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Census Management Workshop


Census Management Workshop Prototype PowerPoint March, 2009 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Census Management Workshop

Census Management Workshop
  • Prototype PowerPoint
  • March, 2009

Census Management Workshop Topics by Day
  1. Overall Census Management
  2. Preparatory Tasks
  3. Field Operations
  4. Data Processing
  5. Census Products/Evaluation

Day 1. Overall Census Management
  1. The imperative of relevance
  2. Census planning
  3. Quality assurance
  4. Management structure
  5. Software and hardware evaluation and acquisition
  6. Use of sampling
  7. Selecting and managing external consultation and

1A. The importance of relevance
  • Introduction
  • Relevance to user needs
  • Public relations to reinforce relevance to
    ordinary population
  • Relevance to overall national strategies
  • Relevance to other elements of national
    statistical systems
  • Asterisk means that item is discussed below

1A2. Relevance to user needs
  • When assessing potential census topics
  • Is the topic of major national importance?
  • Is there a need for data on the topic for small
    groups in the population or for small geographic
  • Is the topic suitable for inclusion in the
  • Are there sufficient resources available to
    collect and process the data for that topic?
  • Does it allow for international comparability?

1A2. Relevance to user needs
  • What goes in an information paper
  • The topics planned for inclusion in the
    forthcoming census
  • The topics planned for exclusion from the
    forthcoming census
  • Other topics, to assess user demand

1A2. Relevance to user needs
  • Elements of census testing relevance
  • Design of enumeration areas
  • Design of operational tasks
  • Training of field staff
  • Dissemination of data

1A3. Public relations to reinforce relevance to
ordinary population
  1. Major releases of data from the previous census
  2. Seizing opportunities for case studies, like
    opening of new schools and hospitals
  3. Publicizing the development of census information
    in forms easily accessible and in accessible

1A4. Relevance to overall national strategies
  • Depends on
  • Stage of countrys economic develop-ment
  • Quantity and quality of existing infra- structure
    (e.g., electricity?)
  • Extent to which population characteristics are
    evenly dispersed across the country (e.g., where
    no clerical workers?)

1A4. Relevance to overall national strategies
  • Other objectives
  • An opportunity to acquire funding for improving
    and increasing the stock of information
    technology equipment
  • Providing employment in economically depressed
  • Opportunity to train a large number of people in
    tasks such as data processing or census
  • To improve the mapping capabilities

1A5. Relevance to other elements of national
statistical systems
  1. Population estimates
  2. Household survey program

1B. Census planning
  1. Introduction
  2. Specifying the role of the census
  3. The role of Government
  4. Setting goals
  5. Developing project plans
  6. Monitoring project plans
  7. Developing a budget

1B3. Census planning Role of Government
  1. Providing a legal framework for the conduct of
    the census
  2. Providing funding for the census
  3. Providing logistical support for census

1B3a. Census planning Legal Framework
  1. The authority of the census agency to undertake
    census activities
  2. Topics to be included in the census
  3. Requirements of individuals to provide
  4. Provisions about confidentiality of information
    supplied by individuals
  5. The role of other organizations (especially
    government ministries) in census taking

1B3a. Census planning Legal Framework
  • Reference date
  • Form of census should not be mandated
  • Penalties for noncompliance

1B3c. Census planning Logistical support
  • Funding
  • Use of teachers
  • Use of other agencies

1B3c. Census planning Logistical support
  • Examples of govt organizations supporting
  • Local or provincial governments, which may
    encourage staff of their agencies to work on
  • Local or provincial steering committees made up
    of staff from govt organizations
  • Other govt agencies that supply special services
    such as form printing, mapping, transport, media

1B4. Setting goals
  • What do the stakeholders want?
  • Current and potential users

1B4. Setting goals
  • Stakeholders within the census program
  • Census evaluation
  • Census processing
  • Census dissemination
  • Other areas internal stakeholders for transport
    and printing
  • Other stakeholders w/in the statistical agency
  • Community

1B4. Stakeholders within the census program
  • Integration of phases Quality circle
  • Potential stakeholders for the field operations
    phase how field operations influence others

1B4b. Setting goals Other stake- holders in the
statistical agency
  • Regional offices are important
  • Sometimes the census office is NOT the Statistics
  • Sometimes various statistical results are
    interrelated (census, survey, admin records)
  • Use of census results on daily basis

1B4b. Setting goals Other stake- holders in the
statistical agency
  • Examples of special skills
  • 1. Statistical methodology (design of follow-up
    samples, advice on quality monitoring sampling
  • 2. Information technology (evaluation of
    processing systems, hardware and software
  • 3. Public relations (training and advice on
    public relations strategies and advertising

1B4b. Setting goals Other stake- holders in the
statistical agency
  • Stakeholders using as part of operations
  • Statistical analysts preparing material by
    further analysis e.g., income, housing
  • Client services, sales and marketing units
    identifying and satisfying external clients'
  • The area responsible for household surveys using
    census small area counts to update sample frames

1B4c. Setting goals Community
  • Often only occasional interest
  • Confidentiality
  • Privacy
  • Sensitivity
  • Timing the longer it takes to get the results,
    the less the interest
  • Goals will interact the following goals

1B4c. Setting goals Community
  • Goals of census
  • The topics to be collected
  • Confidentiality
  • Timeliness of data release
  • Data quality
  • The nature of the output
  • Trade-off between what topics can be collected
    and costs
  • The total cost of the census

1B5. Census planning Developing project plans
  • The basic structure these form a hierarchy
  • Projects. The total set of tasks needed to
    achieve a specific goal
  • Phases. The major project components
  • Activities. The phase components
  • Tasks. The smallest identifiable amount of work
    leading to a deliverable
  • Milestones. Specific points in time at which key
    outcomes are expected and which measure a
    projects progress measurements!

