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Guiding the beginning teacher


For the purposes of this guide the title mentor or mentor teacher will be used synonymously for cooperating teachers who work with student teachers and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Guiding the beginning teacher

Guiding the beginning teacher
  • For the purposes of this guide the title mentor
    or mentor teacher will be used synonymously for
    cooperating teachers who work with student
    teachers and mentor teachers who work with

Designed to compliment the Cooperating Teacher
Handbook and the Mentor Teacher Handbook provided
by TWU.
The quality of the relationship developed between
the experienced teacher and the beginning teacher
is central to an effective and meaningful
mentoring experience. Mentoring provides the
beginning teacher with a one-on-one relationship
with an experienced teacher who serves as the
confidante, the cheerleader, and the trusted
counselor. The mentoring relationship can be very
rewarding, both professionally and personally,
for the beginning teacher and the mentor. While
the beginning teacher acquires one-on-one support
and a practical understanding of teaching through
the mentoring relationship, the mentor teacher is
able to reflect upon and improve his or her own
practice by sharing experiences and expertise as
well as his or her wisdom with the beginning
  • Mentor Training
  • All mentors need to be trained because good
    teachers of children do not necessarily make good
    coaches for adults. Mentors must know what is
    expected of them going into the program and they
    must receive training in the skills of effective
    mentoring and strategies for supporting new
    teachers to be successful in a learner-centered
  • Elements of the training may include
  • Roles and Responsibilities of a mentor
  • Using beginning teachers work to evaluate and
    inform practice
  • Analysis of teaching strategies
  • Personal and Professional Support
  • Coaching
  • Strategies for conferencing and feedback
  • Observation skills
  • Effective lesson planning
  • Diagnosing and analyzing student-centered
    management (classroom management) issues
  • Broad problem solving skills
  • Learner-centered curriculum, instruction and

Of all the beginning teachers contacts, few are
remembered as well as the mentor teacher. For
that reason, mentor teachers are selected by the
school district with care and with the knowledge
that their experiences will provide a nurturing
environment for the beginning teacher. It is of
primary importance that the beginning teacher
process be a positive experience for both the
beginning teacher and the mentor
teacher. Further, the university supervisor
plays an important role in assisting the
beginning teacher and the mentor teacher. Because
the beginning teacher is some distance from the
campus, a university supervisor serves as a
liaison between the university and the beginning
teacher, and assists the mentor teacher in
directing the beginning teachers development.
Teacher professional competence1
Major Domains of Professional Competence
Pedagogical Competence (Performance)
Dispositional Competence (Professional Competence)
Knowledge of the Discipline Learners (Knowledge)
Keeping up to date in discipline and
understanding and respecting learners
Effective assessment, planning, instructions and
student-centered (class) management
Ethical Judgment Reflective Judgment Critical
Responsiveness to educational community
Tolerance of ambiguity, attentiveness to self and
Communication skills
Reiman Oja, 2003
Needs of Beginning Teachers
  1. Direction and guidance in initial job assignment
    or placement
  2. Help in building competence
  3. Time to work with mentor
  4. Opportunity to discuss concerns in a setting free
    of evaluation
  5. Orientation to the school and community
  6. Support and advocacy by principal, mentor and
  7. A realistic initial job assignment

