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TOURISM PLANNING

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Title: TOURISM PLANNING


1
TOURISM PLANNING DEVELOPMENT 12-09-2005
  • TON TEPE

2
TODAY
  • TPDi WHY?
  • TOURISM PRODUCTS
  • TOURISM SYSTEMS
  • DESTINATIONS PRODUCTS
  • DESTINATION COMPLEXITY CONTEXT
  • TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

3
TPDirole and function
  • TOURISM PLANNING
  • TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
  • TPDi FUTURE ORIENTATED, BASED ON UNDERSTANDING
    PAST AND PRESENT
  • TPD DESIGNING THE FUTURE
  • TPDi assignment

4
TOURISM PRODUCTS DESTINATIONS
  • HUGE.
  • LOTS OF VARIETIES.
  • AMALGAMSMIXTURES
  • PRODUCT ELEMENTS
  • SO MANY AND ALL DIFFERENT

5
TOURISM PRODUCT ELEMENTS ..
  • ATTRACTIONS
  • NATURAL
  • CULTURAL (based on history, past)
  • MAN-MADE
  • AMENITIES ACCOmmodation, FB, ENTERTAINMENT, ETC
  • ACCES INFRASTRUCTURE
  • OTHER HOSPITABILITY ETC
  • NEXT WEEK.
  • ATTRACTINGSUPPORTING

6
TOURISM PRODUCTS DESTINATIONS
  • ITMC(TPDi) gtgtgtgt DESTINATIONS

7
2 TOURISM SYSTEMS
  • MILL MORISSON
  • LIU bigger than MM model
  • The MM model fits in the Liu model (not the other
    way around)

8
THE (!)TOURISM SYSTEMMM
  • 4 MAJOR ELEMENTS
  • 1 OF THEM IS DESTINATION (most interesting one
    for ITMC- the visited area)
  • THE OTHER IS DEMAND (tourism generating areas)
  • Destination and demand LINKED THROUGH
  • TRAVEL
  • MARKETING
  • CHANGE (!) (start model with destination now
    instead of demand)

9
TOURISM SYSTEM MODEL MILL AND MORRISON
10
TOURISM SYSTEM MODEL MILL AND MORRISON
11
TOURISM SYSTEM (MM) TOURISM PRODUCTS
DESTINATIONS
  • DESTINATION AREAS
  • SUPPLY SIDE
  • TOURISM PRODUCTS (you can only analyze products
    if you look at the market)
  • PRODUCT LED
  • DESTINATIONS SELLERS OF TOURISM PRODUCTS
  • TPD gtgt focus on DESTINATIONS gtgtITMC
  • FOCUS ON DESTINATIONS
  • WITH A LOT OF ATTENTION FOR TOURISM MARKETS

12
Example TOURISM DESTINATION AREAINDONESIA
  • TOURISM PRODUCT, in order to analyze product,
    looking at the market is essential.
  • MAIN MARKETS
  • DOMESTIC
  • INCOMING
  • SINGAPORE
  • MALAYSIA
  • JAPAN
  • TAIWAN
  • AUSTRALIA
  • USA / GERMANY / NL

13
TOURISM SYSTEM (MM)DEMAND TOURISM MARKETS
  • DEMAND (has to do with destination)
  • Supply has to do with product
  • TOURIST GENERATING AREAS
  • MARKETS (people from tourism generating areas)
  • TOURISTS/TRAVELERS/CONSUMERS
  • TOURISM MARKETS BUYERS OF TOURISM PRODUCTS
  • MARKET LED MARKET ORIENTATED

14
TOURISM GENERATING AREAHOLLAND
  • MARKET HOLLAND
  • FAVOURITE DESTINATIONS (long trips)
  • HOLLAND (8Mln)
  • ABROAD (12Mln) neighbouring countries most
    important
  • FRANCE 20
  • SPAIN 15
  • GERMANY 10
  • Belgium, Italy, Greece 5 (each)
  • (often the country of destination attracts
    visitors and the generating country does not
    focus on the country of destination. E.g. Germany
    only aims less than5 of outgoing activities on
    the Netherlands. Still, 50 of tourism goes to
    NL. So the NL focusses on Germany and not the
    other way around.