1B5a. Developing project plans -- Projects
  • Project definition
  • Planning Setting strategic directions for the
    entire census program and developing project
  • Preparation Establishing the basis of
    enumeration, form design and testing, mapping,
    and printing the census forms
  • Field operations Recruiting and training field
    staff, public relations campaigns, form
    distribution and return

1B5a. Developing project plans -- projects
  • Data processing Recruiting and training data
    processors, selecting and managing premises,
    processing forms
  • Dissemination User consultation, product
    development, marketing and sales strategies
  • Evaluation All Evaluation plans and processes.

1B5b. Developing project plans Example of Phases
  • Need a head for each phase
  • Need time frames for each
  • Need milestones
  • Phases will overlap, so use flow charts

1B5b. Developing project plans Example of Phases
  • 3.01 Methods and procedures Development of all
    enumeration and administrative procedures.
    Includes determining how enumerators and
    supervisors will conduct the census, as well as
    the procedures for recruitment and payment of
    temporary field staff

1B5b. Developing project plans Example of Phases
  • 3.02 Test program Development and implementation
    of all tests. As a major activity, this brings
    together all aspects of the enumeration, on a
    small scale, and can act effectively as a quality
    assurance measure on the operation in addition to
    the specific goals of each test.
  • 3.03 Field mapping Design of enumeration area
    and preparation of maps

1B5c. Developing project plans Activities for
Field mapping
  • 3.03.01 Enumeration area design
  • 3.03.02 Enumeration area file
  • 3.03.03 Management area design
  • 3.03.04 Map production
  • 3.03.05 Enumerator record book preparation

1B5d. Developing project plans Enumerator area
design tasks
  • Review previous census methods,
    procedures and outcomes
  • Establish or review enumeration area
    design principles and criteria
  • Prepare enumeration area design manual
  • Establish enumeration area update
    methods, procedures and processes
  • Test enumeration area design process
  • Implement and monitor enumeration area
  • Evaluate enumeration area design

1B5i1. Activity issues Overview
  • Activities are parts of phases
  • Each activity needs a leader

1B5i1. Activity issues Overview
  • Description
  • Describe enough background to the activity for
    people to quickly gather where it fits in
  • Questions
  • How would I describe this activity to someone in
    2 or 3 sentences

1B5i2. Activity issues Approval
  • Description
  • Note if there has been, or should be, any formal
    approval for this activity
  • Questions
  • Does this activity need to be approved by anyone?

1B5i3. Activity issues Goals/objectives
  • Description
  • Describe the goals of the activity
  • Questions
  • What is the purpose of this activity? Why do it?
    Is it important? How does this activity add
    value to what we are going?

1B5i4. Activity issues Deliverables/output
  • Description
  • What the end result of the activity is. This may
    be a specification document, a manual, a computer
    system, etc. They may be inputs to other
  • Questions
  • What is the actually produced activity?

1B5i5. Activity issues Schedule/dates
  • Description
  • Start and finish dates as well as any key dates
    along the way. This may simply be a file that
    progress is shown in or it may be a separate
  • Questions
  • What do people need to know about the timing or
    scheduling of this activity? Are there are
    critical dates involved?

1B5i6. Activity issues Stakeholders
  • Description
  • People relationships. The people or areas,
    including outside the agency, are important to
    this activity. They may be dependent on this
    activity or vice versa.
  • Questions
  • Who would I need to involve in planning,
    developing or implementing this activity? Who is
    the client?

1B5i7. Activity issues Dependencies
  • Description
  • Process relationships. The activities or tasks,
    including other areas, depend on this activity or
    vice versa.
  • Questions
  • What inputs do I need? Where do the outputs of
    this activity go?

1B5i8. Activity issues Key tasks
  • Description
  • Describe the key tasks that make up this activity
  • Questions
  • What tasks have to be done for the activity to be

1B5i9. Activity issues Risks
  • Description
  • Describe the potential risks, their likelihood
    and contingency plans
  • Questions
  • What can go wrong and how likely is it? What are
    the critical success factors?

1B5i10. Activity issues Specifications
  • Description
  • These may be technical specifications as for an
    information technology application or a
    description of what is involved in this activity.
    Will depend very much on the nature of the
  • Questions
  • What do I have to specify in order for the
    activity to get done? What would I have to tell
    someone about how to go about it?

1B5i11. Activity issues Resources
  • Description
  • Staffing, budgets, costs, etc. Staffing costs
    refer to people working on the activity and do
    not have to be exact
  • Questions
  • How much is this activity costing in terms of
    people and money?

1B5i12. Activity issues Training
  • Description
  • Training that may be required to enable this
    activity to be done
  • Questions
  • What skills would someone need to do this
    activity? For example, software, acceptance
    testing, negotiation and procurement

1B5i13. Activity issues Performance measures
  • Description
  • The performance measures against which the
    success of this activity will be measured
  • Questions
  • How will I know if this activity has been

1B5i14. Activity issues Management Information
  • Description
  • Information that can be extracted from the
    activity to inform people about the progress, et.
    And also to provide data for analysis (number of
    people paid, number of EAs)
  • Questions
  • What information from this activity will help
    people know how many things are going or assist
    in analyzing the activity later?

1B5i15. Activity issues Testing
  • Description
  • The testing plan for this activity
  • Questions
  • How will I test this activity to be confident
    that it will work or that the right outcomes will
    be achieved?