Once a student is accepted into Texas Womans
Universitys Teacher Education Program, he or she
must complete a professional practicum.
Undergraduate students are required to complete
traditional student teaching, while graduate
students can elect to satisfy his or her
professional practicum requirements through an
internship or through traditional student
teaching. If the graduate student selects the
internship, he or she must meet requirements of
the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which
includes holding a bachelors degree from an
accredited college or university, passing his or
her content area TExES exam or completing a
minimum of 24 hours in his or her area of
certification (middle and secondary placement) if
a state exam is not available, passing his or her
practice TExES Pedagogy and Professional
Responsibility (PPR) exam and completing 12 hours
of pedagogy courses (EDUC 5113, EDUC 5123, EDUC
5131, EDUC 5133 and EDUC 5142).
When a graduate student is hired as the teacher
of record on a one-year probationary contract by
a school district or accredited private school,
the student must enroll in a two-semester
internship program and he or she is assigned a
university supervisor. (The university supervisor
is an expert in the interns field of study and
is certified to supervise students in his or her
specific discipline.) The employing school
assigns a veteran teacher to serve as a peer
mentor for the one-year internship.
  Conversely, an undergraduate student is
assigned to a mentor teacher who is selected with
care by his or her principal who is secure in the
knowledge that the mentors experience will
provide a nurturing environment for the beginning
teacher for the one semester practicum.   Given
their importance, we trust the mentor teachers
will assist the beginning teachers as they
prepare for careers as professional educators.
Mentor, Beginning Teacher, University Supervisor
Roles and Responsibilities
Mentors roles responsibilities
  • Provides a professional role model
  • Commits to mentoring the beginning teacher and
    following the universitys guidelines in
    structuring the experience
  • Is a good networker, great listener and
  • Knows how and when to give feedback
  • Sets high expectations
  • Is accessible
  • Holds the beginning teacher accountable
  • Provides a view of work through the eyes of a
  • Gives access to someone who has been through
    college, job and family transitions
  • Gives something back to the community
  • Gives feedback on observed performance
  • Offers guidance in business customs of the school
  • Serves as a confidant
  • Makes recommendations for advancement
  • Fosters development
  • Is a friend and teacher
  • Helps Build self-esteem
  • Helps design realistic goals
  • Shares aspirations and dreams
  • Assists in career planning

Beginning Teachers roles and responsibilities
  • Enters into the relationship to be mentored on
    career and how to maintain a personal life
  • Plays an active role in the mentoring
    relationship. A beginning teacher can do this by
    offering critical reflections on his or her own
    practice and identifying areas in which
    assistance is needed.
  • Agrees that this relationship is not entered into
    to find a job
  • Grows and thinks about planning for the future
  • Participates regularly in programs organized for
    beginning teachers. These include peer support
    groups, professional development seminars and
    beginning teacher workshops.
  • Takes advantage of someones knowledge,
    experience, and expertise
  • Observes experienced teachers at work. The
    beginning teacher should adhere to a schedule of
    observations of various experienced teachers. The
    beginning teacher could keep a log to record and
    reflect on the diversity of their styles.
  • Agrees to a no-fault conclusion of mentor
  • Is receptive to feedback and mentoring
  • Seeks out help. The beginning teacher must
    understand that he or she must seek out support,
    be forthright in communicating classroom issues,
    and remain open to feedback in order to develop
    as a professional.
  • Sets aside additional time per month to
    participate in the mentor program
  • Respects time constraints
  • Listens, thinks, questions, and strategizes with
    the mentor
  • Always RSVPs non-attendance to the appropriate
  • Always RSVPs the Professional Development
    Centers Office when required
  • Abides by additional mentor/student rules agreed
    to by both parties

University Supervisors roles and responsibilities
  • Provides coaching to help the beginning teacher
    develop effective teaching strategies and
    communication strategies with students, parents,
    and peers
  • Assists the beginning teacher in developing
    student-centered management and organization
  • Provides emotional support and guidance in
  • Observes the beginning teachers teaching
    performance and provides feedback
  • Assigns a grade
  • Encourages the beginning teacher to seek advice
    regarding special problems in instruction

Principals (or designee) roles and
responsibilities for the intern
  • Participates in mentor selection
  • Assigns beginning teachers to mentors who are
    competent teachers, committed to students and who
    have good people skills
  • Supports and champions mentoring to the entire
    school community
  • Provides release time for the mentor and
    beginning teacher to engage in regular classroom
    observations and other mentoring activities
  • Facilitates a relationship between the mentor and
    beginning teacher
  • Make sure that the mentor and beginning teacher
    meet regularly and that they are satisfied with
    each others participation in the program
  • Creates an environment which allows for a
    no-fault termination of the mentoring
  • Conducts an orientation program for beginning
    teachers and mentors

