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Unit Four: Styles of Learning, Note- and Test-Taking Techniques


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Title: Unit Four: Styles of Learning, Note- and Test-Taking Techniques

Unit Four Styles of Learning, Note- and
Test-Taking Techniques
TB133 Strategies for the Technical Professional
  • John Elberfeld
  • JElberfeld_at_itt-tech.edu
  • WWW.J-Elberfeld.com

Unit Three Summary
  • Microsoft Word is one of the most common word
    processing software programs used by many people,
    ranging from office assistants and professionals
    to students, for letters, reports, memos,
  • In Unit 3, we discussed and demonstrated selected
    features of Microsoft Word 2007.
  • These included basic Word features such as
    formatting and editing, and inserting tables,
    references, and graphics.

  • Comments on homework and grades

Unit 4 Objectives
  • Identify the characteristics of an effective
  • Take a personal learning style assessment to help
    enhance studying and
  • learning.
  • Describe note-taking techniques.
  • Apply learning style to effective test-taking

Reading Assignment
  • Strategies Building on Your Best for Career
  • Chapter 3, Styles of Learning, Note and
    Test-Taking Techniques

Lab Assignment
  • Take an AccuPlacer assessment to determine how
    you compare to other students in math and English
  • This assessment has no effect on your grade or
    your progress at ITT
  • Finish Word labs as needed

  • Take a short quiz that reviews the material we
    covered last week
  • You will have many quizzes, so each quiz grade
    has only a small effect on your final grade do
    not panic!

Locus of Control
  • Locus of control refers to your beliefs about how
    external events control outcomes in your life
  • Internal locus of control You control outcomes
    in your life
  • External locus of control Outside factors
    control outcomes in your life

Locus of Control
  • Internal Locus of Control
  • Can work independently
  • Does not make excuses
  • Can follow a schedule
  • External Locus of Control
  • Easily sidetracked
  • Has trouble taking responsibility for learning
  • Depends on other for guidance

Life Happens
  • This course will help you acknowledge how much
    control you have over events in your life
  • Lightning may strike but you dont have stand
    under the tree
  • You will learn to accept responsibility for more
    of the events in your life
  • You will develop an internal locus of control

  • The purpose of this unit is tohelp you
    understand yourmultiple intelligences, learning
    styles, and personality type
  • You are NOT the same person you were the last
    time you attended school
  • The assessments help you learn the truth about
    who your are now, and the abilities you have now

  • Learning in school is something that YOU control
  • Your instructor presents material for your
  • You decide how and what you will learn from each
  • YOU are in control of your education

Becoming a Successful Learner
  • Learning starts when we take in information
  • Hearing
  • Seeing
  • Smelling
  • Touching
  • Tasting
  • Moving
  • Thinking
  • Feeling
  • Different people gather information efficiently
    in different ways

Type of Learning Styles
  • Not all experts agree on the exact list of
    learning styles
  • Most go along with
  • Visual
  • Auditory
  • Kinesthetic

Learning Styles
  • Visual
  • In lectures, I like to follow along in the
  • I like to read books
  • I keep in touch with friends through letter or
  • I tend to use phrase such as, I see what you
  • I read instructions before starting a project

Learning Styles
  • Auditory
  • I prefer to listen to lectures rather than take
    notes or follow along
  • I like to listen to books on tape or CD
  • I keep in touch with friends through phone calls
  • I tend to use phrases such as, That sounds
  • I ask questions before starting a project

Learning Styles
  • Kinesthetic
  • I prefer to do lab exercises or group activities
    rather than attend lectures
  • I prefer to dance, act, or play sports rather
    than read
  • I keep in touch with friends by visiting or going
    out with them
  • I tend to use phrases such as, I know how it
  • I start right in on a project without reading

So What?
  • Knowing your learning style is useless unless you
    use that information to improve your life.
  • The following pages offer suggestions and hints
    based on a learning style
  • Since most people have a mix of styles, feel free
    to use any of the hints that sound useful to you

Visual Learners
  • Use visual materials such as pictures, charts,
    maps, graphs, multimedia (YouTube), illustrated
    guides, etc.
  • Visualize as you hear and read
  • Use color to highlight important points in text
  • Take notes or ask your teacher to provide
  • Illustrate your ideas as a picture or
    brainstorming bubble before writing them down

Auditory Learners
  • Participate in class discussions
  • Make speeches and presentations
  • Read text out aloud
  • Create musical jingles to aid memorization
  • Create mnemonics to aid memorization (PEMDAS,

