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Terminal Learning Objective: (TLO)

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Title: Terminal Learning Objective: (TLO)


1
Terminal Learning Objective (TLO)
  • During this block of instruction you will receive
    training on identifying the major terrain
    features, minor terrain features, and colors
    found on a Military map. Demonstrate the ability
    to find a point on the map using a protractor,
    determine the elevation using contour lines on a
    Military map and demonstrate the ability to use a
    lensatic compass.

2
  • Action Identify the major terrain features,
    minor terrain features, colors found on a
    Military map. In addition, demonstrate the
    ability to find a point on the map using a
    protractor, determine the elevation using contour
    lines and determine distance on a Military Map,
    demonstrate the ability to use a Lensatic
    Compass, Basic Land Navigation techniques,
    Intersection, Resection, Triangulation and
    Military terms and symbols for a Map Overlay.
  • Condition In a classroom environment, given the
    student handouts, Prescribed Equipment and a
    writing utensil.
  • Standards Achieve 100 on all the written exams
    as well as participate in the check on learning.

3
  • Safety Low.
  • Risk Low
  • Environmental Considerations None Classroom
    environment
  • Evaluation You will be evaluated at the end of
    each block of instruction, and must receive a
    first time go on each evaluation. The evaluations
    will be written exams or in class exercises and
    you must correctly get 100 on each evaluation to
    pass.

4
  • ELO A
  • Identify key terrain features on a
  • Military Map.

5
  • Action. Identify key terrain features on a map in
    1 minute or less.
  • Condition In a classroom environment, given a
    student handout and a writing utensil.
  • Standard Demonstrate the ability to match the
    terrain feature pictured to the label on the left
    in 1 minute or less.

6

7
HILL AN AREA OF HIGH GROUND. FROM A HILLTOP,
THE GROUND SLOPES DOWN IN ALL DIRECTIONS.
8
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9
RIDGE A SLOPING LINE OF HIGH GROUND.
10
(No Transcript)
11
VALLEY A STRETCHED-OUT GROOVE IN THE LAND,
USUALLY FORMED BY STREAMS OR RIVERS.
12
(No Transcript)
13
SADDLE A DIP OR LOW POINT BETWEEN TWO AREAS OF
HIGHER GROUND.
14
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15
DEPRESSION A LOW POINT IN THE GROUND OR
SINKHOLE. THEY ARE REPRESENTED BY CLOSE CONTOUR
LINES THAT HAVE TICK MARKS POINTING TOWARD LOW
GROUND.
16
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17
DRAW A LESS DEVELOPED STREAM COURSE THAN A
VALLEY. THERE IS ESSENTIALLY NO LEVEL GROUND AND,
THEREFORE, LITTLE OR NO MANEUVER ROOM WITHIN ITS
CONFINES.
18
(No Transcript)
19
SPUR A SHORT, CONTINUOUS SLOPING LINE OF HIGHER
GROUND, NORMALLY JUTTING OUT FROM THE SIDE OF A
RIDGE.
20
(No Transcript)
21
(No Transcript)
22
CLIFF A VERTICAL OR NEAR VERTICAL FEATURE IT
IS AN ABRUPT CHANGE OF THE LAND. THE SLOPE IS
SO STEEP THAT THE CONTOUR LINES CONVERGE INTO
ONE CONTOUR LINE OR THE LAST CONTOUR LINE HAS
TICK MARKS POINTING TO LOW GROUND.
23
  • Terrain Features Test (1 Minute)
  • You have 1 Minute to match the corresponding
    Terrain Feature pictured with the name in the
    left column.

24
Terrain Features Match the corresponding
Terrain Feature pictured to the corresponding
Terrain Feature.
1. .............Hill 2. .............Saddle 3.
.............Depression 4. .............Cliff
25
Summary
  • Review During this lesson you have learned the
    key Terrain Features that will assist you on your
    way to becoming more proficient at Terrain
    Association.

26
ELO B
  • Identifying the Colors found on a Military Map.

27
  • Action Identify the Basic Colors found on a
    Military Map within 1 minute.
  • Condition In a classroom environment, given a
    student handout and a writing utensil.
  • Standard Demonstrate the ability to match the
    Basic Colors found on a Military Map to the
    Corresponding definition within 1 minute.

28
BLACK
  • - Indicates cultural (man-made) features such as
    buildings and roads, surveyed spot elevations,
    and all labels

29
BLUE
  • - Identifies water features such as lakes,
    swamps, rivers, and drainage

30
BROWN
  • - Identifies all relief features and elevation,
    such as contours on older edition maps, and
    cultivated land on red-light readable maps

31
GREEN
  • - Identifies vegetation with military
    significance, such as woods, orchards, and
    vineyards

32
RED
  • - Classifies cultural features, such as populated
    areas, main roads, and boundaries on older maps

33
RED BROWN
  • - Combined to identify cultural features, all
    relief features, non-surveyed spot elevations,
    and elevation, such as contour lines on red-light
    readable maps

34
COLORS DEFINITIONS
Colors Symbols
Black Cultural (Man-Made features) other then roads, and water
Blue Water
Brown All relief features (minor roads and contour lines)
Green Vegetation
Red Major, Roads, and built up areas
Red-Brown All relief features and roads on red light readable maps
35
Check on Learning
  • What does the color Green represent on a map?
  • Vegetation
  • What does the color Brown represent on a map?
  • Contour Lines all relief features
  • Name the Six colors generally found on a map?
  • Black, Brown, Blue, Green, Red, Red-Brown

36
Colors on a Map Test
  • You have 1 minute to match the color found on a
    Military map to the corresponding definition.

