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Title: Carbohydrates Author: Linda Jimenez Last modified by: LPS User Created Date: 3/25/2006 11:14:12 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Carbohydrates

Six Basic Nutrients
  • Michigan Merit
  • Strand 1 Nutrition and Physical Activity
  • 1.4 Demonstrate the ability to use information
    on food labels to choose nutrient dense foods,
    avoid or limit low nutrient foods, and avoid
    foods that may impact health conditions.

  • The process by which the body takes in uses food

Nutrients Substances in food that your body
needs to function properly, such as growing, in
repairing itself, in having a supply of energy.
  • Nutrients, found in food, perform a of life
    sustaining functions in body.
  • Helps prevent chronic diseases like heart
    disease, diabetes, stroke, certain cancers.
  • Adolescence and Infancy are the fastest. periods
    of growth.
  • Uses more energy from food has higher nutrient
    needs than ever before.

6 main categories of nutrients
Source Per Day
Carbohydrates Complex not simple
Fiber 25 30 grams
Protein 2.3 kg X body weight
Fats 50 60 grams
Fats Unsaturated not Saturated
Cholesterol 300 mg or less
Sodium 2300 mg or less
Water 64 ounces or more (8 8oz)
  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Proteins
  3. Fats
  4. Vitamins
  5. Minerals
  6. Water

1. Carbohydrates the starches sugars found
in foods
  • Bodys chief preferred source of fuel
  • Provides 4 calories per gram
  • Made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen
  • Examples potatoes, pasta, bread, fruit,veg.
  • Recommended 55-65 of daily calories come from
    carbs, mostly complex carbs.

Two types of carbohydrates
  • 1. Simple carbs or sugars are present
    naturally in fruits, some veggies, milk.
  • Fructose in fruit
  • Lactose in milk
  • Maltose in grain
  • Sucrose in table sugar
  • Sugars are also added to many manufactured food
    products like candy, cookies, soft drinks

Complex Carbohydrates also called starches
  • Found in rice, other grains, seeds, nuts,
    legumes (dried peas, beans), tubers (potatoes,
  • Called complex b/c chemically more complex than
    simple carbs
  • Made up of many sugars linked together
  • During digestion, starches break down into sugar

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Role of Carbohydrates
  • Before body can use carbs, must first convert to
  • Glucose simple sugar bodys chief fuel
  • Glucose not used right away is stored in liver
    muscles as a starch-like substance called
  • Later, when more glucose is needed, the glycogen
    is converted back to glucose.
  • Excess is stored as adipose tissue, or body fat.
  • Before body can use carbs, must first convert to
  • Glucose simple sugar bodys chief fuel
  • Glucose not used right away is stored in liver
    muscles as a starch-like substance called
  • Later, when more glucose is needed, the glycogen
    is converted back to glucose.
  • Excess is stored as adipose tissue, or body fat.

  • Fiber found in the tough stringy part of
    veggies, fruits, grains. Recommended 25
  • Special form of complex carbohydrates
  • Cannot be digested used as energy
  • Serves vital functions
  • Helps move waste thru digestive system
  • Prevents constipation, appendicitis, intestinal
  • Eating fiber may lower risk of some cancers
    heart disease.
  • Control diabetes, lowers blood cholesterol,
    controls blood sugar.
  • Weight control adds fullness tends to be
    lower in fat calories.

2. Proteins Help build maintain body tissues
  • Muscles, bone, connective tissue, teeth, skin,
    blood, vital organs all contain proteins.
  • 4 calories per gram (like carbs)
  • Excess protein calories converted to fat for
    storage (like carbs fats)
  • Proteins are made up of chains or building blocks
    called amino acids (substances that make up body
    proteins) that can be arranged in many ways.
  • Your body can make all but 9 of the 20 different
    amino acids. These 9 are called essential amino
    acids, b/c must come from the foods you eat.

Two types of proteins Complete or Incomplete
  • Complete Proteins are foods that contain all
    essential amino acids body needs in the proper
  • -Sources include animal products, such as fish,
    meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt, many
    soybean products
  • Incomplete Proteins foods that lack some of the
    essential amino acids.
  • Derived from seeds of plants (legumes, nuts,
    whole grains, seeds themselves.
  • Eating various incomplete protein sources can
    complete proteins
  • Example legumes with grains

3. Fats
  • Supply more energy (more than 2x as much) than
    carbs proteins. Fats contain 9 calories per
  • Also called lipids (fatty substance that does not
    dissolve in water)
  • Like carbs, fats are composed of carbon,
    hydrogen, oxygen atoms
  • Made up of fatty acids
  • Categorized as saturated or unsaturated,
    depending on the chemical composition.