Principals (or designee) roles and
responsibilities for Intern contd
  • Conducts the formal evaluation of the beginning
    teacher. The principal should ensure that the
    beginning teacher is informed early in the year
    about the districts evaluation standards and
    procedures and is evaluated on schedule.
  • Establishes a school culture that is built on
    collegiality and supports professional
    collaborations among new and veteran teachers
  • Ensures reasonable working conditions for the
    beginning teacher, which might include schedule
    modifications. For instance, the beginning
    teacher could be assigned a moderate teaching
    load, a course load with relatively few
    preparations, few extra-curricular duties, and a
    schedule that is compatible with the mentors.

Principals (or designee) roles and
responsibilities for the Student teacher
The mentor can facilitate an ongoing relationship
between the beginning teacher and the principal
  • Arranging a conference between the beginning
    teacher and the principal early in the practicum.
  • Asking the principal for assistance in
    interpreting school policies, curriculum and the
    nature of the community to the beginning teacher.
  • Involving the principal in introducing the
    beginning teacher to the school and community.
  • Inviting the principal to observe the beginning
    teacher and assist in the evaluation process
  • Encouraging the beginning teacher to seek
    assistance from the principal with solving
    specific problems that may arise in the
  • Inviting the principal to participate in
    conferences with the university supervisor,
    mentor teacher, and the beginning teacher.
  • Asking the principal for assistance in arranging
    for the beginning teacher to observe in other
    schools or classrooms.
  • Seeking assistance from the principal in
    explaining to the student teacher how the school
    program functions through the school office

Director of the Professional Development centers
roles and responsibilities
  • Counsels beginning teachers and designs a mentor
    program to ensure that the program components
    help mentors create a climate for high
    expectations for learning
  • Ensures resources are available to support
    beginning teachers, mentors and university
  • Communicates effectively with school communities,
    administrators and staff
  • Maintains an understanding of the existing local
  • Coordinates professional development
    opportunities for both beginning teachers and
  • Understands the skills and strategies needed to
    exercise conflict resolution and problem solving
  • Develops techniques and strategies needed to
    manage crises
  • Develops evaluations and provides the outcomes to
    the appropriate disciplines
  • Supports the universitys Institutional
    Effectiveness Program

Instructional Support
Analysis of Teaching Strategies
  • Provide instructional support. This includes, but
    is not limited to
  • Regular observation of and conferencing with the
    beginning teacher
  • Support in teaching and learning standards of the
    state curriculum frameworks
  • Refining various teaching strategies
  • Addressing issues such as student-centered
    (classroom) management and communicating
    effectively with parents
  • Recognizing and addressing multiple learning
    styles and individual student needs