37
Colors on a Map
Colors Symbols
Black All relief features and roads on red light readable maps
Blue Major roads and built up areas
Brown Vegetation
Green Cultural (Man-Made Features) other than roads and water
Red All relief features (minor roads and contour lines)
Red-Brown Water
38
COLORS DEFINITIONS
Colors Symbols
Black Cultural (Man-Made features) other then roads, and water
Blue Water
Brown All relief features (minor roads and contour lines)
Green Vegetation
Red Major, Roads, and built up areas
Red-Brown All relief features and roads on red light readable maps
39
Summary
  • Review During this block of instruction you have
    learned how to identify the Basic Colors found on
    a Military Map.

40
ELO C
  • Identifying a Grid Coordinate on a Military Map.

41
  • Action Determine the grid coordinate within 100
    meters of accuracy on a Military Map with in 10
    minutes.
  • Condition In a classroom environment, given a
    student handout (Map), Protractor (GTA 5-2-12)
    and a writing utensil.
  • Standard Demonstrate the ability to identify the
    Military feature in the grid coordinate on a
    Military Map (Student Handout) within 10 minutes.
    Student must accurately get 4 out of 4 correct to
    receive a go.

42
  • Grid Coordinate Scales. (Protractor)
  • The primary tool for plotting grid coordinates is
    the grid coordinate scale. The grid coordinate
    scale divides the grid square more accurately
    than can be done by estimation, and the results
    are more consistent and accurate.
  • Nomenclature
  • (GTA 5-2-12)

43
  • This device will include at least two coordinate
    scales, 125,000 and 150,000 meters. Make sure
    that when you use this device, you use the
    correct scale.

44
Military Coordinate Scale and Protractor
  • 1/ 50,000
  • ?
  • 1/25,000
  • ?
  • 1/100,000
  • ?

45
We use this scale for most Military Land
Navigation Courses.
46
When reading the protractor each half tick mark
equals half of that number. So you will have to
estimate if the point does not line up flush with
the tick marks.
47
  • Note.
  • 1. A military map can help you spot your
    location accurately. The map has vertical lines
    (top to bottom) and horizontal lines (left to
    right). These lines form small squares 1,000
    meters on each side, called grid squares. 2. The
    lines that form grid squares are numbered along
    the outside edge of the map picture. No two grid
    squares have the same number. 3. The precision of
    a point location is shown by the number of digits
    in the coordinates the more digits, the more
    precise the location. For example 1996A
    1,000-meter grid square. 192961To the nearest
    100 meters.

48
How close a Grid Coordinate can get you.
  • 4 DIGIT GRID COORDINATE TO WITHIN 1,000 METERS
  • A 6 DIGIT GRID COORDINATE TO WITHIN 100 METERS
  • A 8 DIGIT GRID COORDINATE TO WITHIN 10 METERS (50
    METER TOLERANCE)

49
You have to read the Map from the Right and Up!
  • This means starting from the bottom Left Hand
    Side. Read Right to the Grid Line PRIOR TO your
    Target and then UP TO the Grid line Prior to your
    Target.

50
Grid Zone Designator EH
12
00
01 00 99 98
154
X
10 11 12
13
51
  • Most Military Grid Coordinates are at least 8
    Digit Grid Coordinates. The same principals apply
    as the 6 Digit Grid Coordinate except you will
    have to break down the numbers on the protractor
    to nearest amount. For example The six digit
    grid coordinate reads EH 123456. The 8 Digit Grid
    Coordinate would read EH 12345678. You will place
    the Protractor on the point and read where the
    Grid Line intersects the protractor and where the
    center of the point intersects the Protractor.

52
Proper Steps to Use Protractor
  • 1. Locate the grid square in which the point
    is located the point should already be plotted
    on the map.

2. The number of the vertical grid line on the
left side of the grid square gives the first and
second digits of the coordinate.
53
  • 3. The number of the horizontal grid line on
    the bottom side of the grid
    square gives the fourth and fifth digits of the
    coordinate.

4. Place a coordinate scale on the bottom
horizontal grid line of the grid square
containing the point to determine the third and
sixth digits of the coordinate.
5. Check to see that the zeros of the coordinate
scale are in the lower right-hand corner of the
grid square where the point is located.
54
  • 6. Slide the scale to the right, keeping the
    bottom of the scale on the bottom grid line until
    the point is under the vertical (right-hand)
    scale. To determine the six-digit coordinate, the
    100-meter mark on the bottom scale, which is
    nearest the vertical grid line, is the third
    digit of the number 115. The 100-meter mark on
    the vertical scale, which is nearest to the
    point, is the sixth digit of the number 813.
    Putting these together, you have 115813.

55
2 Letter Grid Identifier
  • To determine the correct two-letter
    100,000-meter-square identifier, look at the grid
    reference box in the margin of the map. Place
    the 100,000-meter-square identifier in front of
    the coordinate.
  • Example UV 611572

56
100 METER REFERENCE
SAMPLE 1,000 METER GRID SQUARE
46
1. Read large numbers labeling the VERITICAL
grid line left of point and estimate tenths
(100 meters) from grid line to point 12 3
x
Sample point
2. Read large number labeling the HORIZONTAL
grid line below point and estimate tenths (100
meters) from grid line to point 45 6
45
13
12
EXAMPLE 123456
WHEN REPORTING OUTSIDE THE 100,000 METER SQUARE
AREA IN WHICH THE POINT LIES, PREFIX THE 100,000
METER SQUARE IDENTIFICATION.
Example EG123456
100,000 M. SQUARE IDENTIFICATION
EH
00
EG
WHEN REPORTING OUTSIDE THE GRID ZONE DESIGNATION
AREA IN WHICH THE POINT LIES, PREFIX THE GRID
ZONE DESIGNATION. Example
10TEG123456
GRID ZONE DESIGNATION
10T
57
Check on Learning
  • How close will a 6 Digit Grid Coordinate get to a
    point on the map?
  • 100 Meters
  • How do you read a Map?
  • Right and Up
  • What goes before any Grid Coordinate?
  • Grid Zone Identifier
  • How do you read a Protractor?
  • Right and Up

58
Grid Coordinate Test
  • You will have 10 minutes to correctly identify
    the Military feature in the correct grid
    coordinate on a Military Map (Student Handout).
    Student must accurately get 4 out of 4 correct to
    receive a go.