1B5i16. Activity issues Evaluation
  • Description
  • The evaluation plan for the activity
  • Questions
  • How will this activity be evaluation? How will
    other items in this table contribute to the
    evaluation? How has previous feedback been dealt

1B5i17. Activity issues Reporting
  • Description
  • Information about the level and detail for
    reporting on this activity. Name and location of
    relevant project management software file
  • Questions
  • What do I have to report, and how often, so that
    people know the status of this activity?

1B5i18. Activity issues Documentation
  • Description
  • Describe what documentation exists about this
    activity. This may be other items in the table
    such as specifications, etc
  • Questions
  • What would I tell someone who wanted to learn
    about this activity to read?

1B5i19. Activity issues Service agreement
  • Description
  • Details of any service agreement associated with
    this activity
  • Questions
  • If other persons are doing some work on this
    activity for me, what agreement should I have in
    place with them?

1B5i20. Activity issues Closure
  • Description
  • How the activity is closed. What occurs when the
    activity is finished
  • Questions
  • How do I know when this activity is finished? Who
    needs to be told?

1B5d. Tasks
  • Tasks are parts of activities
  • You need to plan the tasks
  • Someone has to be responsible for each task
  • Transitions each task has to fit into the whole

1B5f. Issues
  • Timing and resources are everything!
  • An issues table is useful (see table)

1B5g. Risks
  • Risks are events that could occur and in some
    way have a negative impact on the success of the
  • Risk must be controlled

1B6. Census planning Monitoring project plans
  • The most important components to track
  • The calendar time for completing the task
  • Resource usage per task
  • Cost per task
  • Milestones

1B6. Census planning Monitoring project plans
  1. What to review
  2. What to report and to whom

1B6a. Monitoring project plans Status
  1. Status of tasks (not started, started, or
  2. Status of important milestones
  3. Progress (percentage completed, or, preferably,
    estimated time to complete)
  4. Actual start and end dates

1B6a. Monitoring project plans Status
  • Special attention to
  • Slippage of critical tasks leading up to a
  • Critically late tasks, indicating that that the
    estimated time to complete is later than the
    planned finish date
  • An over-commitment of resources in the remainder
    of the project
  • Too many tasks appearing to be nearly complete
    99 complete syndrome
  • Rebase-lining. If the project cannot complete on
    time, then have to extend on Gantt chart of other

1B7. Developing a budget
  • Have to think about the TOTAL budget
  • Also, what happens over time, flow of costs
  • Allotments for different activities
  • Salary costs year by year
  • Other costs year by year

1B7. Developing a budget
  • Ways of estimating budgets
  • Based on the same allocations received for the
    previous census, brought up to current prices by
    adjusting for
  • Inflators for increased costs (e.g., salaries)
  • Deflators for efficiency gains (new technology)
  • Policy changes
  • Population increases
  • b) Based on previous expenditure pattern,
  • c) Zero based using costing models to establish
    the requirements of each phase

1B7a. Monitoring the budget
  • Must monitor each project re budget
  • Check regularly
  • Look ahead to possible problems
  • Should implement formal mechanisms for checking
  • REMEMBER Enumeration itself is always the
    largest cost

1B7. Developing a budget
  • Monitoring the budget using forward estimates
  • Managers can bid for increases or indicate
    savings in resources over time and/or reallocate
    expenditures between different financial years or
  • Bids can be considered by senior census
    management, taking all bids for all years into
    account at one time

(No Transcript)
1B7. Items in a census budget
  • Salaries Salaries for both permanent staff from
    the census agency, and temporary field operations
    and data processing staff, usually calculated
    separately, and allowing for overtime
  • Travel and subsistence all fares and per diem
  • Vehicles Cost of purchase and/or hire of cars,
    boats and aircraft
  • Office consumables stationary, folders, pens,
  • Printing questionnaire all printing costs
    (paper, printing) associated with the census
  • Manuals all instruction manuals

1B7. Items in a census budget -- continued
  • Mapping
  • Data maintenance Costs associated with
    maintaining and updating map data
  • Equipment Computer hardware, etc
  • Development Software development costs
  • Printing Map printing

1B7. Items in a census budget -- continued
  • Form packing and transport Distribution and
    return of census forms and associated material
    for field operations
  • Enumerator equipment Satchels, pens, clipboards,
  • Public relations Publicity costs (e.g.,
    pamphlets, posters)
  • Training Production of training guides
  • Consultants/contractors Cost of external
    consultants providing advice and/or services

1B7. Items in a census budget -- continued
  • Publications Printing and development costs of
    publications containing census results
  • Product development Development costs for census
    output products
  • Telephone and postage Ongoing telephone and
    postal costs
  • Storage Storage costs for census forms and maps
  • Security Costs associated with securing census
    forms and data
  • Taxes Any applicable government taxes
  • Equipment purchases office machines and computers

1B7. Items in a census budget -- continued
  • Software licenses Cost of purchasing
    off-the-shelf software
  • Software development Cost of developing
    census-specific software
  • Office lease Any rental costs of buildings
    required for data processing, etc
  • Office running costs Fuel, electricity, cleaning
  • Office equipment expenses Cost of equipping
  • Travel Cost associated with the travel of census

1C. Quality assurance
  1. Introduction
  2. The role of managers
  3. Quality improvement and the census

1C1. Quality assurance -- Introduction
  • Four attributes of quality assurance
  • Relevance
  • Cost
  • Timeliness
  • Data quality (or accuracy)