Saturated Fats a fatty acid is saturated when
the fatty acid holds all the hydrogen atoms it can
  • Animal fats tropical oils (coconut, palm) fats
    in beef, pork, egg yolks, dairy foods are
    higher in saturated fatty acids than fats in
    chicken fish.
  • Foods high in saturated fats are usually solid or
    semi solid at room temp.
  • High intake of saturated fats associated w/
    increased risk of heart disease.

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High body fat percentage
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Unsaturated Fats
  • a fatty acid is unsaturated when it is missing
    one or more pairs of hydrogen atoms.

Unsaturated Fats
  • Most vegetable fats, including olive canola,
    corn, soybean, cottonseed contain higher
    proportions of unsaturated fatty acids.
  • Become liquid/oil at room temp.
  • Associated w/ lowered risk for heart disease.
  • Products w/ veg. oils, b/c processing, changes
    fats characteristics. Hydrogenation The adding
    of missing hydrogen atoms-makes them more
    saturated firmer in texture. Ex. Margarine.
  • Recommendation less than 30 of diet should be
    from fat less than 10 from saturated fats.

  • Store energy in form that can be used when body
    needs it.
  • Pad protect organs
  • Insulate body from cold
  • Important ingredient of several hormones
  • Adds flavor help satify hunger b/c takes longer
    to digest
  • Necessary for storage transport of certain
    vitamins throughout body
  • Carry vitamins A,D, K, E into blood serve as
    sources of linoleic acid (essential fatty acid
    not made in body but essential for growth
    healthy skin).
  • Too much fat is linked to diabetes, heart
    disease, other health conditions.

Cholesterol fat like substance produced in
liver of all animals, therefore, found only in
foods of animal origin-meats, poultry, fish,
eggs, dairy products.
  • Body needs some cholesterol but it can make what
    it needs
  • Cholesterol is instrumental in
  • Production of sex hormones
  • Vitamin D in presence of sunlight
  • Protective sheath around nerve fibers
  • However, elevated blood cholesterol levels in
    blood increase risk for heart disease, other
    circulatory diseases.

Good Cholesterol vs. bad
  • HDL (high density lipids) good cholesterol b/c
    carries cholesterol from blood stream to liver
    where it is broken down or used removed from
  • LDL (low density lipids) carries cholesterol
    other fats from digestive system thru blood to
    bodys cells. If more cholesterol is carried
    than needed, a build up occurs on walls of
    arteries. Eventually deposits or plaques build
    up clog arteries
  • Cholesterol should not exceed 300 milligrams/day
  • Below 200 milligrams per deciliter

Raises LDL cholesterol and lowers HDL cholesterol
heart disease Daily less than 300 mg.
Visceral fat is fat surrounding your internal
organs. Too much lead to heart disease
Good Unsaturated Fats Polyunsaturated and
monounsaturated. Lowers LDL cholesterol and
raises HDL cholesterol
Limit Saturated and transfats
4. Vitamins compounds that help regulate many
vital body processes, including the digestion,
absorption, metabolism of other nutrients.
  • Vitamins are known as micronutrients b/c they are
    needed in small amounts.
  • Vitamins do not supply calories, but some of them
    speed up reactions that produce energy in body
  • Of the 13 vitamins that play a key role in good
    nutrition, only vitamin D, is manufactured by the
    body. The rest must come from food.

Vitamins classified into 2 groups
water-soluble fat-soluble
  • Water Soluble dissolve in water thus pass
    easily into the bloodsteam in the process of
  • Excess amounts excreted in urine
  • Since these vitamins are not stored in body, need
    to replenish supply w/ foods you eat.
  • Foods containing these vitamins need to be cooked
    carefully so vitamins are not lost.
  • Adding variety to foods you eat will ensure you
    get the nutrients you need.

Water soluble vitamins Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  • Role in body
  • protects against infection,
  • helps w/ formation of connective tissue,
  • helps wounds heal,
  • maintains elasticity strength of blood vessels,
  • promotes healthy teeth gums.
  • Food Source citrus fruits, cantaloupe,
    tomatoes, cabbage, broccoli, potatoes, peppers
  • Effects of Deficiency scurvy (bleeding gums,
    loose teeth, wounds that dont heal).