59
Grid Coordinate Test
  • What Terrain Feature is located at Grid EH
    116788?
  • Hilltop
  • 2. What Man Made feature is located at Grid EH
    096827?
  • Water Tower
  • 3. What is the 6 Digit Grid Coordinate to Hilltop
    155?
  • EH 144795
  • 4. What is the 6 Digit Grid Coordinate to Hilltop
    141?
  • EH 092811

60
Summary
  • During this block of instruction you have
    received training on how to find a point using a
    6 Digit Grid Coordinate on a Military Map.

61
  • TAKE A BREAK!

62
ELO E
  • Determine the Distance on a Military Map using
    Contour Intervals and measurements.

63
  • Action Determine the distance between counter
    intervals and ground distance on a Military Map.
  • Condition In a classroom environment, given a
    student handout (Map), Protractor (GTA 5-2-12),
    Military Map (Student Handout) and a writing
    utensil.
  • Standard Demonstrate the ability to identify the
    distance between contour intervals and ground
    distance on a Military Map with 100 accuracy.
    The Soldier must accurately answer 4 out of 4
    check on learning questions as well as identify
    the correct contour measurements.

64
CONTOUR INTERVALS
  • Before the elevation of any point on the map can
    be determined, the user must know the contour
    interval for the map he is using. The contour
    interval measurement given in the marginal
    information is the vertical distance between
    adjacent contour lines. To determine the
    elevation of a point on the map
  • Determine the contour interval and the unit of
    measure used, for example, feet, meters, or yards.

65
  • You can find this in the Marginal Information of
    your Map. It will look like the example below.

66
Find the numbered index contour line nearest the
point of which you are trying to determine the
elevation

67
  • Determine if you are going from lower elevation
    to higher, or vice versa. In figure below, point
    (a) is between the index contour lines. The lower
    index contour line is numbered 500, which means
    any point on that line is at an elevation of 500
    meters above mean sea level. The upper index
    contour line is numbered 600, or 600 meters.
    Going from the lower to the upper index contour
    line shows an increase in elevation.

68
  • Determine the exact elevation of point (a), start
    at the index contour line numbered 500 and count
    the number of intermediate contour lines to point
    (a). Locate point (a) on the second intermediate
    contour line above the 500-meter index contour
    line. The contour interval is 20 meters , thus
    each one of the intermediate contour lines
    crossed to get to point (a) adds 20 meters to the
    500-meter index contour line. The elevation of
    point (a) is 540 meters the elevation has
    increased.

69
  • Determine the elevation of point (b). Go to the
    nearest index contour line. In this case, it is
    the upper index contour line numbered 600. Locate
    point (b) on the intermediate contour line
    immediately below the 600-meter index contour
    line. Below means downhill or a lower elevation.
    Therefore, point (b) is located at an elevation
    of 580 meters. Remember, if you are increasing
    elevation, add the contour interval to the
    nearest index contour line. If you are decreasing
    elevation, subtract the contour interval from the
    nearest index contour line.

70
  • Determine the elevation to a hilltop point (c).
    Add one-half the contour interval to the
    elevation of the last contour line. In this
    example, the last contour line before the hilltop
    is an index contour line numbered 600. Add
    one-half the contour interval, 10 meters, to the
    index contour line. The elevation of the hilltop
    would be 610 meters.

71
  • There may be times when you need to determine the
    elevation of points to a greater accuracy. To do
    this, you must determine how far between the two
    contour lines the point lies. However, most
    military needs are satisfied by estimating the
    elevation of points between contour lines

72
  • If the point is less than one-fourth the distance
    between contour lines, the elevation will be the
    same as the last contour line. In the previous
    figure, the elevation of point a will be
    100 meters. To estimate the elevation of a point
    between one-fourth and three-fourths of the
    distance between contour lines, add one-half the
    contour interval to the last contour line.

73
  • Point b is one-half the distance between contour
    lines. The contour line immediately below point b
    is at an elevation of 160 meters. The contour
    interval is 20 meters thus one-half the contour
    interval is 10 meters. In this case, add 10
    meters to the last contour line of 160 meters.
    The elevation of point b would be about 170
    meters.

74
  • A point located more than three-fourths of the
    distance between contour lines is considered to
    be at the same elevation as the next contour
    line. Point c is located three-fourths of the
    distance between contour lines. In the previous
    figure, point c would be considered to be at an
    elevation of 180 meters.

75
  • To estimate the elevation to the bottom of a
    depression, subtract one-half the contour
    interval from the value of the lowest contour
    line before the depression. In the figure
    pictured, the lowest contour line before the
    depression is 240 meters in elevation. Thus, the
    elevation at the edge of the depression is 240
    meters. To determine the elevation at the bottom
    of the depression, subtract one-half the contour
    interval. The contour interval for this example
    is 20 meters. Subtract 10 meters from the lowest
    contour line immediately before the depression.
    The result is that the elevation at the bottom of
    the depression is 230 meters. The tick marks on
    the contour line forming a depression always
    point to lower elevations.