Weekly observations are required for all
beginning teachers who are in training.
Plan for learning
Directions to the beginning teacher With
guidance from your mentor, complete this plan for
the class your mentor will observe.
Describe the key knowledge and skills (objectives) you intend for students to learn in this lesson. Why are these objectives appropriate for these students at this time? Describe how these objectives build on previous lessons and how they lead to future lessons.
How do you plan to assess how well the students have achieved the learning/objectives in this lesson? Check all that apply. _____ Observation _____ Written test (e.g., multiple choice, true/false) _____ Oral report _____ Performance _____ Individual or group project _____ Portfolio entry _____ Conference _____ Student self-assessment _____ Peer assessment _____ Rubric _____ Other __________________________________ Why have you chosen these approaches for assessment for this lesson? How do these assessment approaches support your long-term assessment plan?
Describe your instructional delivery. Address each of the following questions. What instructional strategies will you use for this lesson? Include estimates of time allocations. How will the students be grouped for instruction? What activities have you planned for your students? What instructional materials, resources, and technology will you use? Attach a copy of instructional artifacts. What modifications will you make for identified students with special needs? How will you accommodate different instructional levels and learning styles of students in your class? Address each of the following questions. Why have you chosen these instructional strategies? Why have you chosen this grouping of students? Why have you chosen these activities? Why have you chosen these instructional materials and resources? Why have you chosen these modifications? Why have you chosen these accommodations?
Instructional Delivery
  • Address each of the following questions.
  • Why have you chosen these instructional
  • Why have you chosen this grouping of students?
  • Why have you chosen these activities?
  • Why have you chosen these instructional materials
    and resources?
  • Why have you chosen these modifications?
  • Why have you chosen these accommodations?
  • How do you plan to close the lesson?
  • PLAN
  • Describe your instructional delivery. Address
    each of the following questions.
  • What instructional strategies will you use for
    this lesson? Include estimates of time
  • How will the students be grouped for instruction?
  • What activities have you planned for your
  • What instructional materials, resources, and
    technology will you use? Attach a copy of
    instructional artifacts.
  • What modifications will you make for identified
    students with special needs?
  • How will you accommodate different instructional
    levels and learning styles of students in your

Are there any special circumstances that the
observer should be aware of?
Personal and Professional support
Beginning Teachers Need support
  • Click To Watch Video (WMV)
  • Click To Watch Video (AVI)
  • Click To Watch Video (FLV)
  • Click To Watch Video (MPG)

Ground Rules for Relationships
  • Agree on
  • Scheduled meeting times and places,
  • Best means of contact for questions as they
    arise, and
  • Preferred means/times of contact outside of the
    school day.

Mentors Keys to Relationship Building with the
  • The mentoring relationship is shaped by the
    activities that the mentor and beginning teacher
    participate in together. Principals should
    provide release time for both the mentor and the
    beginning teacher to engage in regular classroom
    observations and other mentoring activities.
  • These activities should help the beginning
    teacher improve upon practice and develop an
    understanding of the professional standards for

Core mentoring activities
The activities with the beginning teacher may
  • Meeting frequently during the school year to plan
    curriculum and lessons
  • Observing one another's classroom
  • Conferring with the beginning teacher
    daily/weekly to review performance
  • Formally observe the beginning teacher weekly
    using the observation form (6 times a semester
    for intern teachers)
  • Co-teaching the beginning teachers class
  • Analyzing and assessing the beginning teacher's
    practice in relation to evaluation criteria in
    order to help the beginning teacher improve
  • Maintaining confidentiality
  • Participating in support team meetings
  • Attending professional development activities
  • Providing professional assistance
  • Sharing a few guidelines for expected behavior in
    the classroom
  • Providing ideas for positive reinforcement
  • Assisting in setting goals and determining
  • Helping the beginning teacher identify when to
    write a referral or contact families/caregivers

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General Guidelines for Planning a Lesson
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  • First Week Observation and Assisting
  • Observation is a very important skill in the
    mentor experience. By learning what to look for,
    you can enhance your own planning and
    self-evaluation skills. The observation forms
    were developed in these 3 Areas
  • Observing activity
  • Observing strong point of the lesson
  • Providing suggestions for improvement
  • Was the lesson well planned?
  • Was class time used efficiently and effectively?
  • Were disciplinary problems handled appropriately?
  • Did the beginning teacher demonstrate
    professionalism and work well with colleagues,
    staff and students?
  • Is there a need for a three-way conference ?

