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Natural Resources and Energy

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Natural Resources and Energy Today s class What is a resource? Ecological footprints Natural resources and resource-based economies Example: Gabon Energy and oil ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Natural Resources and Energy


1
Natural Resources and Energy
2
Todays class
  • What is a resource?
  • Ecological footprints
  • Natural resources and resource-based economies
  • Example Gabon
  • Energy and oil

3
What is a resource?
  • Naturally occurring material
  • Useful to society
  • Able to be exploited (used)
  • Availability depends on
  • Physical characteristics of the resource
  • Economic and technological condition of society

4
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5
Renewable resources
  • Regenerated as fast as theyre used
  • Energy sources
  • Potentially renewable must be carefully managed
  • Water
  • Forests
  • Soils

6
Nonrenewable resources
  • Finite on a human time scale
  • All minerals
  • Fossil fuels
  • Generated like sedimentary rocks
  • Coal, oil, natural gas

7
Tragedy of the commons
  • Resources held in common free access
  • Wealth measured by resource use
  • No incentive to conserve
  • Tragedy is inevitable an individual will overuse
    public resources when it is in his or her best
    interests
  • Solutions?

8
Example Atlantic cod
  • Grand Banks off Canadian East Coast
  • For 500 years, rich commercial fishery
  • 1950s technology led to 4x catch rate
  • Population crashed in 1980s 70 decrease in
    catch
  • Now moratorium on Northern Cod

9
www.mbayaq.org
10
Resource consumption
  • Ecological footprint
  • Average productive land per person 4.5 acres
  • Average land used by US residents 24 acres
  • Whats your footprint?

11
Mineral resources
  • Mineral inorganic specific chemistry, hardness,
    density, crystal
  • Location depends on geology large size or luck
  • No one country has everything

12
Mineral resources
  • Six stages in mineral exploration
  • Exploration
  • Extraction
  • Concentration
  • Refining
  • Transporting
  • Manufacturing
  • Each stage has its own geography

13
Mineral exploration
  • Where does exploration take place?
  • Geology
  • Politics
  • Economics
  • Technology
  • The less risk and cost, the better
  • Exploration determines where reserves are

14
Resource reserves
  • Estimated vs. proven
  • Remember economics and technology

15
Resource reserves
  • Estimated vs. proven
  • Remember economics and technology

16
Mineral extraction
  • Where does extraction take place? See Step 1!

17
Mineral extraction
  • Where does extraction take place? See Step 1!

Copper City Copper Cove Copperopolis Coppervale
18
Mineral concentration and refining
  • Two similar stages
  • Ex Copper uses 0.5 ore where?
  • Near the extraction site

19
Mineral concentration and refining
  • Two similar stages
  • Ex Copper uses 0.5 ore where?
  • Near the extraction site

20
Mineral processing/manufacturing
  • Depends on the mineral small or large
    quantities?
  • Ex Copper in small pieces where?

21
Mineral processing/manufacturing
  • Depends on the mineral small or large
    quantities?
  • Ex Copper in small pieces where?

22
Example Gold
  • Long history as a valuable metal
  • Conducts electricity ductile
  • Used as currency
  • Aesthetic value
  • Occurs everywhere, even in seawater
  • Placer vs. lode gold
  • Weathered gold washed downstream
  • Veins under the surface

23
Example California Gold Rush
  • Geologically right former seabed
  • Politically right just transferred from Mexico
  • Technology evolved to extract more gold
  • Initially placer mining
  • Then hydraulic mining
  • Then cyanide heap leaching

24
Example California Gold Rush
  • Gold helped Union win Civil War
  • Population boom made CA a state in 2 years
  • Agriculture began to boom
  • San Francisco as gateway
  • Massive amounts of erosion and deposition
  • More flooding in Sacramento
  • Processing involved mercury and arsenic
  • Dont eat American River fish!

25
Example Coltan
  • Mineral that includes tantalum
  • Used in cell phones, laptops, etc.
  • Found in Australia, Central Africa

26
Example Coltan
  • Mineral that includes tantalum
  • Used in cell phones, laptops, etc.
  • Found in Australia, Central Africa
  • Good source of income for Congolese
  • But, militias overrun protected areas and
    smuggle out coltan
  • So Nokia et al. go to Australia instead

27
Energy
  • The capacity to do work or transfer heat
  • (Nearly) All energy comes from the sun
  • Primary energy sources heat or do work directly
  • Secondary sources turn turbines to generate
    electricity

28
Energy
  • 90 of US energy from fossil fuels
  • Remainder nuclear, hydro
  • Different geography for each source
  • Coal, natural gas
  • Hydro
  • Nuclear
  • Solar
  • Wind

29
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30
Nuclear
Wind
Hydro
Solar
31
Oil
  • Worldwide and in US, 40 of energy
  • 2/3 of US use is transportation
  • Cheaper to import oil than extract it here (60
    imported)
  • Depends on relationships with exporters
  • 2002 Canada, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, Venezuela,
    Nigeria, Iraq

32
OPEC
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • Cartel that sets oil prices and supply
  • Formed to resist European companies
  • Holds 70 of reserves
  • Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE
    Algeria, Libya, Nigeria Venezuela Indonesia

33
1970 oil crises
  • 1973 Israel fights off Egypt and Syria
  • OPEC wanted to punish Israels allies
  • Plus frustration with 6 of population using 33
    of energy
  • Quadrupled oil prices
  • Led to gas shortages, efficiency improvements
  • Today, conservation no longer a concern

34
Oil reserves
  • When will we run out? No, when will production
    decline?
  • 10 rule production is about 10 of reserves
  • New discoveries needed to keep production high
  • In 2003, 25 billion barrels were used, but only 8
    billion were discovered
  • And consumption is only increasing

35
Oil reserves
  • Resource use follows Hubberts curve
  • When is the peak of production?
  • Between 1999 and 2010
  • What happens economically?

36
Solutions?
  • Technological improvements
  • Substitutions
  • Taking oil by force
  • New sites of exploration
  • Less environmentally friendly
  • New parts of the world

37
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