Kinesthetic Learners
  • Take frequent study breaks
  • Move around to learn new things (e.g. read while
    on an exercise bike, mold a piece of clay to
    learn a new concept)
  • Work at a standing position
  • Chew gum while studying
  • If it helps, listen to soothing music while you

Make use of new information
  • Most of these new learning strategies require you
    to do some extra work
  • Experts believe the benefits from the extra work
    are worth your effort
  • You wont know unless you try

Multiple Intelligences
  • There are many kinds of intelligences
  • Most schools reward students with a specific type
    of intelligence, but ITT tries to reward a wide
  • IQ scores really tell just how well you can take
    an IQ test
  • Most experts agree there are at least eight kinds
    of intelligence

Multiple Intelligences
  • Visual/Spatial intelligence ("picture smart")
  • Verbal/Linguistic intelligence ("word smart")
  • Musical/Rhythm intelligence ("music smart")
  • Logical/Mathematical intelligence
    ("number/reasoning smart")
  • Bodily/Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart")
  • Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart")
  • Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart")
  • Naturalist intelligence (environment smart")

Multiple Intelligences
  • Take the test on pages 46 and 47 in your text
  • Add up your scores
  • Were there any surprises?
  • Make a note of your high and low scores

Assessment Results
  • If assessments you take during class are not what
    you hoped or expected, it does not mean that you
    are bad, dumb, ugly, or crazy
  • BUT If your assessments exceed what you hoped, it
    does not mean that you are good, smart, beautiful
    and sane
  • Dont take anything personally
  • Take time to learn from the results

  • Intelligence High Low
  • Visual/Spatial
  • Body/Kinesthetic
  • Verbal/Linguistic
  • Musical/Rhythm
  • Logic/Math
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal
  • Naturalistic

Multiple IntelligencesLearning Techniques
  • Knowing your type of intelligence does no good
    unless you use this information for your benefit
  • The following slides give you ideas about things
    you can do to maximize the results of your hard

Verbal / Linguistic
  • Read text and highlight
  • Rewrite notes
  • Outline Chapters
  • Teach someone else
  • Recite information

Logical / Mathematical
  • Organize material logically
  • Explain it sequentially to someone
  • Develop systems and find patterns
  • Write outlines
  • Develop charts / graphs
  • Analyze concepts with a study group.

Visual / Spatial
  • Develop graphic organizers
  • Develop graphs / charts
  • Use color in your notes
  • Close your eyes and visualize material.
  • Draw diagrams.

Bodily / Kinesthetic
  • Move or tap while you learn pace and recite
  • Use manipulatives (pull apart an old computer,
    rather than read about it)
  • Use role plays to practice concepts.
  • Complete lab exercises or participate in group

Musical / Rhythmic
  • Create rhythms out of words
  • Play instrumental music
  • Put new material to songs you already know
  • Take music breaks
  • Listen to soothing music while studying.
  • Create rhythmic jingles or raps to summarize

  • Intra staying inside
  • Reflect on personal meaning of information
  • Visualize
  • Study in a quiet setting
  • Imagine doing what you are reading about
  • Reflect on your learning

  • Inter going outside
  • Study in a group
  • Discuss information
  • Use flashcards with others
  • Teach someone else

  • Connect with nature whenever possible
  • Form study groups with people of like interests
  • Study outdoors

We are all intelligent
  • Some intelligences are valued more in certain
  • A Park Ranger school would look for people with
    Naturalistic Intelligence
  • A School of Broadcasting would value Verbal
    Linguistic Intelligence
  • Architecture Schools and pilots value Visual
    Spatial Intelligence

  • This lesson gives you dozens of ideas for ways to
    become a more effective student
  • Most students know they have to work hard
  • Our job is to help you make all that hard work
    earn you the results you want

Build on What You Have
  • For now, you want to use the gifts you have, and
    not worry about what you feel you are weak in
  • Dont focus on weak areas, but use your strong
    areas to your best advantage
  • Work smarter, not just harder!

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • This assessment is used by many employers to
    determine where you would perform best in their
  • It compares 4 set of contrasting traits
  • Extroversion versus Introversion (E / I)
  • Sensing versus Intuition (S / N)
  • Thinking versus Feeling (T / F)
  • Judging versus Perceiving (J / P)
  • No good or bad types!
  • Extremes may cause problems.

Personality Indicator
  • Take the assessment on pages 55 and 56
  • Add up yours scores
  • Fill in the chart on page 56

E or I S or N T or F J or P

Extroversion (E) versus Introversion (I)
  • This category deals with the way we interact with
    others and the world around us - your energy
  • Extroverts prefer to live in the outside world,
    drawing their strength from other people.
  • Introverts draw their strength from the inner
  • They need to spend time alone to think and ponder.