Cooperating Teacher Weekly Observation form
Reflective Conversations After the Observation
  • Summarize impressions
  • Recall supporting information
  • Compare plans with achieved results
  • Analyze cause-effect relationships
  • Articulate new learning

Qualities of an Effective Mentor
Think about a significant role model in your life
and the qualities that made him/her special.
Share these qualities with your beginning teacher
to create a composite mentor.
Personal and Emotional support
  • Stress the need for life outside the classroom
  • Be available to listen
  • Recognize the new teacher as a peer
  • Remind the new teacher that making mistakes is
  • Designate time for venting/sharing

Deposits and Withdrawals
In completing this exercise, consider words and
actions that can be used positively, as deposits,
and negatively, as withdrawals.
  • List deposits into the relationship bank account
  • List withdrawals from the relationship bank

Coaching is
  • Many dictionaries suggest that to coach is
  • To teach
  • To train
  • To tutor
  • A set of interactions between two individuals for
    the purpose of mutual professional growth
  • An independent relationship in which we support
    each others learning (co-learning)

Coaching Tools
Rapport Trust Reflective questioning
  • Build rapport through
  • Posture
  • Gestures
  • Tonality
  • Language
  • Breathing
  • Paraphrasing
  • Listening

When To Apply Rapport Tools
  • When you sense that your beginning teacher is
    tense or anxious
  • When a conversation becomes tense or
  • When you do not understand what the beginning
    teacher is saying
  • When you are unable to pay attention to each

  • Paraphrasing communicates that you
  • Have HEARD what the speaker said,
  • UNDERSTAND what the speaker meant, and
  • CARE about the speaker.
  • Paraphrasing involves either
  • SUMMARIZING what you heard, or
  • RESTATING it in your own words.

Principles of Paraphrasing
  • Attend fully
  • Listen to understand
  • Capture the essence of the message
  • Reflect the essence of voice tone and gestures
  • Make the paraphrase shorter than the original
  • Paraphrase before asking a question

Unproductive Listening
  • When listening to the speaker, avoid
  • Autobiographical comments
  • Inquisitive, frivolous questions and
  • Easy-fix solutions.

Possible Paraphrasing stems
  • So
  • In other words
  • While you
  • Given that
  • From what I hear you say
  • Im hearing many things
  • As I listen to you, Im hearing

  • Build trust through
  • Confidentiality
  • Consistency
  • Interest
  • Thinking
  • Withholding judgment

Reflective Questioning
  • Reflective questions
  • Are open-ended,
  • Promote a nonjudgmental process, and
  • Encourage self-directed learning and problem

Reflective Questioning contd
  • Reflective questions help the beginning teacher
  • HYPOTHESIZE what might happen.
  • ANALYZE what did or did not work.
  • IMAGINE possibilities.
  • EXTRAPOLATE from one situation to another.
  • EVALUATE the impact.

Effective Question Stems
  • Some effective question stems
  • Whats another way you might?
  • What might you see happening in your classroom
  • What options might you consider when?
  • How wasdifferent from or similar to?
  • What criteria do you use to?
  • How could you transfer that same strategy to ?

Questioning Tips
  • Have a specific intention for the question.
  • Use the context to shape the question.
  • Use exploratory language.
  • Use introductory phrases.
  • Use plural nouns.
  • Eliminate why?
  • Do you?
  • Can you?
  • Will you?
  • Have you?

Conversation Starters
  • Who influenced your decision to become an
    educator, and how did he/she influence you?
  • What two major changes would you make to welcome
    new teachers into the education profession?
  • If you could make any changes in education, what
    would you do?

Consider this
  • If you know the answer to the question you are
    about to ask, you are not coaching.

Student- Centered (Classroom) Management
  • Click To Watch Video (WMV)
  • Click To Watch Video (AVI)
  • Click To Watch Video (FLV)
  • Click To Watch Video (MPG)

  • Mentors the beginning teacher as he or she
    identifies his or her philosophical beliefs when
    perfecting his or her student-centered behavior
    management plan
  • Confirms the beginning teachers student-centered
    behavior management system addresses the
    beginning teachers responsibilities
  • Confirms that students responsibilities are
    addressed in the student-centered behavior
    management system
  • Reviews the list that explains specific
    interventions the beginning teacher is committed
    to using with his or her students.
  • Reviews the beginning teachers description of
    classroom incentives
  • Reviews the beginning teachers explanation of
    discipline referral guidelines and procedures