1C1. Quality assurance -- Introduction
  • The three attributes cost, timeliness, accuracy
    are essentially trade-offs
  • Regular measures
  • Highly repetitive as soon as you learn one task
    you move on
  • Complete evaluation of each phase
  • Remember that People Rule!
  • Also traditional quality control
  • Think about improvement more than correction

1C1. Quality assurance -- Introduction
  • Quality relies on
  • Established, documented processes
  • Systems to monitor the outcomes of these
  • Active encouragement by management to involve
    staff undertaking the processes in identifying
    and resolving deficiencies in quality

1C1. Quality assurance -- Introduction
  • How errors in process are detrimental
  • Adds significantly to the cost of the operation
  • Errors in the inspection process can fail to
    detect true errors or falsely identify errors
  • The correction process can introduce errors into
    the data
  • Operators take less responsibility for the
    quality of their work, believing it to be the
    responsibility of the inspectors
  • Where a sample of units is inspected, the quality
    of data is only ensured for those units that are

1C1. Quality assurance circle
Measure quality
Implement corrective action
Identify most Important quality problem
Identify root causes of problem
Table . Percentage of costs spent on items Table . Percentage of costs spent on items Table . Percentage of costs spent on items Table . Percentage of costs spent on items
Item Australia Kyrgyzstan Kazakhstan Cambodia
Total 100 100 100 100
Enumerator salaries 24 16 29 0
Data processing 14 5 3 0
Census agency staff 15 15 3 25
Hardware/software 6 35 2 26
Form printing 3 6 5  
Mapping 3 3 1 3
Office equipment 3 3 1 1
Building costs 3 2    
Transport/per diem   13 20 6
Other costs 29 2 36 39
Source UN Census Management handbook Source UN Census Management handbook Source UN Census Management handbook Source UN Census Management handbook  
Note For Cambodia, census agency staff includes enumeration and data processing Note For Cambodia, census agency staff includes enumeration and data processing Note For Cambodia, census agency staff includes enumeration and data processing Note For Cambodia, census agency staff includes enumeration and data processing

1C2. Quality assurance Role of Managers
  • Managers must manage
  • Environment we all have to be in the same canoe,
    paddling the same direction
  • Client expectations must be known
  • Processes must be understoof and documented for
  • What they DO, rather than what they SAY
  • Stress teams over individuals
  • But sometimes individuals have to be blamed
  • Must have culture of looking at the BIG picture

1C3. Quality assurance Quality improvement and
the census
  • The quality circle can be applied to the entire
    census cycle with
  • Performance in the previous phase being evaluated
    at any given level of detail
  • Problems with quality ranked in order of
  • Root causes identified and corrective action

Quality Circle Dependency Chart
  • Evaluation
  • Data quality
  • Process
  • Products/
  • Services

Topic selection
Dissemin- ation
Classification and subject matter specialists
Form design And testing
Data processing
Field operations
Quality Circle Dependency Chart
  • Can start at any point
  • Quality control circle superimposed on census

1C3. Quality assurance Quality improvement and
the census
  1. Topic selection
  2. Form design and testing
  3. Field operations
  4. Processing
  5. Dissemination
  6. Evaluation

1C3a. Quality improvement and the census Topic
  • Product must be relevant
  • Need to cover all areas and all subjects
  • Must finish one census completely before going on
    to the next one

1C3b. Quality improvement and the census Form
design and testing
  • Must Design and test the forms
  • These are key and must be accounted
  • The dissemination team, to ensure that the
    questions asked will deliver the data to meet the
    needs of the users
  • The subject matter specialist team
  • The team responsible for developing the
    processing system
  • The field operations team, which is responsible
    for training the enumeration workforce and
    printing the forms

1C3c. Quality improvement and the census Field
  • Must test all field operations
  • The internal client is the Processing group
  • This is an iterative process
  • Quality monitoring for each phase
  • Quality difficult during enumeration because time
    is so short BUT must do it
  • Look at problem enumerators
  • Quality of enumeration

1C3c. Quality improvement and the census Field
  • Quality circle mechanisms in play
  • Demarcation of enumeration areas
  • Map production
  • Form printing, where a sample of forms is
    rigorously tested for adherence to standards

1C3c. Quality improvement and the census Field
  • Quality circle mechanisms to be achieved during
  • Clearly establishing the aims of the field
    operations phase
  • Applying thoroughly documented procedures
  • Ensuring that the enumerators understand their
    role through appropriate training and providing
    inspection of corrupted forms
  • Providing opportunities for field staff to be
    observed operating on the job for feedback and

1C3c. Quality improvement and the census Field
  • General overview of quality of enumeration from
  • The use of techniques such as post-enumeration
    surveys to gauge the level of under-enumeration
    of people and dwellings
  • Feedback from field staff
  • Measures of the quality of any coding undertaken
    by field staff
  • Mechanisms that may be in place to handle queries
    from the public

1C3d. Quality improvement and the census
  • Dissemination is the product
  • Dissemination and processing areas must agree on
    a format
  • Make sure products are compatible with those from
    other collections
  • Extensive testing of processing
  • Processing cannot improve accuracy

1C3e. Quality improvement and the census
  • Easy to overlook
  • Manage quality in dissemination
  • Deliver relevant products WHILE
  • Maintaining accuracy AND
  • Timeliness and within cost

1C3f. Quality improvement and the census
  • Evaluation throughout
  • All aspects of the census
  • Accuracy of census data
  • 2 stages (1) preliminary for all, (2) after for
    a few
  • Evaluations must be made available