Sensing(S) versus Intuition (N)
  • This category deals with the way we learn and
    deal with information - How you think
  • Sensing types gather information through their
    five senses. They have a hard time believing
    something if it cannot be seen, touched, smelled,
    tasted, or heard.
  • Intuitive types can see possibilities, and they
    rely on their gut feelings, not just facts and
    hard data

Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F)
  • This category deals with the way you make
  • Thinkers are very logical people.
  • They do not make decisions based on feelings or
  • Feelers make decisions based on what they feel is
    right and just
  • Is it fair? Will it hurt someones feelings?

Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P)
  • This category deals with the way we live - how
    you organize and live your life
  • Judgers are very orderly people who need
    structure in their lives.
  • They set goals and stick to them.
  • They work before they play.
  • Perceivers are less structured and more
  • They do not like timelines and will play first.
  • They tend to procrastinate.

Summary of MBTI
  • TYPE is not destiny TYPE is information.
  • TYPE is not a penalty TYPE is a preference.
  • All types have strengths.
  • Type is not a limitation.
  • Type is an informed opportunity.

Why know about Yourself?
  • You cant change your past, but you can shape
    your future!
  • The more you understand your strengths, the more
    effective and efficient your hard work will be
  • If you understand yourself and your own power,
    you can gather the specific skills, help, and
    tools you need to reach your future goals

Study Tips Extrovert (E)
  • Study with groups of people
  • Seek help from others
  • Discuss topics with friends
  • Vary your study habits

Study Tips Introverts (I)
  • Study in a quiet place undisturbed by others
  • When reading and studying, take time for
  • Use your time alone to read and study more than
    just the assignment
  • Set aside plenty of time to study and think

Study Tips Sensor (S)
  • Observe the world around you
  • Experience information Feel it touch it
  • Explain information to others in detail
  • Apply information from your life to school
  • Create an effective study schedule
  • Explore new ways of studying

Study Tips Intuitive (N)
  • Let your imagination apply what youre a studying
    to something new
  • Describe how what you are studying can apply to
    your life right now
  • Vary your study habits
  • Rely on your gut feelings

Study Tips Thinks (T)
  • Thinkers should make logical connections between
    new information and what is already known
  • Thinkers should remain focused
  • Thinkers should explain the information in
    detailed terms to a study group
  • Thinkers should put things in order
  • Thinkers should study with people who do their
    part for the group

Study Tips Feeler (F)
  • Feelers should establish a supportive and open
    study group
  • Feelers should teach others the information
  • Feelers should continue to be passionate about
    learning and exploring
  • Feelers should explain the information in a
    cause/effect scenario
  • Feelers should focus on the people factor

Study Tips Judgers (J)
  • Set a schedule and stick to it
  • Strive to complete projects
  • Organize your study materials
  • Prioritize tasks
  • Seek help, if needed, to manage stress.
  • Judgers have to overcome perfectionism.

Study Tip Perceiver (P)
  • Study in different places with different people
  • Share ideas with a study group
  • Obtain as much information as you can so you can
    make solid decisions
  • Create and lead an enjoyable study team
  • Create a schedule to fight procrastination
  • Include study breaks in your schedule

Listening Is the First Step to Learning
  • Now lets look at some of the detail that
    researchers have put together for just LISTENING
  • Listening and learning are so important that
    people study and analyze them in detail

  • Maintain eye contact with the speaker
  • Are patient
  • Focus on the topic
  • Have an open mind
  • Do not argue mentally
  • Tune out distractions
  • Lean forward and sit up straight

  • Slouch and lean back in desks
  • Look around the room
  • Get frustrated easily
  • Get angry at the speaker
  • Daydream
  • Prejudge the speaker
  • Create mental arguments

Listening Applications Skills
  • Evaluate the content, not the delivery.
  • Leave your emotions at the door.
  • Listening requires an open mind.
  • Eliminate distractions.
  • Listen for what is not said.
  • Listening is voluntary.
  • Listen for major ideas.
  • Listen for key words.
  • Stop talking.

  • You become an active part of the listening
  • It creates a history of content.
  • You have a written record
  • It creates a visual of the information.
  • Studying becomes easier.

  • Attend class.
  • Come to class prepared.
  • Bring your textbook to class.
  • Ask questions.
  • Participate.