76
In addition to the contour lines, bench marks and
spot elevations are used to indicate points of
known elevations on the map.
  • (1)   Bench marks, the more accurate of the two,
    are symbolized by a black X, such as X BM 214.
    The 214 indicates that the center of the X is at
    an elevation of 214 units of measure (feet,
    meters, or yards) above mean sea level. To
    determine the units of measure, refer to the
    contour interval in the marginal information.
  • (2)   Spot elevations are shown by a brown X and
    are usually located at road junctions and on
    hilltops and other prominent terrain features. If
    the elevation is shown in black numerals, it has
    been checked for accuracy if it is in brown, it
    has not been checked.

77
  • Measuring Distance on a Military Map
  • STRAIGHT-LINE DISTANCE
  • To determine straight-line distance between two
    points on a map, lay a straight-edged piece of
    paper on the map so that the edge of the paper
    touches both points and extends past them. Make a
    tick mark on the edge of the paper at each point.

78
STRAIGHT-LINE DISTANCE
79
STRAIGHT-LINE DISTANCE
To convert the map distance to ground distance,
move the paper down to the graphic bar scale, and
align the right tick mark with a printed number
in the primary scale so that the left tick mark
is in the extension scale
80
Example
3350 meters
81
CURVED-LINE DISTANCE
To measure distance along a road, stream, or
other curved line, the straight edge of a piece
of paper is used. In order to avoid confusion
concerning the point to begin measuring from and
the ending point, an eight-digit coordinate
should be given for both the starting and ending
points. Place a tick mark on the paper and map at
the beginning point from which the curved line is
to be measured. Align the edge of the paper along
a straight portion and make a tick mark on both
map and paper when the edge of the paper leaves
the straight portion of the line being measured.
82
CURVED-LINE DISTANCE
83
CURVED-LINE DISTANCE
Keeping both tick marks together (on paper and
map), place the point of the pencil close to the
edge of the paper on the tick mark to hold it in
place and pivot the paper until another straight
portion of the curved line is aligned with the
edge of the paper. Continue in this manner until
the measurement is completed.
84
CURVED-LINE DISTANCE
85
CURVED-LINE DISTANCE
When you have completed measuring the distance,
move the paper to the graphic scale to determine
the ground distance. The only tick marks you will
be measuring the distance between are tick marks
(a) and (b). The tick marks in between are not
used.
86
Check on Learning
  • Where can you find the Countour Interval on the
    Map?
  • The Marginal Information
  • How can you determine the elevation to the bottom
    of a depression?
  • Subtract ½ the contour interval from the value
    of the lowest contour line before the depression.
  • How are Spot Elevations represented on a Military
    Map?
  • Shown by a Brown X and are usually located at
    road junctions and on hilltops and other
    prominent terrain features.
  • How can you determine the elevation of a hilltop?
  • Add ½ the contour interval to the elevation of
    the last contour line.

87
DETERMINING ELEVATION CONTOUR INTERVAL IS 20M
400
400
300
1. 370
2. 410
3. 440
4. 350
5. 355
6. 345
7. 260
8. 290
10. 370
9. 330
88
Summary
  • Review During this block of instruction you have
    learned the ability to determine elevation using
    contour intervals and measure ground distance on
    a Military Map.

89
ELO F
  • Demonstrate the ability to use a Lensatic Compass.

90
  • Action Demonstrate the ability to use a Lensatic
    Compass
  • Condition In a classroom environment, given a
    block of instruction and a Lensatic Compass
  • Standard Demonstrate the ability to use the
    Lensatic Compass by participating in the check on
    learning activity at the end of this block of
    instruction.

91
DIRECTION
92
Parts of a Compass
  • Thumb loop
  • Short Luminous line
  • Luminous sighting dots
  • Luminous arrow, Magnetic North
  • Lanyard
  • Sighting wire
  • Graduated straight edge

93
Parts of a Compass
  • Sighting slot
  • Lens
  • Rear sight
  • Fixed index line
  • Bezel ring
  • Cover
  • Base
  • Floating dial

94
(No Transcript)
95
Compass Terms and Concepts
  • Azimuth
  • An angle measured in a clockwise direction from a
    north base line.
  • Grid Azimuth
  • East 90
  • South 180
  • West 270
  • North 360 or 0
  • When using an azimuth, the point from which the
    azimuth originates is imagined to be the center
    of the azimuth circle.

96
Determine A Grid Azimuth
  • Plot location of two points
  • Use straight edge to draw line between both
    points (line must be long enough to cross scale
    on protractor)
  • Use protractor to determine azimuth

97
Map Azimuth
Pt. A EG135801 Pt. B EG158822
98
Grid to Magnetic (GM) Angle
  • To Convert Grid to Magnetic Azimuth
  • Conversion Rule
  • Left Add Right Subtract (LARS)

99
Lensatic Compass
100
Presetting a compass
  • Hold the compass level in the palm of the hand.
  • Rotate it until the desired azimuth falls under
    the fixed black index line.
  • Turn the bezel ring until the luminous line is
    aligned with the north seeking arrow. The compass
    is now preset.
  • Assume the center hold technique and turn until
    the north seeking arrow is aligned with the
    luminous line.
  • Proceed in the direction of the sighting wire.

101
Using the Compass
  • The lensatic compass is used to determine or
    follow magnetic azimuth both day and night.
  • There are two recommended positions for holding
    the compass when navigating
  • Hand to Cheek Method
  • Center Hold Position

102
Center Hold Position
  • Recommend for a predetermined azimuth
  • (DAY and NIGHT)

103
Hand To Cheek Technique
  • The compass-to-cheek technique is used almost
    exclusively for sighting
  • It is the best technique for this purpose

104
Compass use at night
  • All the luminous features on the compass will be
    used.
  • One click on the bezel ring equals
  • THREE (3) DEGREES

105
Attaining A Magnetic Azimuth
  • Place the sighting wire on the object
  • Center the sighting notch
  • Look through the lens and read the Red line to
    obtain the magnetic azimuth

106
Back Azimuth
  • Back Azimuth
  • The reverse direction of a forward azimuth.
  • Is comparable to doing an about face.
  • MAY BE OBTAINED BY
  • GRID (Protractor)
  • MAGNETIC (Compass)
  • To obtain a back azimuth from an azimuth less
    than 180
  • Add 180
  • If the azimuth is 180 or more
  • Subtract 180

107
Back Azimuth
  • Back Azimuth - azimuth taken from a distant point
    toward your location
  • Used in Resection
  • Numbers less than 180 - add 180
  • Numbers greater than 180 - subtract 180

108
Compass Precautions
  • Handle with care
  • The dial is set with a delicate balance and shock
    could damage it.
  • Reading should never be taken near visible masses
    of metal or electrical circuits.
  • In cold weather, always carry the compass in its
    pouch, outside of your layer of clothing.

