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Telecommunications and Networking


Telecommunications and Networking Learning Objectives Understand the concept of a network. Apply Metcalfe s law in understanding the value of a network. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Telecommunications and Networking

Telecommunications and Networking
Learning Objectives
  1. Understand the concept of a network.
  2. Apply Metcalfes law in understanding the value
    of a network.
  3. Identify several major developments and trends in
    the industries, technologies, and business
    applications of telecommunications and Internet
  4. Examples of the business value of Internet,
    intranet, and extranet applications.

Learning Objectives
  • Identify the basic components, functions, and
    types of telecommunications networks used in
  • Explain the functions of major components of
    telecommunications network hardware, software,
    media, and services.
  • Explain the concept of client/server networking.
  • Understand the two forms of peer-to-peer
  • Explain the difference between digital and analog

Learning Objectives
  • Identify the various transmission media and
    topologies used in telecommunications networks.
  • Understand the fundamentals of wireless network
  • Explain the concepts behind TCP/IP.
  • Understand the seven layers of the OSI network

Network Concepts
  • Network
  • An interconnected chain, group or system
  • Number of possible connections on a network is N
  • Where N number of nodes (points of connections
    on the network)
  • Example, if there are 10 computers on a network,
    there are 10 9/2 45 possible connections

  • Telecommunications
  • Exchange of information in any form (voice, data,
    text, images, audio, video) over networks

Basic concepts
  • Communication protocols (TCP/IP)
  • Data transmission methods
  • Asynchronous
  • Synchronous
  • Connecting
  • Modem
  • Hardwired and remote
  • Data transmission channels (bps)
  • narrow bands 5-30
  • voice bands 1,000-9,600
  • broad bands 100,000
  • Types of communication lines
  • simplex
  • half-duplex
  • duplex

  • Concept
  • "a group of interconnected computers,
    workstations, or computer devices (such as
    printers and data storage systems).
  • Network topology
  • bus
  • star
  • ring
  • Local-area networks
  • bus Ethernet, carrier sense multiple access
  • ring token passing method
  • Distributed data processing
  • "interconnects sites of one organization not only
    for communication of data and messages but also
    for the sharing of resources."

Open Systems
  • Information systems that use common standards for
    hardware, software, applications and networks
  • Internet networking technologies are a common
    standard for open systems
  • Connectivity
  • Ability of networked computers to easily access
    and communicate with each other and share
  • Interoperability
  • The ability of an open system to enable end user
    applications to be accomplished using different
    varieties of computer systems, software packages,
    and databases provided by a variety of
    interconnected networks

  • Any programming that serves to glue together
    two separate programs

  • Next generation of the Internet
  • High-performance network
  • In use at 200 universities, scientific
    institutions, communications corporations

Internet Service Provider
  • ISP
  • A company that specializes in providing easy
    access to the Internet
  • For a monthly fee, you get software, user name,
    password and access
  • ISPs are connect to one another through network
    access points

An Intranet Also look at fig 6.8
  • A network inside an organization
  • That uses Internet technologies (such as Web
    browsers and servers, TCP/IP protocols, HTML,
  • To provide an Internet-like environment within
    the organization
  • For information sharing, communications,
    collaboration and support of business processes
  • Protected by security measures
  • Can be accessed by authorized users through the

Extranet (also look at fig 6.9)
  • Network links that use Internet technologies
  • To connect the Intranet of a business
  • With the Intranets of its customers, suppliers or
    other business partners

  • The global positioning system (GPS) is a major
    technological achievement that has broad-reaching
    implications for business. Using the Internet,
  • Can find other innovative uses for GPS.
  • Good places to start familiarizing yourself with
    current accomplishments are
  • The GPSWorld site at http//
  • The GPS Overview at http//

Telecommunications network
  • Any arrangement where a sender transmits a
    message to a receiver over a channel consisting
    of some type of medium

Types of Networks
  • WAN
  • LAN
  • VPN
  • C/S

  • Basically, a VPN is a private network that uses a
    public network (usually the Internet) to connect
    remote sites or users together. Instead of using
    a dedicated, real-world connection such as leased
    line, a VPN uses "virtual" connections routed
    through the Internet from the company's private
    network to the remote site or employee.
  • Source

