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Anatomy / Physiology Overview

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Anatomy / Physiology Overview Muscular System Muscular System Without the muscular system we would be unable to sit, _____ objects. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anatomy / Physiology Overview


1
Anatomy / Physiology Overview
  • Muscular System

2
Muscular System
  • Without the muscular system we would be unable to
    sit, _________________________ objects. Blood
    would no t________, because there would be no
    heartbeat to propel it through the vessels. The
    lungs could not ____________________, nor could
    food move through the _______________tract.

3
Muscular System
  • Muscle tissue is specialized for_________. The
    contraction mechanism is the same in each of the
    types of muscle tissue, but the organization of
    the fibers and filaments differ in each.
  • Muscles may be directly or indirectly (via
    tendons ________________. Muscles are also found
    in and around body organs and structures.
  • The muscular system includes approximately
    _______ skeletal muscles, not including cardiac
    and smooth muscles.

4
Functions of the Muscular System
  • __________ muscle contractions pull on tendons
    and move the bones of the skeleton.
  • _________________________ Without constant
    muscle tension, you could not sit upright without
    collapsing or stand without toppling over.
  • _________________ The abdominal wall and the
    floor of the pelvic cavity consist of layers of
    muscle that support the weight of visceral organs
    and shield internal tissues from injury.

5
Functions of the Muscular System
  • __________________________ Skeletal muscles
    guard openings to the digestive and urinary
    tracts, and provide voluntary control over
    swallowing , defecation, and urination.
  • ___________________________ For example,
    contraction of the heart is an involuntary bodily
    process- the nervous system does not provide
    voluntary control over the cardiac muscle cells.

6
Functions of the Muscular System
  • ___________________Muscle contractions require
    energy, and whenever energy is used in the body,
    some of its converted to heat. The heat lost by
    the working muscles keeps the body temperature in
    the normal range.

7
Characteristics of Muscle Tissue
  • All types of muscle tissue share four basic
    characteristics.
  • Excitability
  • Contractility
  • Extensibility
  • Elasticity

8
Characteristics of Muscle Tissue
  • ____________ The ability to respond to
    stimulation.
  • ____________ The ability to shorten and produce
    a force (tension).
  • _________________ The ability to be elongated
    (stretched).
  • _____________ The ability to rebound to its
    original (normal) resting length after being
    stretched.

9
Types of Muscle Tissue
  • Skeletal
  • Cardiac
  • Smooth

10
Skeletal Muscle
  • ________________under conscious control of the
    nervous system.
  • _________ muscle fibers are marked by a series of
    bands.
  • _______________ most skeletal muscles cross at
    least one joint.

11
Cardiac Muscle
  • Found only in the heart walls.
  • _____________ nervous system does not provide
    conscious control. Rather it is controlled by the
    Medulla Oblongata (brain stem)
  • ____________in appearance under a microscope.
  • _____________ specialized cardiac muscle cells
    (called pacemaker cells) establish a regular rate
    of contraction
  • Major function is to help_____________________
    _______________________________________

12
Smooth Muscle
  • Found in the walls of hollow internal surfaces
    such as blood vessels, bladder, respiratory
    tract, ________________________._______________
  • ____________________________________
  • ___________ autonomic nervous system provide
    involuntary control of smooth muscles
  • ._______________

13
Terminology
  • ______ the stable attachment of a muscle to a
    bone it is usually the more proximal attachment
    and has a larger surface area of attachment.
  • _______ the moveable attachment of a muscle to a
    bone it is usually the more distal attachment
    and has a smaller surface area of attachment.
  • ______________ the main body of the muscle.
  • __________________ connects muscle to bone.

14
Terminology
  • _____________ wasting away of muscle due to
    disease or degeneration.
  • _______________ an increase in cross-sectional
    diameter of a muscle due to exercise.
  • _____________ a sudden, involuntary contraction
    of a muscle.
  • _______________________ most of the skeletal
    muscles in the body can contract in 0.01 seconds
    or less following stimulation. Fast fibers
    fatigue rapidly.

15
Terminology
  • _______________________ Take three times as long
    to contract after stimulation, however they can
    continue contracting for extended periods, long
    after a fast fiber would have become fatigued.
  • ____________t (prime mover) a muscle whose
    contraction is chiefly responsible for producing
    a particular movement. (For example the biceps
    brachii is a prime mover that flexes the elbow.)

16
Terminology
  • __________t a muscle whose actions oppose the
    desired motion. (For example the triceps
    brachii is an antagonist of the biceps brachii
    since its primary motion is extension of the
    elbow.)
  • _________ muscles which help to stabilize a
    joint while the limb is moved.
  • __________ muscle assisting the prime mover in
    performing an action.

17
Naming Skeletal Muscle
  • The names assigned to muscles provide clues to
    their identification.
  • ________________of muscle fibers
  • Regional ____________
  • ___________________features
  • ____________________, superficial or deep
  • ______________________
  • ____________________function

18
Naming Skeletal Muscle
  • Some muscles, often with Greek or Latin roots,
    refer to the orientation of muscle fibers. For
    example rectus means straight and rectus muscle
    fibers____________________________________.
  • In a few cases, a muscle is such a prominent
    feature that the regional name alone can identify
    it, such as the______________________________

19
Naming Skeletal Muscle
  • Other muscles are named after structural
    features. For example, a _________________________
    __of origin, whereas the triceps has three.
  • Muscle names can reflect shape, length, size, and
    whether a muscle is visible at the surface or
    lying beneath.
  • _____________means large.
  • ___________means small.
  • ______________means long.
  • _________________means short.