109
Effects of Metal and Electricity
  • Metal objects and electrical sources affect the
    performance of the compass.
  • Suggested separation distance
  • High-tension power lines 55 meters
  • Field gun, truck, or tank 18 meters
  • Telephone wire/barbed wire 10 meters
  • Machine gun 2 meters
  • Steel helmet or rifle ½ meter

110
Check on Learning
  • What are the two preferred methods of using a
    Lensatic Compass?
  • Hand to Cheek Method Center Hold Position
  • One click on the Bezel Ring equals how many
    degrees?
  • 3 Degrees
  • In converting the GM Angle, what does the acronym
    LARS mean?
  • Left Add / Right Subtract
  • How do you obtain a back azimuth from an azimuth
    that is less than 180 Degrees?
  • Add 180 Degrees
  • How do you obtain a back azimuth from an azimuth
    that is 180 Degrees or greater?
  • Subtract 180 Degrees

111
Summary
  • Review During this block of instruction you have
    learned the ability to utilize a Lensatic Compass.

112
ELO G
  • Identify the proper technique during a Land
    Navigation Course.

113
  • Action Demonstrate the ability to pay attention
    and take notes.
  • Condition In a classroom environment.
  • Standard Demonstrate the ability to use the
    information gathered in class to complete the
    Land Navigation Course.

114
Basic Land Nav Techniques
  • Navigating Past An Obstacle
  • Basically make a box around the obstacle.
  • Accuracy counts, especially around larger
    obstacles.
  • A graphical presentation is made of this on the
    next slide.

115
(No Transcript)
116
Pre-Plotting
  • Consolidate all grid coordinates for given
    mission and plot on map.
  • Determine order in which points will be
    negotiated.
  • Determine distance and direction to grid
    coordinate. Plot. Convert azimuth to magnetic.

117
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  • Use terrain features to verify your location on
    the ground. An individuals pace count is not
    exact and must be verified by terrain
    association.
  • Remember Add up to 20 to distance if terrain is
    hilly or rough travel.

120
Determining Pace-count
Note The following should be done on flat
terrain and dense/wooded terrain. Both
pace-counts should be memorized by the
soldier/cadet.
121
  • Keep track of the paces you have walked in the
    field. It is too easy to forget and be off
    course. Try using some of the following. For
    every 100 meters try
  • Move a bead on your pace counter
  • Place a mark in a notebook
  • Tie a knot in a string
  • Put a pebble in your pocket

122
Things that affect Pace Count
  • Slope. Pace lengthens on a downgrade and
    shortens on an upgrade.
  • Winds. Tail winds lengthen pace while head winds
    shorten pace.
  • Surface. Loose surfaces tend to shorten pace.
  • Elements. Snow, rain and ice tend to shorten
    pace.
  • Clothing and equipment. Heavier burdens may
    shorten pace.
  • Stamina. Fatigue will shorten the pace.
  • Limited visibility/night. Unsure footing or the
    presence of unseen obstacles makes an individual
    wary and pace will tend to shorten.

123
Things that affect Pace Count
  • Physical attributes. Example One leg may be
    shorter than the other, causing a tendency to
    deviate from your course.
  • Unbalanced load. An unbalanced load may pull you
    slightly off-balance, causing deviation from your
    intended direction of movement.
  • Movement around obstacles. Right-handed people
    have an inherent tendency to move to the right
    around an obstacle, while left-handed people move
    to the left. A wise navigator alternates his
    direction of movement around obstacles

124
  • Once you receive your grid coordinates and go to
    your SP plot all the points on your Map.
  • Determine the best method to travel and reach
    each point.
  • Find the direction and distance to each point you
    plan to travel to.
  • Document each direction and distance to the
    corresponding point. (Do not mix the points up)
  • Store your map in a zip lock bag to avoid getting
    damaged by water or other materials.
  • Ensure you place the map and notes in a secure
    location. Do not lose your map!!! Check after
    each point and randomly throughout the course.

125
  • Adjust Pace count for terrain throughout.
    Remember your pace count usually will not bring
    you smack dab in the middle of your point.
  • To search the area at the end of your pace count
    you need to mark the point with tape, sticks or
    other materials in the general area.
  • Begin to use the box method or other methods your
    comfortable with to search the area for your
    point.
  • Remember not to stray to far off course. If you
    span a 100 meters using the box method return to
    the point you marked and try to terrain associate
    where the hell you are.

126
Check on Learning
  • How many meters do you use to measure your pace
    count?
  • 100 Meters
  • During Pre-Plotting your Grid Coordinates, what
    do you accomplish?
  • The route to each point, the distance and
    direction to each point.
  • What do you use the box method for?
  • Navigate around obstacles

127
  • ANY
  • QUESTIONS??

128
Summary
  • Review During this block of instruction you have
    learned different techniques to complete a Land
    Navigation Course.