Got Scurvy??
B1 (thiamine)
  • Role in body
  • 1. Changes glucose into energy or fat
  • Helps prevent nervous irritability
  • Necessary for good appetite
  • Food Source whole-grain or enriched cereals,
    liver, yeast, nuts, legumes, wheat germ
  • Effects of deficiency Beriberi (damage to
    nervous system, heart, muscles)

B1 deficiency
  • Beriberi

B2 (riboflavin)
  • Role in body
  • Essential for producing energy from carbs, fats,
  • Helps keep skin in healthy condition
  • Food source
  • milk, cheese, eggs, spinach, beef liver
  • Effects of deficiency skin disorders, sensitive

B2 Deficiency
B3 (Niacin)
  • Role in body
  • Maintenance of all body tissues
  • Helps in energy production
  • Needed by body to utilize carbohydrates, to
    synthesize human fat, for tissue respiration
  • Food source
  • Milk, eggs, poultry, beef, legumes, peanut
    butter, whole grains, enriched fortified
    grain products
  • Effects of deficiency Pellagra (diarrhea, skin
    disorders, depression)

B3 deficiency
B6 (pyroxidine)
  • Role in body
  • Essential to amino acid carbohydrate
    metabolism helps turn the amino acid trytophan
    into serotonin (a messenger to the brain),
  • Food Source
  • wheat bran germ, liver meat, whole grains,
    fish, vegetables
  • Effects of deficiency skin disorders, anemia

B6 deficiency
Folic Acid (folate)
  • Role in body
  • Necessary for the production of RNA DNA and
    normal red blood cells
  • Reduces risk of birth defects
  • Food Source
  • Nuts other legumes, green vegetables, orange
    juice, folic acid-enriched breads rolls, liver
  • Effects of Deficiency anemia, diarrhea

Folic acid deficiency
  • Burning of the tongue

B12 (colalamin)
  • Role in body
  • Necessary for production of red blood cells
    normal growth.
  • Food Source
  • Found in animal products, such as meat, fish,
    poultry, eggs, milk, other dairy products, some
    fortified foods.
  • Effects of deficiency anemia, fatigue

Pantothenic Acid
  • Role in Body
  • Functions in breakdown synthesis of
    carbohydrates, fats, proteins
  • Necessary for synthesis of some of the adrenal
  • Food Source
  • Milk, cheese, poultry, wheat germ, whole grain
    cereals breads, legumes, green vegetables.
  • Effects of deficiency vomiting, insomnia,

  • Role in body
  • Aids in energy metabolism
  • Food Source organ meats, poultry, fish, eggs,
    peas, bananas, melons
  • Effects of Deficiency abnormal heart function,
    skin disorders, loss of appetite

Fat Soluble vitamins that are absorbed
transported by fat.
  • Vitamins A, D, K, E
  • Body obtains vitamins in 2 ways
  • Directly from plant eating organisms
  • By manufacturing it from carotenoids in plants
    such as beta-carotene (a substance found in
    carrots, broccoli, spinach, other vegetables.
  • Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the bodys
    fatty tissue, liver, kidneys (unlike water
    soluble which are eliminated through urine).
  • Excess build up of these vitamins can have a
    toxic or other damaging effect on the body. Ex.
    People who take nutrient supplements w/ very
    large doses of fat soluble vitamins are
    vulnerable to these effects.

Vitamin A
  • Role in Body
  • Maintenance of epithelial tissue
  • Strengthens tooth enamel promotes use of
    calcium phosphorus in bone formation
  • Growth of body cells
  • Keeps eyes moist
  • Helps eyes adjust to darkness
  • Possible aid in cancer protection
  • Food Source milk, other dairy products, green
    vegetables, carrots, deep-orange fruits, liver
  • Effects of deficiency night blindness, rough
    skin, dry eyes, poor growth of bones teeth.

