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/pubs/sen
iors_at_glance/poster1_e.html
18
Population Distribution in the United States in
2001
19
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20
Projected Population Distribution in the United
States in 2050
21
Health Canada. (2002). Canadas aging population.
Ottawa, ON Minister of Public Works and
Government Services. Retrieved from
http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/pubs/fed_pape
r/pdfs/fedpager_e.pdf
22
Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved
from http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/pubs/sen
iors_at_glance/poster1_e.html
23
Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved
from http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/pubs/sen
iors_at_glance/poster1_e.html
24
Projected Growth of Minority Population of Older
Adults in the United States
25
Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved
from http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/pubs/sen
iors_at_glance/poster1_e.html
26
How Educated Are Older Adults?
27
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28
What Level of Income Do Seniors Have?
29
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30
Are Older Adults Important Consumers?
Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved
from http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/pubs/sen
iors_at_glance/poster1_e.html
31
Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved
from http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/pubs/sen
iors_at_glance/poster1_e.html
32
Are Older Adults Independent?
Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved
from http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/pubs/sen
iors_at_glance/poster1_e.html
33
Who Are These Older Adults?
  • How have they changed over the years as a group?
    In gender? In number? In ethnicity?
  • What are some of their other characteristics?
  • Is this portrait consistent with your initial
    conceptions? With what is portrayed in the
    media?

34
Controversies in Aging
  • Nature vs. Nurture Is it a question of genes or
    environment?
  • Stability vs. Change Can you teach old dogs new
    tricks?
  • Continuity vs. Discontinuity Is aging a series
    of punctual changes or continuous changes?
  • Universal vs. Context-Specific Is there a unique
    path in aging?

35
How Do We Study Aging?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of
    experimental design, correlational design case
    study?
  • Some of the difficulties include
  • Age differences vs. age effects
  • Cohort effects
  • Time-of-measurement effects

36

37
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38
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39
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40
Conclusions
  • We experience changes as we grow older, but
    contrary to stereotypes, it does not inevitably
    lead to decline in all areas.
  • Older adults are the fastest growing demographic
    age group, which will impact societies in many
    ways. We will explore those consequences in
    future lectures.
  • You will need to keep in mind the various caveats
    and methodological difficulties to assess whether
    a topic was adequately studied.

41
Chapter 2 Biological Aging
42
What Is Biological Aging?
  • Can you give me examples of physical changes
    people undergo as they age?
  • What are some of the impacts of those changes?

43
Questions To Answer
  • Why do we age?
  • What are some normal and abnormal physical
    changes associated with aging?
  • What factors influence how we age?

44
Why Do We Age?
  • Many theories that are not mutually exclusive.
  • Rate-of-Living Theories Focus on The Overall
    Contributrion of Systems in the Body Limited
    energy.
  • Metabolic rates Can only burn so much energy
    before too much damage.
  • Limited calory consumption Evidence linking
    amount of calories consumed to lifespan in rats
    and mice.
  • Adaptation to stress.

45
Why Do We Age?
  • Cellular Theories Focus On Cells As Opposed to
    Systems.
  • Cells are limited in the number of divisions they
    can undergo.
  • Cross-linking of proteins making the body
    stiffer. e.g. Lowers heart rate.
  • Free radicals. Antioxidants are frequently used
    to counteract their effects.

46
Why Do We Age?
  • Programmed Cell Death Theories Theories Focusing
    on Genetics.
  • Is aging programmed into the genetic code?
  • Cells appear to receive signals to self-destruct.
  • Genetic pathologies causing destruction
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Changes in the brain cells
  • Alzheimers disease
  • Parkinsons disease

47
Aging Genetics or Environment?
  • Or am I going to age like my parents and
    grand-parents?
  • The answer Both play an important role!
  • In the 30s, Pearl Pearl showed that people who
    live for a long time tend to come from ancestors
    who lived long lives.
  • What could confound such findings?

48
Changes in Appearance and Mobility
  • Changes in skin, hair, voice, height, weight,
    bones, muscles, occur as we age.
  • How can the environment contribute to those
    changes?
  • Example of an abnormal change Osteoporosis
  • Loss of bone mass and increased porosity, which
    creates a fragilization of the bones.
  • Mostly seen in women 1 woman in 4 over 50 as
    opposed to 1 man in 8.

49
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50
Exploring Osteoporosis
  • Riggs et al. (1998) Model of osteoporosis mostly
    centered on estrogen deficiency to explain
    changes in both women and men.
  • Estrogen is crucial in bone mass development.
    Testosterone provides an additional periosteal
    apposition, which explains larger skeletal
    structure in men. (Riggs et al. 2002).
  • Menopause Causes a 1st phase of accelerated bone
    loss followed by a second slow decline.
  • Men experience the same slow decline as women.

51
Riggs, B.L., Khosla, S., Melton, L.J. (2002).
Sex steroids and the construction and
conservation of the adult skeleton. Endocrine
Reviews, 23 (3), 279-302.
52
Riggs, B.L., Khosla, S., Melton, L.J. (2002).
Sex steroids and the construction and
conservation of the adult skeleton. Endocrine
Reviews, 23 (3), 279-302.
53
Nutritional Factors in Osteoporosis
  • Calcium intake seems to be another key to help
    slow bone loss (Heaney, 2000). High calcium
    seems to enhance estrogen effect.
  • Protein intake Lack of protein intake often seen
    in older adults with fractures of the femur.
    (Delmi et al., 1990)
  • Phosphorus intake is also crucial.
  • Why might nutrition be problematic in elderly
    adults?
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