  • Ask the professor to repeat the information.
  • Ask the professor to slow down.
  • Leave a blank space in your notes with a question
    mark to get the information later.
  • Go to the professors office for clarification.
  • Form a note-taking group for sharing.
  • Dont ask another student for clarification
    during the class.
  • Practice your note-taking skills.
  • Tape the lecture with the professors

Note Taking Strategies
  • Attend class.
  • If its on the board or on an overhead, write it
  • Keep the notes for each course separate.
  • Use abbreviations and special notes.
  • Recopy your notes after each class.
  • Sit where you can see and hear.
  • Develop your listening skills.
  • Use loose-leaf paper.
  • Keep your notes neat and clear.
  • Be prepared.
  • Ask questions.

Note-taking systems 1
  • Taking Notes in Outline Form
  • Guided Notes
  • Cornell Note-Taking System
  • Section 1, the largest section, is on the right.
    Record your notes here in formal outline form.
  • Section 2, to the left of your notes, is the cue
    column. Leave it blank while you read or listen,
    then fill it in later as you review.
  • Section 3, at the bottom of the page, is the
    summary area, where you summarize the notes on
    the page.
  • Think Link - Mind Map

S. C. O. R. E. Note Taking
  • Select. Omit trivial and redundant details. Omit
    anything you'll recall anyway!
  • Condense. Replace lists with a category term.
  • Organize. Choose headings and topic sentences.
  • Rephrase. Use your own words.
  • Elaborate. Make connections to existing

  • Effective note taking requires
  • Listening
  • Setting it down
  • Translating
  • Analyzing
  • Remembering

  • The purpose of this unit is tohelp you develop
    strategies for test taking
  • Testing provides motivation for learning as well
    as feedback for both the student and the teacher
  • Testing occurs not only in school but at many
  • This class will help you manage test anxiety

Test Taking
  • Students respond to the prospect of taking a test
    in many ways
  • Some are so confident that they feel no need to
  • Some are so anxious that the feel nausea, have
    headaches, and even black out
  • Others are reasonably nervous, but use this
    energy to help them focus on the test
  • How do you react?

  • There is NO substitute for studying !!

  • What type of questions will be on the test?
  • How long is the test?
  • Is there a time limit on the test?
  • Will there be any special instructions?
  • Is there a study sheet?
  • Will there be a review session?
  • What is the grade value of the test?

If Your Grade is lower than wanted
  • Did you attend class regularly?
  • Did you come to class prepared and ready for
  • Did you ask questions in class for clarification?
  • Did you meet with the professor during his/her
    office hours?
  • Did you seek outside assistance from tutors?
  • Did you ask your peers for assistance or join a
    peer study/focus group?

Test Taking Tips
  • Never use drugs or alcohol to get through.
  • Read the entire test before starting.
  • Write your name on every test page.
  • Write clearly.
  • Check your punctuation, spelling, grammar.
  • Use uppercase letters for T/F and MC questions.
  • Ignore the pace of classmates.
  • Ask questions of the professor.
  • Watch your time limits.
  • Think positively.
  • Maintain your personal integrity.

Test Question Responses
  • There are three basic responses you can have when
    you look over a test question
  • Quick-time response
  • Lag-time response
  • NO response

Quick-time Response
  • Your response is a quick-time response when you
    read a question and know the answer immediately.
  • You may need to read only one key word in the
    test question to know the correct response.
  • Even if you have a quick-time response, however,
    always read the entire question before answering
    to avoid careless errors.
  • The question may be worded in such a way that the
    correct response is not what you originally

Quick-time Response
  • The first president of the United States who was
    a respected leader and had indoor plumbing and
    appears on US bills is
  • A. George Washington
  • B. Ben Franklin
  • C. Andrew Jackson
  • D. Dwight D. Eisenhower

Lag Time Response
  • You have a lag-time response when you read a
    question and the answer does not come to you
  • You may have to read the question several times
    or even move on to another question before you
    think of the correct response.
  • Information in another question will sometimes
    trigger the response you need.
  • Once youve begun to answer other questions, you
    usually begin to remember more, and the response
    may come to you

Lag Time Response
  • The capital of New Hampshire is
  • Dr. Thomas Welch made the first pasteurized
    grape juice from Concord grapes in___________
  • The Concord grape was developed in Concord, MA,
    but that doesnt matter!