Internetwork Processors
  • Switch makes connections between
    telecommunications circuits in a network
  • Router intelligent communications processor
    that interconnects networks based on different
  • Hub a port switching communications processor
  • Gateway connects networks using different
    communications architectures

  • Routers are specialized computers that send your
    messages and those of every other Internet user
    speeding to their destinations along thousands of
  • Fujitsu GeoStream R980 industrial strength router

  • configuration table. A configuration table is a
    collection of information, including
  • Information on which connections lead to
    particular groups of addresses
  • Priorities for connections to be used
  • Rules for handling both routine and special cases
    of traffic
  • A router, then, has two separate but related
  • The router ensures that information doesn't go
    where it's not needed. This is crucial for
    keeping large volumes of data from clogging the
    connections of "innocent bystanders."
  • The router makes sure that information does make
    it to the intended destination.

Distributed data processing
TSS - Time Sharing Systems
CSS - Client Server Systems
Client/Server networks
  • Clients End user personal computers or networked
  • Interconnected by LANs
  • Servers manage networks
  • Processing shared between clients and servers

CSS architecture
Peer-to-peer networks (p 209)
  • Networks that connect from one PC to another PC
  • Peer-to-peer networking enables or enhances the
    following scenarios
  • Real-time communications (RTC)
  • Collaboration
  • Content distribution
  • Distributed processing
  • Improved Internet technologies
  • Source

Wireless Technologies
  • Terrestrial microwave
  • Earthbound microwave systems that transmit
    high-speed radio signals in a line-of-sight path
  • Between relay systems spaced approximately
    30-miles apart
  • Communications satellites
  • Satellite serves as relay stations for
    communications signals
  • Uses microwave radio signals

Wireless Technologies
  • Cellular and PCS telephone and pager systems
  • Divide the geographic area into small areas or
  • Each cell has transmitter or radio relay antenna
    to send message from one cell to another
  • Wireless LANs
  • Radio signals within an office or building
  • Connect PCs to networks
  • Bluetooth
  • Short-range wireless technology
  • To connect PC to peripherals such as printer

  • Bluetooth is a standard developed by a group of
    electronics manufacturers that allows any sort of
    electronic equipment -- from computers and cell
    phones to keyboards and headphones -- to make its
    own connections, without wires, cables or any
    direct action from a user.
  • Bluetooth can connect up to eight devices
  • simultaneously. With all of those devices
  • in the same 10-meter (32-foot) radius

  • http//

Cell Phones
  • GSM (CDMA) vs TDMA
  • Cell vs Mobile

Digital YES YES
Network Type P-GSM 900 (primary) 900MHz band CDMA 800 , 800MHz band (X1 is available.. but is not being talked about here)
Maximum talk range from a tower (pls. note you will need a carkit for your mobile to achieve these numbers in some cases) 35KM (stock cell) 70KM ER , EER 105KM possible with special towers Approx 110KM
Background Noise suppression YES (Included in EFR) YES
Talk Time Higher due to DTX and the "pulse" nature of TDMA. Lower due to CDMA  transmitting all the time.
Standby Times Higher due the "pulse" nature of TDMA High
International Roaming YES (over 138 GSM countries world wide) VERY LOW 15?
World wide customers 200 Mil 35 Mil
Fax Data YES YES
Built in "Intelligence" HIGH MEDIUM
EDI Concepts
  • EDI is a mechanism for electronic trading
  • EDI replaces paper flow with online transactions
  • EDI architecture ----gt see next slide
  • EDI is for trading partners
  • Implementation plan is a key factor
  • Obstacles
  • lack of transaction standardization
  • high start-up costs
  • EDI third-party suppliers
  • ATT, Control Data, EDS, GE, Western Union, IBM,
    Martin Marietta Data Systems, etc.