15
THE(!) TOURISM SYSTEMLIU
  • TOURISM SYSTEM
  • INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
  • ASPECTS POLICY, PLANNING, MARKETING,
    ORGANISATIONAL, FINANCIAL, HUMAN
  • OPERATING ENVIRONMENT working space competing
    destinations, generating areas/destinations
  • MACRO ENVIRONMENT
  • wider environment
  • On the internal and operating environment the
    Tourism system has some influence, on the macro
    environment there is hardly any influence. (the
    reader focusses too much on the macro
    environment!! Instead focus on other 2
    environments!

16
ASSIGNMENT.TPDi
  • ANALYSE
  • PRESENT AND PAST
  • OF A TOURISM PRODUCT
  • (TO DESIGN THE FUTURE)
  • TO UNDERSTAND
  • Assignment Not meant to design the future!

17
TPDi (itmc) PERSPECTIVEassignment
  • (TOURISM PRODUCT ANALYSIS- in real life often
    part of destination analysis
  • DESTINATION ANALYSIS potential area, product
    development directions etc. (during fieldtrip)
  • PRE-FEASIBILITY trying to look in what seems
    to be possible/feasible for developments,
    scanning possibilities
  • FEASIBILITY - pick one or two developments/product
    s and check out
  • MARKET
  • FINANCE
  • GO or NO GO
  • PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PHASE
  • (actual development/building takes place in
    construction phase)
  • (then comes pre-operational and operational
    phase. In the latter the tourists come and the
    PLC starts).

18
DESTINATION ANALYSISPREVIEW..
  • TOURISM PRODUCT ANALYSIS
  • COMPETITION ANALYSIS
  • ECONMICAL POLITICAL CONTEXT
  • CULTURAL AND SOCIAL CONTEXT
  • LEGAL STRUCTURE / LEGISLATION
  • PLANNING SYSTEM
  • ETCETERA..
  • ALL THIS. IS NEEDED IN ORDER TO DESIGN FOR THE
    FUTURE..

19
DESTINATION AREA(MM LIU INTERNAL SYSTEM)
  • MM
  • POLICY
  • PLANNING
  • DEVELOPMENT
  • CONTROL
  • (DESCRIBE, ANALYSE, EVALUATE, SYNTHESISE (try to
    find out what is possible/creative), FORMULATE
    g, DEVELOP, CREATE, IMPLEMENT, CONTROL,
    MANAGEMENT)
  • LIU
  • POLICY
  • PLANNING
  • MARKETING
  • ORGANISATIONAL
  • FINANCIAL
  • HUMAN

Most important product analyze are
Analyze Synthesise implement
20
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT(PEARCE)
  • PROVISION OF
  • FACILITIES AND SERVICES
  • TO MEET
  • THE NEEDS OF TOURISTS

21
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT(LEW)
  • A PROCESS THAT LEADS TO
  • THE REALISATION OF
  • TOURISM PRODUCTS AT
  • DESTINATION AREAS

22
TOURISM DEVELOPMENTTPDi..
  • Tourism Development always seen as something
    PHYSICAL
  • PRIMARY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT there is a physical
    change in environment
  • SECONDARY PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT (e.g. TO develops
    new package using same physical elements no
    changes/ use elements already present)
  • IN TPDi TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IS ALWAYS.

23
TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT? Physical change?YES
or NO?
  • CONSTRUCTION OF A HOTEL? yes
  • MAKING AND LAUNCHING A NEW MARKETING PLAN? no
  • REALISING A BEACH RESORT? yes
  • COMPOSING A PACKAGE HOLIDAY? no
  • REJUVENATING CRUISE PORT FACILITIES? yes
  • TRAINING PERSONEL FOR HOTELS? no
  • PROMOTING A BEACH RESORT? no

24
TPD ProductLifeCycle
  • ALL THE THINGS U NEED TO DO BEFORE U CAN START
    e.g.
  • PREPARATION
  • CONCEPTUAL THINKING
  • GREAT IDEAS
  • PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
  • FUNDING
  • PLANNING
  • DESIGNING
  • BUILDING (PERMISSION)
  • FEASIBILITY STUDIES
  • PROMOTION
  • MARKET RESEARCH
  • ETC.
  • ALL THE THINGS U NEED TO DO TO KEEP THE ENGINE
    RUNNING F.E.
  • EXPLOITATION
  • REVITALISING
  • CLIENT SATISFACTION
  • HRM
  • ETC.