1D. Management structure
  1. Introduction usually within Stats
  2. Generic management structure
  3. Management of the operational aspects

1D2. Management structure Generic management
  1. Census agency executive officer
  2. Deputy executive officers
  3. Project managers
  4. Project teams
  5. Project board
  6. Use of advisory committees
  7. Differences between development and operational

1D2. Management structure Generic management
  • Need to make sure that census results can be used
    in planning the next census
  • Keep open options for various aspects of census
  • Chart roles and responsibilities
  • Keep in mind can shift staff around during process

Top-level management structure
Census agency Executive officer
Project board
Statistical Agency executive
Deputy Executive officer
Advisory committees
Deputy Executive officer
Project Manager processing
Project manager Planning administration
Project Manager preparations
Project Manager dissemination
Project Manager evaluation
Project Manager Field operations
1D2a. Management structure Census agency
executive officer
  • Responsibilities
  • Establishing strategic directions for the census
  • Setting expectations and outcomes
  • Taking on responsibility for assessing and
    ratifying the census programs feasibility and
    achievement of outcomes
  • Ensuring that the census programs scope aligns
    with the requirements of the stakeholder groups
  • Providing those directly involved in the census
    with guidance on strategic issues
  • Ensuring that effort and expenditure are
    appropriate to stakeholder expectations

1D2a. Management structure Census agency
executive officer -- cont
  • Keeping the census programs scope under control
    as emerging issues force changes to be considered
  • Reconciling difference in opinion and approach
    between stakeholders and resolving disputes
    arising from them
  • Communicating expectations and critical decisions
    to the executive management of the statistical
  • Allocating project resources
  • Addressing any issue that has major implications
    for the census program

1D2c. Management structure Project managers
  • Responsibilities
  • Developing and maintaining project plans
  • Managing and monitoring project activity through
    use of detailed plans and schedules
  • Reporting to the deputy executive officers as
  • Managing stakeholder expectations
  • Liaising with all project stakeholders

1D2c. Management structure Project managers
  • Fostering communication among all project
  • Negotiating the resolution of technical issues
  • Completing the project on time and to budget
  • Ensuring the quality of the deliverables

1D2d. Management structure Project teams
  • Project teams are responsible for
  • Completion of project task to the agreed
  • Completion of project taks to agreed and accepted
    levels of quality
  • Peer group reviews of project outputs

Project team structure
Project manager Field operations
Project team Field mapping
Project team recruitment
Project team training
Project team Dispatch and return
1D2e. Management structure Project board
  • Major stakeholders
  • Advisory
  • Representatives from various parts of statistics
  • Can continue to identify problems

1D2f. Management structure Use of advisory
  • Types of advisory committees
  • An information technology review panel, to ensure
    that the most effective use is made of technology
  • System user review groups, to ensure that the
    views of the people who will operate the system
    are considered
  • Client advisory groups, to provide advice on the
    need for statistical output in specific areas.
  • Technical advisory panels, for example, a panel
    of methodologists may be helpful in determining
    sampling rates on employment for pay levels, etc

1D3. Management of the operational aspects
  • Three main operational aspects
  • Field operations phase
  • Processing phase
  • Dissemination phase
  • Project management tools to manage timetables and
    other deliverables

Field operations management structure
Project manager Field operations
Regional office Operations management
Regional/deputy Regional managers
Other regional Office staff
1D3c. Management of the operational aspects
Dissemination phase
  • Management for dissemination
  • A great deal of attention paid to coordination
    with the enumeration and processing systems
  • Due attention given to the use of standard
    classifications across the entire range of
  • A process that is based on a clearly spelt out
    set of user objectives

1E. Software and hardware evaluation and
  1. Introduction
  2. Evaluating software
  3. Acquiring software
  4. Developing software applications in-house
  5. Evaluating hardware needs
  6. Acquiring hardware

1E1. Evaluating software/hardware Introduction
  • Purpose
  • Data capture method
  • Budget
  • Others experiences

1E2. Evaluating software
  • Software must meet needs and must evaluate
    against criteria. Criteria
  • Software is easy to learn and use
  • Is integrated tool that provides a common
  • An easy development environment for user
  • Easy-to-use programmer development environment,
    including configuration management, testing and
    debugging facilities incorporating breakpoints
    and step-through capabilities
  • Software can display required objects such as
    form images, if applicable
  • Software has strategic value to the organization
    responsible for the census and other statistics

1E2. Evaluating software cont
  • Software is compatible with current industry
  • Current expertise in the agency Are experienced
    programmers in it readily available what level
    of training and support is required? what
    support from the supplier?
  • Evidence of current strength and longer-term
    viability of the supplier
  • Software is sourced locally or internationally
  • Well-recognized and used business with known
    products compatible with current trends
    supplier is financially secure

1E2. Evaluating software cont
  • Test process for evaluating software should
  • Obtain test copies
  • Develop test prototypes, and test packs
  • Detail implications on and for the organizations
    computer environment
  • Get access to reference sites and demonstrations
    relating to the supplier and its products and
    gauge user satisfaction

1E2. Evaluating software cont
  1. Ensure a viable support mechanism
  2. Conduct tests according to previously established
  3. Assess and document upgrade policy
  4. Determine full costing
  5. Produce a report on the evaluation process

1E3. Acquiring software
  1. Package software
  2. Contracting specific functionality for parts of
  3. Contracting out complete software systems

1E3. Acquiring software cont
  • Ways of acquiring software
  • Purchasing complete off-the-shelf packages that
    require no further development
  • Purchasing packages that can be further developed
    for census-specific activities
  • Contracting out the provision of specific
    functionality for parts of systems
  • Contracting for externally developed software for
    complete systems
  • Obtaining free software such as IMPS or CSPro