129
ELO H
  • Identify how to do Intersection, Resection and
    Triangulation.

130
  • Action Demonstrate the ability to identify
    intersection and resection grid coordinates.
  • Condition In a classroom environment. Given a
    Map, Protractor, Pencil, Paper and Compass.
  • Standard Demonstrate the ability to identify
    intersection and resection grid coordinates on a
    Military Map.

131
Intersection
  • We have two OPs located in front of our defensive
    position. Both OPs can see enemy activity. From
    OP1, the enemy activity is 32-degrees magnetic
    and from OP2, it is 322 degrees magnetic. The G-M
    angle is 18-degrees easterly.
  • The magnetic azimuth from OP1 is 32 degrees.
    Convert this to a grid azimuth by adding the
    18-degree G-M angle. The grid azimuth would be
    50 degrees. Using the protractor, plot this
    azimuth on the map.
  • Convert the 322-degree magnetic azimuth to a grid
    azimuth. the grid azimuth is 340 degrees. Using
    the protractor, plot this azimuth. The enemy is
    located where the line cross.

132
  • Step 1
  • Identify / plot OPs or
  • points of reference
  • Step 2
  • Convert azimuth from
  • magnetic to grid
  • G-M Angle 18 east
  • OP1 032 magnetic
  • 03218 050 grid
  • OP2 322 magnetic
  • 32218 140 grid

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  • Step 3
  • Plot first azimuth
  • (050 degrees grid)

134
  • Step 3
  • Plot first azimuth
  • (050 degrees grid)
  • Step 4
  • Plot second azimuth
  • (240 degrees grid)

135
Bad Guys
  • Step 3
  • Plot first azimuth
  • (050 degrees grid)
  • Step 4
  • Plot second azimuth
  • (240 degrees grid)
  • Step 5
  • Plot intersection

136
Bye Bye
  • Step 3
  • Plot first azimuth
  • (050 degrees grid)
  • Step 4
  • Plot second azimuth
  • (240 degrees grid)
  • Step 5
  • Plot intersection
  • Step 6
  • Kill Bad Guys

137
Resection
  • Looking out from our position we can see a
    bridge. We determine the magnetic azimuth to its
    location to be 159 degrees.
  • For the purpose of this problem, assume that
    there is a 1-degree westerly G-M angle.
  • Convert from magnetic giving you a grid azimuth
    of 158 degrees.
  • Next, we must convert this grid azimuth to a BACK
    azimuth by ADDING 180 degrees and plot the back
    azimuth of 338 degrees from the bridge. Our
    location is somewhere along this line.
  • From our location, we can also see a larger road
    intersection. the road intersection is on a
    magnetic azimuth of 117 degrees. The grid
    azimuth is 116 degrees. Back Azimuth of 296
    degrees.
  • The back azimuth of 296 degrees is plotted from
    the road intersection. Your location is where
    the lines cross.

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  • Step 1
  • Identify / plot OPs or
  • points of reference
  • Step 2
  • Convert azimuth from
  • magnetic to grid
  • G-M Angle 01 west
  • Bridge 159 magnetic
  • 159 - 1 158 grid
  • Road Int 117 magnetic
  • 117 - 1 116 grid

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  • Step 3
  • Convert azimuth to back
  • azimuth
  • G-M Angle 01 west
  • Bridge 158 grid from you
  • Back Az 158 180 338
  • Road Int 116 grid from you
  • Back Az 116 180 296

140
  • Step 4
  • Plot first back azimuth
  • from landmark (bridge)

141
  • Step 4
  • Plot first back azimuth
  • from landmark (bridge)
  • Step 5
  • Plot second back
  • azimuth from landmark
  • (road intersection)

142
  • Step 4
  • Plot first back azimuth
  • from landmark (bridge)

X
  • Step 5
  • Plot second back
  • azimuth from landmark
  • (road intersection)
  • Step 6
  • Plot your position

143
  • Step 4
  • Plot first back azimuth
  • from landmark (bridge)

X
  • Step 5
  • Plot second back
  • azimuth from landmark
  • (road intersection)
  • Step 6
  • Plot your position
  • Step 7
  • Move out to chow

144
Modified Resection
  • Looking out from our position along Steam Mill
    Road, we can see the top of Hill 445 to our NW.
    We determine the magnetic azimuth to its location
    to be 299 degrees.
  • For the purpose of this problem, assume that
    there is a 18-degree easterly G-M angle.
  • Convert from magnetic giving you a grid azimuth
    of 317 degrees. Convert and plot the back azimuth
    of 137 degrees.
  • Our location along Steam Mill Road is where this
    line crosses the road.

145
  • Step 1
  • Identify / plot OPs or
  • points of reference
  • Step 2
  • Convert azimuth from
  • magnetic to grid
  • G-M Angle 18 east
  • OP1 299 magnetic
  • 29918 317 grid
  • Step 3
  • Convert azimuth to back
  • azimuth
  • Hill 445 317 grid from you
  • Back Az 317 - 180 137

146
  • Step 4
  • Plot back azimuth
  • from landmark
  • (Hill 445)

147
  • Step 4
  • Plot back azimuth
  • from landmark
  • (Hill 445)
  • Step 5
  • Plot your position
  • where the line intersects
  • the road you are on

X
  • Step 6
  • Drive on Airborne..

148
Triangulation
  • In order to locate yourself on the map by
    performing Triangulation, the basic idea is to
    compare your topographic map to what you are
    looking at, and identify terrain features that
    you are sure you can both see and associate with
    a feature on the map.

149
  • Just by looking at the map and the terrain, you
    should have a general idea of your location.
    Terrain recognition is important to pinpoint your
    location more accurately. Now you determine
    bearings to these features, and draw lines on the
    map corresponding to the bearing to those
    features.
  • The use of at least three lines is recommended,
    and they should cross in a small triangle.