25
PLC TPDi
Tpd activities take place before the operational
phase and take place below the surface
Operational activities..
TPD-activities .
T -1
T 0
Time
26
DESTINATIONCOMPLEXITY
  • ACTOR VARIETY
  • INTERDEPENDENCY
  • SCALE
  • PUBLIC PRIVAT Non Governmental Organizations
    (NGO S)
  • MULTI OWNERSHIP
  • With a destination theres complexity and many
    other elements/stakeholders play a role-context

27
DESTINATIONCONTEXT
  • INTERDEPENDENCY gtgt
  • EXTERNAL DESTINATION ENVIRONMENT CONTEXT crucial
    for development
  • SYSTEM CONTEXT

28
TOURISM PRODUCTS COMPLEXITY CONTEXT CRUCIAL
  • ONE
  • INDIVIDUAL TOURISM PRODUCTELEMENT
  • CAN ONLY BE JUDGED
  • IN THE CONTEXT
  • OF THE OTHER PRODUCTELEMENTS

29
TPD HAS TO DO WITH
  • UNDERSTANDING AND ANALYSING
  • THE PRESENT
  • THE PAST
  • THE CONTEXT
  • THE MARKETS
  • gtgtgtgt
  • All crucial to DESIGN THE FUTURE

30
TOURISM PRODUCT (DESTINATION)COMPLEXITY
  • INTERFACE gtgt SOCIO-ECONOMIC POLICIES
  • NATIONAL POLICIES
  • LAND USE
  • INTERFACE gtgt DIFFERENT MARKETS
  • INTERNATIONAL
  • DOMESTIC
  • LOCAL
  • INTERFACE gtgt COMPETING DESTINATIONS
  • EVALUATING AND ANALYSING THE COMPETITION
  • INTERFACE gtgt DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERS
  • DEVELOPERS
  • INTERMEDIAIRS
  • PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
  • INTERFACE gtgt DEVELOPMENT ltgt CONSERVATION

31
TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY
  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, SO
  • SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IS NEEDED
  • MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE PRESENT WITHOUT
    COMPROMISING THE ABILITY OF FUTURE GENERATIONS TO
    MEET THEIR OWN NEEDS
  • SUSTAINABLE IS FAVORED BY
  • CONSUMER PRESSURE
  • PUBLIC AUTHORITIES
  • INTERNATIONAL LOCAL CONSERVATION GROUPS
  • SUSTAINABLE COUNTER FORCES dont look at
    sustainability
  • DEVELOPERS ECONOMIC IMPARATIVE, PROFIT, ROI
  • DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FOREIGN EXCHANGE,
    EMPLOYMENT ?these aspects are so important that
    they neglect the environment and dont look at
    sustainability just want tourism income fast.

32
SUSTAINABILITYWHO CARES AND WHO SHOULD LEAD?
  • WHO CARES STAKEHOLDERS!
  • TOURISM ENTERPRISES
  • LOCAL COMMUNITIES
  • ENVIRONMENTALISTS
  • TOURISTS
  • WHO SHOULD LEAD? PUBLIC SECTOR BECAUSE
  • Not TOURISM INDUSTRY(!) too FRAGMENTED
  • SUSTAINABILITY RELATES TO AREAS OF PUBLIC
    CONCERN AIR, WATER, NATURAL AND CULTURAL
    HERITAGE, QUALITY OF LIFE
  • PUBLIC SECTOR HAS THE TOOLS

33
AGENDA FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM development (WTO
2005)
  • ECONOMIC VIABILITY
  • LOCAL PROSPERITY
  • EMPLOYMENT QUALITY
  • SOCIAL EQUITY
  • VISITOR FULFILLMENT
  • LAND CONTROL
  • COMMUNITY WELLBEING
  • CULTURAL RICHNESS
  • PHYSICAL INTEGRITY
  • BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
  • RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
  • ENVIRONMENTAL PURITY
  • SEE A PATTERN ?? ANYTHING NEW ?? All to do with
    economical, environmental and social-cultural
    impacts, both negative and positive. Still there
    is a focus on the economic side.
  • TPD SHOULD..pay attention to sustainability

34
Summary WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW
  • RELEVANCE OF TPD
  • TOURISM PRODUCT ELEMENTS
  • TOURISM SYSTEMS MM AND LIU, DIFFERENCES ETC
    (explain and connect both models)
  • Know REASONS FOR SYSTEM APPROACH
  • Know REASONS FOR COMPLEXITY
  • Know IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT
  • See RELEVANCE OF SUSTAINABILITY
  • TOURISM DEVELOPMENT (Y/N) ACCORDING TO TPDi
  • POSITION TPD RELATED TO PLC
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