1E3. Acquiring software -- cont
  • Evaluate specific software for the following
  • Country size
  • Data entry
  • Editing
  • Fast tabulations
  • Tabulations
  • Camera ready

1E3. Acquiring software cont
  • Why use packaged software?
  • The reduced risk, cost and time-frame associated
    with the implementation of proved solutions to
    recognized business needs
  • The reduced overhead involved in maintaining the
    resulting system by procuring packages from
    vendors committed to their on-going maintenance

1E3. Acquiring software cont
  • Most frequent problems with acquired software
  • Mismatch between package functionality and agency
  • Level of customization required to ensure
    successful implementation
  • Inflexibility of the package to meet the changing
    needs of the agency
  • The level of maintenance required
  • An inadequate level of vendor support
  • Poor vendor choice
  • Amount of effort required to interface a package
    to an existing system

1E4. Developing software applications in-house
  • Why do it?
  • Budget available
  • Technical skills available in the organization
    and ability to retain those skills
  • Timetable for development
  • Complexity of the required software

1E5. Evaluating Hardware needs
  • Consider existing hardware and software
  • Evaluating team
  • Number of phases
  • Initial cost PLUS maintenance
  • Product quality set of standards for
  • Period of warranty

1E6. Acquiring hardware
  • Tender process to make sure of correct hardware
  • Detailed specifications
  • What are the REAL requirements

1E6. Acquiring hardware
  • Rules for acquiring hardware
  • Use requests for proposals or requests for tender
    to control the process
  • Try to keep proposals simple
  • Purchase only what is required, but as much as
    possible to encourage competitiveness in the
    evaluation process
  • Shortlist ruthlessly, focusing on the best
    technical solution and overall value for money
  • Negotiate the warranty period

1E6. Acquiring hardware -- cont
  • Negotiate free training to be provided by the
  • Consider the level of local maintenance support
  • Consider the advantages and disadvantages of
    purchasing locally compared to internationally
  • Avoid being under any obligation to a vendor
  • Consider ethics and probity issues at all stages

1F. Use of sampling
  1. Introduction
  2. Tests before the census
  3. During the census
  4. After the census

1F1. Use of sampling -- Introduction
  • Census phases useful for sampling
  • In tests conducted before the census (pretests
    and pilots)
  • During the census itself (long and short forms)
  • In quality control operations, such as for
    printing and reviewing questionnaires
  • After the census, to produce preliminary
    estimates before tabulations are prepared and in

1F3. Use of sampling During the census
  • Sampling to save money
  • But dont expect too much
  • Consider if you save with long and short forms
  • NOTE UN recommends that countries with small
    populations not adopt long short forms

1F4. Use of sampling After the census
  • Preliminary estimates
  • Preliminary results
  • Post-enumeration survey

1G. Selecting and managing external consultants
and outsourcing
  1. Introduction
  2. Differing objectives
  3. Specification
  4. Monitoring the outsourced project

1G1. Selecting managing external consultants --
  • Use of Numbers of consultants have increased
  • Outsourcing within the country
  • COST
  • Bilateral agreements
  • Tenders committees

Day 2. Preparatory Tasks
  1. Establishing the basis of enumeration
  2. Structure of the workforce
  3. Mapping
  4. Form design and testing
  5. Instruction manuals
  6. Printing of forms and other documents

2A. Establishing the basis of enumeration
  • Introduction
  • Responsibility for the census enumeration
  • Key goals
  • Key stakeholders
  • Type of enumeration
  • de facto vs de jure
  • Method of enumeration
  1. Enumeration timing
  2. Census reference time
  3. Duration of enumeration
  4. Critical dates
  5. Other major constraints
  6. Performance indicators

2A2. Responsibility for the census enumeration
  • Look at what happened previously
  • Usually, the Stats office does the planning
  • Sometimes a separate agency
  • Two structures (1) Internal (2) Added
  • Key factors (next page)
  • Countries have various agencies using Stats all
    must be involved
  • Heads of Regional Offices become heads of
    Decennial offices

2A2. Responsibility for the census enumeration
  • Key factors to consider when establishing roles
    and responsibility
  • The structure of the census agency itself
  • Which agency will undertake the enumeration?
    Statistical agency or some other agency?
  • Number of permanent staff in the statistical
    agency involved in enumeration

2A3. Key goals
  • Need broad goals
  • Goals for a few important items
  • Training enumerators
  • Broad topics (next page)
  • Statistical measures

2A3. Key goals
  • Some goals of any census
  • Full coverage
  • Confidentiality
  • Census publicity
  • Non-compliance
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Recruitment and training of field staff

2A3. Key goals - cont
  1. Accountability
  2. Availability of instruments (e.g. maps)
  3. Involvement and cooperation of local leaders
  4. Consistency of procedures across all regions
  5. Special enumeration

2A3. Key goals - cont
  • Goals expressed as absolute numbers
  • A gross undercount rate of x percent or less
  • A cost per capita of y units of currency
  • Relative to a benchmark or x percent, reduction
    in underestimation relative to the previous census

2A4. Key stakeholders
  • Processing area is one of the most important key

2A5. Type of enumeration
  • Place of enumeration (de facto)
  • Place of usual residence (de jure)
  • Obtaining both place of enumeration and usual
  • Population groups
  • Exclusion of groups in a population
  • Inclusion of residents in other countries
  • Enumeration of the defense forces