150
  • It is ideal to choose landmarks all around you,
    but sometimes this is not practical, as when on
    one side of a mountain range, with nothing
    distinguishable in the other direction.
  • Choose landmarks as far apart as possible. Your
    best guess at your position will be in the center
    of the triangle that you draw.
  • This process is illustrated on the next slide.

151

152
  • A few points should be made about Triangulation
  • First and most obvious, the more points you use,
    the more accurate you will be able to determine
    your position. Using more points will also tell
    if you have a "flyer," i.e. one bearing that you
    did wrong or terrain feature you misidentified.
    This line will be way off where the others meet.
    For these reasons it is preferable to look at as
    many features as possible.

153
  • Second, be very careful when using man-made
    objects. Keep in mind that maps are updated
    infrequently, and that man-made features usually
    change more frequently than the terrain features
    do.

154
Summary
  • Review During this block of instruction you have
    received training on Intersection, Resection and
    Triangulation.

155
ELO I
  • Military Terms and Symbols for Map Overlays.

156
  • Action Demonstrate the ability to Identify
    Military terms and symbols on a Map Overlay.
  • Condition In a classroom environment, given a
    block of instruction, Paper and a Writing
    utensil.
  • Standard Demonstrate the ability to identify
    Military terms and symbols on a Map Overlay
    during the block of instruction.

157
Military Terms and Symbols
  • REFERENCE FM 101-5-1 OPERATIONAL
    TERMS AND SYMBOLS
  • CHAPTER 1 OPERATIONAL TERMS AND THEIR
    DEFINITIONS. THESE ARE LISTED IN ALPHABETICAL
    SEQUENCE WITH PAGE REFERENCES TO CHAPTERS 2,3,4,5
    WHERE THE ACTUAL SYMBOL IS SHOWN.
  • CHAPTER 2 OPERATIONAL ACRONYMS AND
    ABBREVIATIONS.
  • CHAPTER 3 GRAPHIC CONTROL MEASURES.
  • CHAPTER 4 UNIT SYMBOLS.
  • CHAPTER 5 EQUIPMENT SYMBOLS.

158
Operational Overlay
  • 1. THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THE OVERLAY IS TO
    REDUCE CONTENT AND ENHANCE THE UNDERSTANDING OF
    THE WRITTEN OR ORAL ORDER.
  • 2. THE OVERLAY SHOULD BE NEAT AND SIMPLE BUT
    SHOULD INCLUDE AS MANY CONTROL MEASURES AS
    POSSIBLE AND ANYTHING ELSE CAN BE DEPICTED
    GRAPHICALLY.

159
COLORS GRAPHIC CONTROL MEASURES
  • BLACK REPRESENTS ALL FRIENDLY CONTROL
    MEASURES.
  • RED REPRESENTS ALL ENEMY CONTROL. MEASURE.
  • GREEN REPRESENTS ALL OBSTACLE BE IT
    FRIENDLY, ENEMY, NEUTRAL AND FACTIONAL.

ANY OTHER COLOR WILL BE SHOWN IN THE LEGEND AND
WHAT THEY REPRESENT
FM101-5-1, Ch3
160
COLORS UNIT SYMBOLS

161
BASIC SYMBOLS FRAMES
FRIENDLY SEA OR AIR
UNIT
UNIT HQ
ALTERNATE ENEMY
NEUTRAL
ENEMY
162
FIELDS
163
UNIT ROLE INDICATOR
L
INFANTRY
AIRBORNE
LIGHT
ARMORED WHEELED
MECHANIZED INFANTRY
AIR ASSAULT
164
UNIT ROLE INDICATOR
ANTIARMOR DISMOUNTED
MOTORIZED INFANTRY
RECON
MECHANIZED INFANTRY DISMOUNTED
OBSERVATION POST (LP / OP)
MECHANIZED INFANTRY W/GUN SYSTEM
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UNIT ROLE INDICATOR
FIELD ARTILLERY
DISMOUNTED
TRACKED
A
M
ROTARY WING
ATTACK HELICOPTER MEDIUM
LIFT HELICOPTER MEDIUM
166
UNIT ROLE INDICATOR
MAINTENANCE
MEDICAL
SUPPLY
PUBLIC AFFAIRS
SUPPLY TRAINS
GUN SYSTEM EQUIPPED
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UNIT ROLE INDICATOR
ENGINEER
MEDICAL TREATMENT FACILITY
CHEMICAL
MP
MILITARY POLICE
SIGNAL
ARTILLERY
168
Size Symbols
TEAM SQUAD SECTION PLATOON OR
DETACHMENT COMPANY, BTRY OR TROOP BATTALION OR
SQUADRON BRIGADE
169
UNIT SIZE SYMBOLS
SQUAD
SECTION
PLATOON
COMPANY BATTERY/TROOP
BATALLION SQUADRON
REGIMENT OR GROUP
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SPECIAL SIZES
L
COMPANY TEAM
BATTALION TASK FORCE
COMPANY TEAM A TEAM FORMED BY ATTACHMENTOF ONE
OR MORE NONORGANIC TANK, MECHANIZED INFANTRY,
OR LIGHT INFANTRY PLATOONS TO A TANK, MECHANIZED
INFANTRY, OR LIGHT INFANTRY COMPANY EITHER IN
EXCHANGE FOR OR IN ADDITION TO ORGANIC
PLATOONS. BATTALION TASK FORCE A FORCE
GENERALLY ORGANIZED BY COMBINING TANK AND
MECHANIZED INFANTRY ELEMENTS UNDER A SINGLE
BATTALION COMMANDER TO CONDUCT SPECIFIC
OPERATIONS. A BN. TASK FORCE MAY BE TANK-HEAVY,
MECHANIZED INFANTRY-HEAVYOR BALANCED, DEPENDING
ON THE CONCEPT AND PLAN OF OPERATION.
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2nd PLT, A CO, 3rd BN, 1st BDE (Bradley MECH)
2
A/3/1
172
ENEMY
INFANTRY COMPANY
ARMOR PLATOON
CAVALRY RECON
173
ENEMY
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WEAPON SYMBOLS
LIGHT MG
MEDIUM MG 7.62
HEAVY MG 50.CAL
LIGHT ANTITANK GUN
MORTAR
MEDIUM MORTAR
HEAVY MORTAR
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CONTROL MEASURES (POINTS)
S P
RP
8
PP
RELEASE POINT
START POINT
CHECK POINT
PASSAGE POINT
3
ACP
CONTACT POINT
DECISION POINT
COORDINATING POINT
AIR CONTROL POINT
176
BOUNDARIES
FRIENDLY PLANNED OR ON ORDER
FRIENDLY PRESENT
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BOUNDARIES
A
A
B
B
1-11
1-11
2-502
2-502
1
1
2
2
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LINES
FORWARD LINE OF OWN TROOPS
FLOT
FLOT
LIMIT OF ADVANCE
LOA
LOA
LINE OF CONTACT
LC
LC
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LINES
LINE OF DEPARTURE
LD
LD
PHASE LINE
PL DOG
PL DOG
PROBABLE LINE OF DEPLOYMENT
PLD
PLD
180
AREAS
AREA OF OPERATION
DZDROP ZONE
A
2/1
L
EA ENGAGEMENT AREA
BATTLE POSITION
PREPARED BUT NOT OCCUPIED
LETTER, OR NAME
(P)LETTER, OR NAME
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AREAS
ATTACK
ASSAULT
ASLT 3
ATK 2
(NAME)
(NAME)
KNOWN ENEMY LOCATION
182
ROUTES
FRIENDLY GROUND AXIS OF SUPPORTING
FRIENDLY GROUND AXIS OF MAIN ATTACK
183
ATK ROUTES
LD
DIRECTION OF SUPPORT ATTACK
LD
FOLLOW AND ASSUME
FOLLOW AND SUPPORT
184
OBSTACLES
WIRE
ANTITANK UNDER CONSTRUCTION
ANTITANK COMPLETED
185
OBSTACLES/MINES
Anti- Tank
UNSPECIFIED
DIRECTIONAL
Anti- Personnel
S
101200Z
SCATTERABLE MINEFIELD (AT) WITH SELF DESTRUCT
DATE/TIME GROUP
186
OBSTACLES/MINES
  • Completed (Unspecified-Minefield)
    Planned Anti-Tank Minefield
  • Completed (Anti-Personnel / Anti-Tank Minefield)