EDI architecture
Network Topologies (p 219)
  • Topology structure of a network
  • Star ties end user computers to a central
  • Ring ties local computer processors together in
    a ring on a relatively equal basis
  • Bus local processors share the same
    communications channel

Network Architectures Protocols
  • Protocol standard set of rules and procedures
    for the control of communications in a network
  • Network Architecture
  • Master plan of standard protocols, hardware,
    software and interfaces between end users and
    computer systems
  • Goal of promoting an open, simple, flexible, and
    efficient telecommunications environment

OSI TCP/IP Models (p 221)
  • Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model
  • A seven-layer model that serves as a standard
    model for network architectures
  • Model for how messages should be transmitted
    between two points in a network
  • Each layer adds functions
  • Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
  • A five layer telecommunications protocol used by
    the Internet

  • Internet protocol
  • Each system connected to the internet is
    identified by a 32-bit IP address
  • Four numbers separated by a decimal
  • Each represented by octal (8 bits hence 0-255)
  • Ex
  • Binary format
  • 10101000.11010100.11100010.11001100.
  • A new protocol IPv6 allows for 128 bit IP
  • to look up an IP address http//
  • to find info 
  • http//

Basic Communications ModelStandards are needed
at all Layers
Internet Telephony
  • Using an Internet connection to pass voice data
    using IP
  • Voice over IP (VoIP)
  • Skips standard long-distance phone charges

VOIP (source
  • Bandwidth
  • Frequency range of a telecommunications channel
  • Determines transmission rate
  • Classified in bits per second (bps)
  • Transmission Rates
  • Narrow-band low-speed
  • Broadband high-speed

  • WIreless FIdelity (WiFi)-- used generically when
    referring of any type of 802.11
  • "Wi-Fi Certified" (a registered trademark) by the
    Wi-Fi Alliance are interoperable with each
  • even if they are from different manufacturers. A
    user with a "Wi-Fi Certified" product can use any
  • brand of access point with any other brand of
    client hardware that also is certified
  • http//

Additional Readings
  • Voice over data networks
  • Networking Hardware Quiz 
  • abc of wireless LAN
  • ISDN Tutorial
  • Ethernet tutorial
  • Internet Protocol
  • Thin clients
  •  UNIX/NT integration
  • Cell phones

RWC 1 SAIC, Hewlett-Packard, GE, and Others
Wireless, Wireless Everywhere
  • What are some of the business benefits
  • associated with using wireless networks to
  • collect and transmit data?
  • Benefits would include
  • Superfast wireless connections to the Web.
  • Cost is about one-fourth of existing costs for
    connection to the Web.
  • Productivity gains such as a 45 gain at UPS.

What are some of the challenges being faced in
this useof wireless technologies? What
solutions can you offer?
  • Having everyone online in a meeting can be toxic
    to productivity. No laptop policies for
    important meetings.
  • Enormous pressure within companies to provide
    Wi-Fi in all areas of the company. Which
    employees have compelling needs for Wi-Fi access
  • Cost exceeds the benefit to be gained by
    providing Wi-Fi such as in a manufacturing plant
    that would require numerous additional access
    points than usual.
  • Security of information available via the Wi-Fi
    system. Delay implementation until security
    assurances are met.

The use of wireless networking as described in
the case is both innovative and useful. What
other business uses can you envision for this
RWC 2 Maryland and Colorado Serving Its
Citizens Without Using Wires
  • What is the business value of advanced mobile
    technologies to Marylands emergency management
  • Direct agents toward places where their presence
    is required
  • Give notice of impending natural disasters with
    forecasts and instructions on how to proceed.
  • Improve information gathering on the extent and
    magnitude of devastation.
  • Reduce the amount of manual data-entry, leading
    to improved response times and reduction of
    errors (i.e. address is automatically captured
    and pop-up menus limit possible answers).

In what other government services could GPS serve
to provide business value? Give some examples.
  • States National Guards, to monitor and direct
    personnel in case of an emergency.
  • Emergency Services, to direct ambulances,
    firefighters, etc.
  • Department of Treasury / Federal Reserve, to
    track the location of armored trucks both for
    regular traffic and in case of a hijacking.
  • The military in general, given that it has one of
    the largest manpower and logistics network in the

Are there disadvantages or risks associated with
the deployment of GPS systems to monitor the
location of people? Explain.
  • Invasions of privacy
  • Limitation on the freedom of movement
  • Could allow not only the government but also
    private individuals to monitor other peoples