The Mentoring Cycle
Reflective Conversation
Classroom Observation
Plan for Learning
What Would a Beginning Teacher Say in?
  • August through October
  • November through February
  • March through July

Phases of Teaching
Phase One Anticipation
  • Begins during student teaching/internship
  • Is marked by romanticization and a commitment to
    making a difference
  • Carries through the first weeks of school

Phase Two Survival
  • Reality hits.
  • Teachers in this stage are primarily focused on
  • Some key Survival phase questions
  • How am I doing?
  • Will I make it?
  • Do others approve of my performance?

Phase Three Disillusionment
  • Extensive time commitmentseventy hours per week
  • High stress
  • Self-doubt
  • Lower self-esteem

Phase Four Rejuvenation
  • Focus on time and task
  • Some key Rejuvenation phase questions
  • Is there a better way?
  • How can I do all that is expected of me?
  • How can I improve this?

Phase Five Reflection
  • Assessment of impact on students
  • Focus on student learning
  • Some key Reflection phase questions
  • Are students learning?
  • What are students learning?
  • How can I raise achievement levels?
  • Is this meaningful to students?

Phases of Teaching Revisited
Developmental Stages of Concern
  • Frances Fuller (1969) asked teachers to describe
    their chief concerns about teaching. The study
    resulted in the identification of three
    developmental levels of teacher concern.

The Stages of Concern
  • Stage 1 Survival
  • Stage 2 Task
  • Stage 3 Impact

Survival Stage
Stage One
  • Support mentors can provide beginning teachers
    during the Survival Stage
  • Look for opportunities to provide specific praise
  • Show interest in the beginning teachers ideas
  • Facilitate reflection on things that are going
    well and on how setbacks can be avoided in the
  • Invite beginning teachers to social and
    professional activities
  • Share coping skills
  • Encourage beginning teachers to live balanced
    lives with time for self, family, and friends

The TASK Stage
Stage Two Stage One
Task Stage
Time/ Task
Survival Stage
  • Support mentors can provide beginning teachers
    during the Task Stage
  • Help beginning teachers prioritize all of their
  • Invite beginning teachers to look at and adapt
    lesson plans
  • Share methods of accomplishing common teaching
    and management tasks
  • Arrange for beginning teachers to speak to and
    observe other colleagues
  • Invite beginning teachers to reflect on their
    rationales for instructional decisions

The IMPACT Stage
Stage Three Stage Two Stage One
Impact Stage
Student Learning
Task Stage
Survival Stage
In the Impact Stage, the beginning teacher is
having the most effect on students and their
learning. It is the mentors job to listen and
watch for ways to help the beginning teacher move
to this stage. The mentor should always be
cognizant of the phases a teacher goes through
and how those phases might align with the Stages
of Concern.
The most important characteristic of a
successful mentor is a commitment to provide
personal time and attention to the
beginner. How to Help Beginning Teachers
Succeed By Steven Gordon
  • Succeed at Coaching, Mentoring and Supervision,
    NC State University College of Education, Reiman
    Oja, 2003
  • Texas Beginning Educator Support System (TxBESS),

Contact information
  • Michelle Williams-Laing, Director of the
    Professional Development Center, 940-898-2223,
  • Texas Education Agency State Board for Educator
  • Capitol Station, P.O. Box 12728
  • Austin, TX 78711-2728
  • 888-863-5880
  • Resources for Learning
  • 206 Wild Basin Rd., Bldg. A, Suite 103
  • Austin, TX 78746-3343
  • 512-327-8576

Certificate of Completion Texas Womans
University College of Professional
Education Provider Number 061502 Guiding the
Beginning Teacher Mentor Training Has
completed the above Professional Development
Program and has earned 1 Clock Hour of
Continuing Professional Education (CPE) Spring