Vitamin D
  • Role in Body
  • Promotes absorption use of calcium phosphorus
  • Essential for normal bone tooth development
  • Food Source fortified milk, eggs, fortified
    breakfast cereals, sardines, salmon, beef,
    margarine, produced in the skin upon exposure to
    ultraviolet rays in sunlight
  • Effects of deficiency Rickets in children
    (bones teeth do not develop properly)

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Vitamin E
  • Role in Body
  • May relate to transporting oxygen through blood
  • May be a protection against red blood cell
  • Food Source widely distributed in foods
    vegetable oils, legumes, nuts, seeds, wheat
  • Effects of deficiency rupture of red blood cells

Vitamin K
  • Role in Body
  • Essential for blood clotting
  • Assists in regulating blood calcium level
  • Food Source spinach, broccoli, eggs, liver,
    cabbage, tomatoes produced by intestinal
  • Effects of deficiency Hemorrhage, slow clotting
    of blood

5. Minerals inorganic substances that the body
cannot manufacture but that act as catalysts,
regulating many vital body processes..
  • Minerals are micronutrients (like vitamins)
  • Despite small amounts needed by body each serves
    its own unique function in health
  • Trace minerals are those which your body needs in
    tiny amounts (iron, iodine, copper)
  • Teen years, when growth is rapid, iron is
    especially important.

  • Role in body
  • Helps build maintain bones teeth
  • Nerve muscle function
  • Blood clotting
  • Food source milk dairy products, dark green,
    leafy vegetables, tofu, legumes
  • Effects of deficiency rickets in children
    osteoporosis in adults

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  • Adolescents require about 1200 to 1500 mg of
    calcium per day.
  • Milk 1 cup has 300 mg of calcium
  • Yogurt 8oz has 300 mg of calcium
  • Cheddar cheese 1.5oz has 300 mg of calcium

  • Role in body
  • Helps build maintain bones teeth
  • Energy metabolism
  • Food source meat, eggs, poultry, fish, legumes,
    milk milk products
  • Effects of deficiency weakness pain

  • Not getting enough calcium restricts the proper
    development of bones and results in brittle bones
    later in life.
  • Excess intake of some minerals may be harmful.
    For example, if you drink a lot of carbonated
    sodas, the high level of phosphates actually
    interferes with calcium metabolism and may weaken
    your bones.

  • Role in body
  • Helps build bones protein
  • Energy metabolism
  • Muscle contraction
  • Food source leafy green vegetables, legumes,
    nuts, whole grain foods
  • Effects of deficiency weakness, mental disorders

  • Role in body
  • Helps maintain water balance
  • Nerve function
  • Food source table salt, processed food, soy
  • Effects of deficiency muscle cramps
  • most people consume more sodium than they need.
    It can contribute to high blood pressure.

2300mg or lower (2000) per day!
  • Salt is being siphoned from soups, breads, chips,
    and even baby foods.
  • In America the average daily sodium intake is
    4,000 milligrams roughly twice the amount
  • Many companies are replacing regular salt with
    sea salt. (slice of bread 180mg to 120 mg.

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  • Role in body
  • Helps maintain water
  • Digestion
  • Food source table salt, soy sauce, processed
  • Effects of deficiency growth failure, loss of

  • Role in body
  • Helps maintain water balance make protein
  • Functioning of heart nervous system
  • Food source vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry,
  • Effects of deficiency muscular weakness,
    confusion, abnormal heart function

  • Role in body
  • Forms part of some amino acids B vitamins
  • Food source milk milk products, meat,
    poultry, fish, legumes, nuts
  • Effects of deficiency unclear

  • Role in body
  • Helps in metabolism as part of thyroid hormone
  • Food Source seafood, iodized salt
  • Effects of deficiency goiter (enlargement of
    thyroid), mental emotional physical retardation
    in infants

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  • Role in body
  • 1. Part of red blood cells
  • 2. Helps in energy metabolism
  • Food source red meats, seafood, legumes, green,
    leafy vegetables, fortified cereals, dried
  • Effects of deficiency Anemia (weakness,
    paleness, shortness of breath)
  • teen girls adult women need a lot of iron b/c
    loss of iron during menstruation. Boys need
    iron too for building muscle mass.