187
FIRE PLANNING
TGT REF POINT
LINEAR TARGET
PAA
NUCLEAR TGT
PAA
PAA
AG9998
PAA
POSITION AREA FOR ARTILLERY
188
LOCATION
CENTER MASS
END OF STAFF
189
LOCATIONS
190
51
50
11
12
13
191
D
51
C
50
11
12
13
192
PRECISE LOCATIONS
FM-101-5-1 Ch4
193
D
C
51
50
11
12
13
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Check on Learning
  • What does this symbol represent?
  • Infantry
  • What color represents enemy positions?
  • Red
  • Describe the symbol for friendly Air Assault?
  • 4. What size indicator is this symbol?
  • Squad

195
Summary
  • Review During this block of instruction Military
    symbols and terms for a Map Overlay has been
    covered.

196
Summary of Course
  • Review During this block of instruction you
    received training on identifying the major
    terrain features, minor terrain features, colors
    found on a Military map. In addition,
    demonstrated the ability to find a point on the
    map using a protractor, determined the elevation
    using contour lines and determined distance on a
    Military Map, demonstrated the ability to use a
    Lensatic Compass, Basic Land Navigation
    techniques, Intersection, Resection,
    Triangulation and Military terms and symbols for
    a Map Overlay.

197
  • WHAT
  • ARE
  • YOUR
  • QUESTIONS????

198
  • You Might be a Soldier If....

1. Your kids recite their ABC's phonetically.
2. Your kids call their sandbox "NTC".
3.Your daughter's first haircut was a flattop.
4.Your kids call the tooth fairy "Slicky Boy".
5.Your son fails the third grade, but tells
everyone he was a phase three recycle".
6.Your two-year old calls everyone in BDUs
"daddy".
7.You ruin the movie for everyone around you by
pointing out the unrealistic military scenes.
8.You go to a barbecue and insist that your
family feed tactically.
9.Your kids show their meal cards at the kitchen
door, except the oldest, who is on separate
rations, and must pay for the meal.
10.Your wife left you and you held a "Change of
Command" ceremony.
199
  • THE FIVE MOST DANGEROUS THINGS IN THE ARMY
  • A Private saying, "I learned this in boot
    camp...."
  • A Sergeant saying, "Trust me, sir..."
  • A Second Lieutenant saying, "Based on my
    experience..."
  • A Captain saying, "I was just thinking..."
  • and a Warrant Officer chuckling, "Watch this
    st..."
  • ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS?

200
  • Some Sound Advice
  • 1. If you see a bomb technician running, follow
    him.
  • 2. Try to look unimportant they may be low on
    ammo.
  • 3. When the pin is pulled, Mr. Grenade is not
    our friend.
  • 4. Incoming fire has the right of way.
  • 5. Mines are equal opportunity weapons. 
  • 6. The enemy never watches until you make a
    mistake. 
  • 7. A clean (and dry) set of BDU's is a magnet
    for mud and rain.
  • 8. If you have a personality conflict with your
    superior  he has the personality, you have the
    conflict.
  • 9. The worse the weather, the more you are
    required to be out in it.
  • 10. No matter which way you have to march, its
    always uphill.
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