2A5a. Type of enumeration De facto
  • Where found present location
  • Travelers where do they go?
  • Enumerators at travel places
  • People at work full time or part time

2A5b. Type of enumeration De Jure
  • Where people usually are
  • Special cases (see next)
  • Avoid double counting
  • Prescribe clear time limits
  • Consistency in enumeration once AND over time

2A5b. Type of enumeration De Jure
  • Special cases to be covered in enumeration
  • Persons with more than one residence
  • Students who stay in hostels/dorms
  • Persons who sleep away from their homes during
    the week for work-related reasons and only return
    home for a few days at the end of the week
  • Defense and other personnel who live in official
    accommodations but continue to maintain residences

2A5b. Type of enumeration De Jure cont
  • Special cases to consider
  • Persons who are out of the country temporarily
    and likely to return
  • Persons within the country who are at places
    other than their usual residence for a brief
    period and likely to return before end of

2A5c. De Jure and De facto
  • Usually resident and actually present (code 1)
  • Usually resident but temporarily absent (code 2)
  • Not usually resident but present in the household
    (code 3)
  • De facto codes 1 and 3
  • De jure codes 1 and 2

2A5c. De Jure and De facto
  • Be wary of double counting
  • Self-enumeration
  • Usually one or the other
  • But more countries doing both

2A5d. Population Groups
  • Groups needing special attention
  • Nomads
  • Persons living in areas where access is difficult
  • Defense and diplomatic personnel of the country,
    and their families, living outside the country
  • Merchant seamen and fishermen resident in the
    country but currently at sea
  • Civilian residents temporarily in another country
    as seasonal workers

2A5d. Population Groups - cont
  1. Civilian residents who cross the border daily to
    work in another country
  2. Civilian residents other than above who are
    working in another country
  3. Civilian residents other than above who are
    temporarily absent from the country
  4. Foreign defense and diplomatic personnel and
    their families located in the country
  5. Civilian aliens temporarily in the country as
    seasonal workers

2A5d. Population Groups - cont
  1. Civilian aliens who cross a frontier daily to
    work in the country
  2. Civilian aliens other than above who are working
    in the country
  3. Civilian aliens (including refugees) other than
    those above who are temporarily in the country
  4. Transients on ships in harbor at the time of the

2A5d. Population Groups
  • Write special procedures
  • Treatment of different groups
  • Define total population for use over time
  • Countries will differ on the definitions
  • But each country needs uniformity

2A5d. Population Groups
  • Exclusion of groups in the population
  • Inclusion of residents in other countries
  • Enumeration of the defense forces

2A5d. Population Groups exclusion of groups in
the population
  • Who should not be enumerated
  • Structure the questionnaire to get what you need
  • How to handle short term visitors

2A5d. Population Groups inclusion of residents
in other countries
  • Exclude long-term expatriates
  • But some do include them
  • Total nationals
  • Enumeration through the countrys own diplomatic
    representatives in the host country
  • Collection from the members of their families who
    are being enumerated in the source country
  • Data will be of poor quality
  • Present data separately

2A6. Method of enumeration cont
  • The method adopted will influence
  • Budget
  • Organizational structure
  • Type of Questionnaire and its content
  • Training program
  • Content and scope of the publicity campaign
  • System of management of records

2A6. Method of enumeration
  • Methods of enumeration and considerations
  • Interviewer method
  • Self-enumeration (including mail out/mail back
  • Combination methods
  • Other methods
  • Possibilities for change

2A6a. Method of enumeration Interviewer method
  • Used in most developing countries
  • Enumerators can be well trained in the concepts,
    instructions and procedures
  • If sufficient numbers of enumerators and
    supervisors ?short time
  • Low literacy ? can explain
  • In EA ? uniform quality and consistency
  • More complex questions can be included

2A6b. Method of enumeration Self-enumeration
  • Developed countries distributed to HHs
  • Sometimes Enumerators distributed
  • Sometimes mail out enumerator pickup
  • Sometimes mail out mail back
  • Need ID and location
  • Literacy near universal
  • Educational levels relatively high
  • Communication is widespread
  • Consultation!!!

2A6b. Method of enumeration Mail-out/mail-back
  • Subset of self-enumeration
  • Cost savings
  • Disadvantage Census materials out of Statistical
    Office hands
  • Determining delivery strategies
  • How to monitor effectively
  • Relationship with postal services
  • Non-response rates

2A6b. Method of enumeration Mail-out/mail-back
method - cont
  • Non-response rates
  • Sampling plans
  • Tolerance rates

2A6d. Method of enumeration Other methods
  • Preliminary Round then followup (Two round
  • Assembly method
  • Assembly with language interpreters immigrants,
  • Individuals separately from their HHs

2A6e. Method of enumeration Possibilities for
  • Careful testing if changing technique
  • Fraught with risk

2A7. Timing of enumeration
  • Issues determining best time of year
  • Desirability of selecting a particular period
    (simultaneous, typical data, few operational
  • Operational issues
  • Seasonal conditions
  • Expected change with seasons
  • Demographic and social factors
  • Periods of long holiday festivals
  • Availability of field force

2A8. Census Reference Time
  • Fixed specific date
  • So, exclude new births, include deaths
  • All structures at that specific date
  • Reference for age, marital status, etc
  • If before, then update afterwards
  • Watch for a rolling census date (see next)
  • If it goes on, people forget
  • Keep same date for next census if possible

2A8. Census Reference Time
  • Problems with long reference periods
  • Insufficient field staff
  • Unsatisfactory map base
  • Absence of sufficient logistical support