  • Role in body
  • Helps break down harmful substances
  • Food source seafoods, meats, organ meats
  • Effects of deficiency muscle weakness pain,
    heart damage

  • Role in body
  • Part of many substances that help carry out body
  • Food source meats, poultry, seafood, milk,
    whole grain products
  • Effects of deficiency slow growth in children,
    slow healing

  • Role in body
  • Helps form strong teeth bones
  • Food source fish, fluoridated water, animal
  • Effects of deficiency tooth decay

Minerals continued
  • 24 different minerals have been shown to be
    essential to good health
  • 6 of these minerals you need in significant
  • Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium,
    potassium, chlorine

6. Water
  • 65 of your body weight is water
  • While you dont get energy directly from this
    nutrient, water is essential for all life
    processes, including energy production.
  • Nearly all of the bodys chemical reactions,
    including those which build new tissues produce
    energy, take place in a water solution.
  • Water is the primary component of blood tissue
    fluids it carries dissolved waste products out
    of the body helps digest food.

  • Since perspiration helps body cool down, water
    also helps regulate body temp.
  • Water contains dissolved substances called
    electrolytes that regulate many processes in
  • By helping to adjust body temp. electrolyte
    balance, water plays important role in

  • Every day you need 6-8 eight ounce glasses of
    water or their equivalent in foods that contain a
    lot of water (fruit veg. Juices)
  • Dehydration (a serious reduction in the bodys
    water content) can result from heavy perspiration
    or severe heat.

  • When the body becomes dehydrated it loses
    important electrolytes along w/ water.
  • Symptoms of dehydration weakness, rapid
    breathing, weak heart beat.

Can you die from drinking too much water?
  • SAN FRANCISCO - THE family of a woman who died
    while taking part in a radio station
    water-drinking contest to win a Nintendo Wii was
    awarded more than US16.5 million (S23 million)
    by a jury in California.
  • Mother-of-three Jennifer Strange was 28 when she
    died in 2007 after participating in the 'Hold
    Your Wee For a Wii' contest run by KDND-FM.
  • The contest promised the popular Nintendo video
    game to the person who could drink the most water
    without urinating or vomiting.
  • An autopsy determined that Ms Strange died of
    water intoxication. No criminal charges were
    filed in the case, but Ms Strange's survivors
    sued the station and its owners for more than
    US34 million.

Drinking too much water can kill you!
The body can not excrete too much water. Excess
water then goes to the bowel, which pulls salt
into it from the body, diluting the concentration
of salt in the tissues. By changing the
concentration of salt, in turn, causes a shifting
of fluids within the body, which can then induce
a swelling in the brain. The swollen organ will
then press against the bones of the skull, and
become damaged. Fluid replacement guidelines
limit water to 1 to 1-1/2 quarts per hour and 12
quarts per day. (Released by the Army in 1998)
Source Per Day
Carbohydrates Complex not simple
Fiber 25 30 grams
Protein 2.3 kg X body weight
Fats 50 60 grams
Fats Unsaturated not Saturated
Cholesterol 300 mg or less
Sodium 2300 mg or less
Water 64 ounces or more (8 8oz)
  • The best practice is to avoid caffeine. Intake
    300 mg per day (3 cups of coffee).
  • It increases alertness, stimulates heart function
    (rate), blood circulation
  • It travels to every part of the body, including
    the brain until the liver metabolizes it, which
    is determined by gender, age health.

  • Coffee, tea, chocolate, cola drinks, and both
    prescription and nonprescription drugs are
    sources of caffeine
  • Large amounts of caffeine flushes water-soluble
    vitamins from the body faster.
  • 5 6 cups of coffee taken in a short time would
    be illegal for Olympic competition.
  • 800 mg caffeine ingested over 2 3 hours would
    exceed the IOC limit.

  • Drink/Food/Supplement Amt. of Drink/Food Amt. of
  • SoBe No Fear 8 ounces 83 mg
  • Monster energy drink 16 ounces 160 m
  • Rockstar energy drink 8 ounces 80 mg
  • Red Bull energy drink 8.3 ounces 80 mg
  • Jolt cola 12 ounces 72 mg
  • Mountain Dew 12 ounces 55 mg
  • Coca-Cola 12 ounces 34 mg
  • Diet Coke 12 ounces 45 mg
  • Pepsi 12 ounces 38 mg
  • Brewed coffee (drip method) 5 ounces 115 mg
  • Iced tea 12 ounces 70 mg
  • Chocolate milk beverage 8 ounces 5 mg
  • Dark chocolate 1 ounce 20 mg
  • Jolt gum 1 stick 33 mg
  • Cold relief medication 1 tablet 30 mg
  • Vivarin 1 tablet 200 mg
  • denotes average amounts