No Response
  • No response is the least desirable situation when
    you are taking a test.
  • You may read a question two or three times and
    still have no response.
  • At this point, you should move on to another
    question to try to find some related information.
  • Even if that does not work out, you have some

No Response Options
  • Leave this question until the very end of the
  • Try to eliminate all unreasonable answers by
  • Make an intelligent guess.
  • Watch for modifiers within the question.
  • See if one question answers another
  • Look for hints throughout the test
  • Dont panic simply move on
  • Pick C

Standard Test Questions
  • Most tests are a combination of
  • Matching
  • True-false
  • Essay
  • Short answer
  • Multiple-choice
  • Most of the ITT technical courses depend mainly
    on Multiplechoice quizzes and exams

Matching Questions
  • Read the directions carefully.
  • Read each column before you answer.
  • Determine whether there are an equal number of
    items in each column.
  • Match what you know first.
  • Cross off information that is already used.
  • Use the process of elimination for answers you
    might not know.
  • Look for logical clues.
  • Use the longer statement as a question use the
    shorter statement as an answer.

Sensory Type Body Part
__ 1. Olfaction A. Inner ear
__ 2. Equilibrioception B. Finger
__ 3. Audition C. Eyes
__ 4. Tactition D. Ear
__ 5. Vision E. Tongue
__ 6. Extra-sensory perception F. Nose
__ 7. Gustation
True-False Questions
  • Read each statement carefully and watch for key
  • Read each statement for double negatives, such as
    not untruthful.
  • Pay attention to words that may indicate that a
    statement is true, such as some, few, many,
    and often.
  • Pay attention to words that may indicate that a
    statement is false, such as never, all,
    every, and only.
  • Remember that if any part of a statement is
    false, the entire statement is false

True - False
  • _____ 1. Every true-false question always has
    exactly one correct answer.
  • _____ 2. It is not uneasy to deduce non-difficult
    answers in questions that arent worded clearly
  • _____ 4. The statement 4 ? 23 is a false
  • ____ 5. Your instructor hates true-false

ITT Loves Multiple Choice
  • Most Tests and quizzes at ITT will be multiple
  • Good test taking techniques can earn you grades
    far above your actual knowledge level
  • Poor techniques earn low grades even if you learn
    the material because your knowledge does not
    shine through your answers

  • Circle or underline important words in the item.
  • This will help you focus on the information most
    needed to identify the correct answer choice.
  • Try to answer the question first, without looking
    at the choices
  • Read all the answer choices before selecting one.
  • It is just as likely for the last answer choice
    to be correct as the first.

More Hints
  • Cross out answer choices you are certain are not
  • This will help you narrow down the correct answer
  • Look for two answer choices that are opposites.
  • One of these two answer choices is likely to be

More Hints
  • Look for hints about the correct answer choice
    in other items on the test.
  • The correct answer choice may be part of another
    item on the test.
  • Do not change your initial answer unless you are
    sure another answer choice is correct.
  • More often than not, your first choice is

  • A popular language used to access databases on
    web pages is
  • 1. HTML
  • 2. COBOL
  • 3. BASIC
  • 4. PHP
  • What do you know that can increase your odds?
  • Past knowledge is important

Short Answer Questions
  • Read each question and be sure that you know
    what is being asked.
  • Be brief in your response.
  • Give the same number of answers as there are
    blanks for example, ___________ and ___________
    would require two answers.
  • The length of the blank has nothing to do with
    the length of the answer.
  • Pay close attention to the word immediately
    preceding the blank if the word is an, give a
    response that begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o,

Essay Questions
  • Wadch youre spellling, grammer! and punctuation,
  • More is not always better
  • Answer the questions that are asked
  • Write a thesis statement for each answer.
  • Outline your thoughts before you begin to write.
  • Summarize your main ideas toward the end of your
  • Write neatly and proofread your answer.

Open Book Exam
  • While an open book exam sounds appealing, the
    quality the teacher expects is MUCH higher than
    on regular exams.
  • For the book to actually help you during the
    exam, you must be familiar with its content and
    know where each type of information is found in
    the book

Be Honest
  • ITT frowns on any type of cheating or academic
  • Your own goals must include academic and personal
  • The penalty for cheating is severe and not worth
    the risk
  • Knowing you did the right things in life is a
    much greater reward in the long run than a high
    number for a single test score

Last Minute Test Panic
  • Depressurize
  • Dont waste time blaming yourself
  • Know what you are studying for
  • Concentrate on first and last sentences and
    highlighted material
  • Make connections
  • Use your study guide
  • Repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat
  • Cramming is sometimes necessary, but will cause
    major problems at ITT

Team Work
  • Work in small groups to take a rather challenging
    multiple choice test
  • Every question has at least one correct answer
    but you must justify your answer

  • Not every instructor will teach in a way that
    matches your learning style, personality, and
  • It is up to YOU to still learn the material and
    master the concepts
  • This homework wants you to think of things you
    can do OTHER THAN make the instructor change
    his/her style of teaching
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