2A9. Duration of enumeration
  • Not exact science
  • Magnitude of operations
  • No rushing, BUT urgency
  • Self-enumeration not too long

2A9. Duration of enumeration
  • One-day enumeration period
  • People stay at home
  • Can distribute forms early
  • Longer enumeration period
  • Fewer enumerators
  • Better trained enumerators

2A9. Duration of enumeration
  • Problems with one-day enumeration
  • Large number of enumerators needed
  • Higher budgetary overheads
  • Supervision of work may be superficial
  • More coverage errors
  • Content has to be restricted

2A10. Critical dates
  • Census Day must be established early on
  • Critical dates in the process MUST be immovable
  • Consider the following in determining the dates

2A10. Critical dates
  • Critical dates, depending on the country and type
    of enumeration
  • Government approval of the census
  • Completion of questionnaire design to ensure that
    printing can star on time
  • Start and end dates for printing
  • Recruitment of field staff in sufficient time to
    allow training to end before enumeration starts
  • Training of field staff before enumeration starts
  • Start of enumeration
  • End of enumeration!

2A11. Other major constraints
  1. Cost
  2. Government or other authority decisions
  3. Producing capacity
  4. Logistics capacity
  5. Coincidence of other national activities
  6. Seasonal weather patterns
  7. Security of enumerators in dangerous area
  8. Public attitudes

2A12. Performance Indicators
  1. Rate of under-enumeration, including net
    underenumeration and gross overcount or
  2. Response rates to specific questions
  3. Refusal and prosecution rates
  4. Number of calls to inquiry service
  5. Extent of forms through other than standard
  6. Performance of enumerators
  7. Coincidence of political campaigns
  8. Adverse conditions (weather, civil unrest)

2B. Structure of the workforce
  1. Introduction
  2. Roles and responsibilities
  3. Time available
  4. Staffing ratios

2B2. Structure of the workforce -- introduction
  • General hierarchy
  • Regional manager
  • Public communications
  • Little enumerator contact
  • Main communicator with Stat agency
  • 2. Deputy regional manager
  • Supervisor (or crew leader)
  • Work with each enumerator
  • Quality assurance
  • Administrate
  • 4. Enumerator (see next)

2B2d. Structure of the workforce -- Enumerators
  1. Contact with respondents involves representing
    the Stats agency, answering questions, provide
  2. Clerical work at home and in field, involving
    understanding of census
  3. Travel to and around EA
  4. Spend full time in the field

2B3. Time available
  • Takes time for meetings
  • Actual enumeration period

2B4. Staffing ratios
  • Regional manager/deputy regional managers
    Permanent vs temporary employees
  • Deputies
  • Supervisor/enumerator ratio
  • Too many enumerators
  • Varies within the country

2C. Mapping
  1. Introduction
  2. Geographic classification
  3. Mapping technology
  4. Undertaking the mapping program

2C1. Mapping -- Introduction
  • Quality of the maps crucial
  • Most countries use maps
  • They use hard copies (that will change)
  • Becoming more Digital
  • Need A LOT of time before
  • Geographic systems

2C2. Geographic classification
  • With the mapping
  • Defined for Users and Legal requirements
  • Statistical requirements DO NOT EQUAL legal
  • Census management may disagree with statistical
  • Other Areas for outputs electoral areas postal
    areas, etc
  • Look for best fit

2C2. Geographic classification
  • Design criteria for enumeration area
  • Need to ensure complete coverage of the country
  • Ability to manage field operations effectively
  • Usefulness of the area for census output,
    including dissemination by geography
  • Design criteria for Census Management Areas

2C2ii. Ability to manage field operations
  • Determination of EA boundaries
  • Density of pop
  • Type of terrain
  • Method of enumeration
  • Mode of enumerator transport
  • Area boundaries
  • Special enumerator procedures

2C2iii. Census data dissemination
  • Small area data confidentiality
  • Determine aggregation
  • Postal areas
  • Use of census outputs
  • Compare across censuses
  • EAs across censuses
  • Concordances in hierarchy

2C3. Mapping technology
  • Types of technology
  • a) Hand-drawn maps
  • b) Map overlaps and technology assisted mapping
  • c) Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

2C3a. Hand-drawn maps
  • These are used when
  • No map exists for an area
  • The available maps for an area are too small a
    scale to provide sufficient detail
  • The available maps for an area are considered
    seriously out of date and inappropriate
  • During enumeration, map is so out of date that a
    hand-drawn one is essential

2C3b. Map overlays and technology assisted mapping
  1. Satellite imagery
  2. Aerial photography
  3. Global Positioning System (GPS)

2C3c. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
  • GIS is VERY expensive
  • Issues to be considered
  • Relevant technical skills are available
  • Computing infrastructure is available
  • Availability of maps or digital geographic data
  • Determination of functions to be performed within
    census agency vs those outsourced
  • Cost of hardware, software, maintenance and
  • Cost and time in updating base maps and

2C3c. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) cont
  • Advantages and benefits of GIS
  • GIS requires a significant level of technical
  • GIS requires higher level of computing
    infrastructure than clerical based
  • Clerical can proceed with rudimentary maps
  • Decide which parts of GIS census agency will do
    and which outsourced
  • GIS may produce cheaper duplicate maps
  • Digital maps take up less space
  • GIS gives better quality assurance for boundaries
  • Census agency can have greater ability to perform
    spatial queries against geographic data base in

2C4. Undertaking the mapping program
  • Mapping is the most daunting, costly and
    technically demanding of all census activities
  • Within agency vs outsourcing
  • Other govt agencies
  • Working together various staff within and

2C4. Undertak
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