20
Naming Skeletal Muscle
  • The first part of some names indicate the origin
    and the second part the insertion, such as the
    ______________________
  • Other names may indicate the primary function of
    the muscle, such as the________________.
  • Some muscles are named according to their shape,
    such as the ___________(triangular), the
    _________(trapezoid), or the __________ (diamond
    shape).

21
Types of Muscle Contraction
  • Static Contraction _______________
  • Does not result in any________________________.
  • Often performed against a_____________________.
  • Isometric contractions are said to be
    ________since a definite force is exerted with no
    actual movement of the muscle involved.

22
Types of Muscle Contraction
  • Dynamic Contraction
  • ______________Positive work.
  • The muscle produces tension and
    is___________________) in length.
  • Example doing a biceps curl with a dumbbell.
  • E___________
  • _____________________
  • The muscle produces tension and
    is____________________.
  • Example lowering a dumbbell (elbow extension).

23
Types of Muscle Contraction
  • The contraction type is also used when resisting
    gravity.
  • Eccentric contractions tend to cause delayed
    onset muscle soreness.

24
Aging, Exercise, and the Muscular System
  • As the body ages, a general_________________
    _______________________________________.
  • Skeletal muscle fibers become ______________
    causing a decrease in strength and endurance, and
    a tendency to fatigue rapidly.
  • Skeletal muscles become less___________________
    _______________. Movement and circulation can be
    restricted.

25
Aging, Exercise, and the Muscular System
  • The tolerance for exercise decreases in part from
    the tendency for ___________and in part from a
    _______ ______________________which leads to
    overheating.
  • The ability to recover from ______________decrease
    s limiting repair capabilities and increasing the
    formation of scar tissue.

26
Aging, Exercise, and the Muscular System
  • The rate of decline in muscular performance is
    the_______________, regardless of their exercise
    patterns or lifestyle.
  • Therefore, to be in good shape late in life, an
    individual must be in very good shape early in
    life.
  • Regular exercise helps to____________________
    __________________, and generally improves the
    quality of life at all ages.

27
Aging, Exercise, and the Muscular System
  • Extremely demanding exercise is not as important
    as_____________. In fact, extreme exercise in the
    elderly may lead to problems with tendons, bones,
    and joints.
  • Although it has obvious effects on the__________,
    there is no clear evidence that exercise ________
    ______________expectancy.

28
Common Disorders
  • Strains
  • __________________of a muscle or tendon caused by
    sudden overload or an abnormal muscular
    contraction.
  • The muscles that have the ___________________
    in sports are the hamstring group, gastrocnemius,
    quadriceps group, hip flexors, hip adductor
    group, spinalis group of the back, deltoid, and
    rotator cuff group of the shoulder.

29
Strains
  • Strains are graded according to the following
    classifications
  • 1st degree / Grade 1 (mild) the muscle or
    tendon is ______, but there is no loss of
    continuity of its fibers.
  • 2nd degree / Grade 2 (moderate) the muscle or
    tendon is _____________, resulting in a partial
    lack of function or weakness.
  • 3rd degree / Grade 3 (severe) the muscle or
    tendon is_____________, resulting in the absence
    of function and strength.

30
Strains
  • Treatment / Management
  • ________________________________________.
  • Strains that are too painful for normal walking
    or that cause pain when the athlete moves the
    injured part should be protected. Crutches,
    slings, and commercial braces or splints should
    be used.
  • Definitive treatment of strains will depend on
    the extent of the injury and athletes sport and
    position. A rehabilitation plan should be
    established.

31
Muscle Cramps and Spasms
  • A cramp is usually a painful involuntary
    contraction of a skeletal muscle or muscle group.
  • Cramps have been attributed to a_____________
    ________________________________________
    ________________________________________

32
Muscle Cramps and Spasms
  • Treatment / Management
  • __________________of the contracted muscle.
  • _____________________.
  • ______________________of the athlete.

33
Tendonitis
  • Tendonitis is considered a -______________ which
    usually comes with a slow progression over a long
    period of time.
  • A ________________caused by poor performance
    techniques or a ____________________beyond
    physiological limits can eventually result in a
    chronic condition like tendonitis.

34
Tendonitis
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Diffuse_______________.
  • ______________________
  • _____________________________

35
Tendonitis
  • Treatment / Management
  • Rest, or at least______________________________.
  • ______________________________________should help
    to reduce the symptoms.
  • _____________________program.
  • ______________________medications.
  • Correction of any poor_______________________

36
Paralysis
  • A temporary or permanent___________________.
  • Paralysis can be caused by either_____________
    ______________________________

37
Muscular Dystrophy
  • Progressive ________________________of skeletal
    muscles.
  • Caused by a _______________and usually begins
    early in life.

38
Tetanus
  • ______________that releases powerful toxins that
    affect the central nervous system and skeletal
    muscles resulting in ______________________of
    skeletal muscles throughout the body.
  • After exposure, the _______________(time before
    symptoms develop) is usually less than_________

39
Tetanus
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • ________________
  • __________________
  • Difficulty in___________________
  • Difficulty in _________________(lock jaw)
  • Wide spread_______________

40
Tetanus
  • Immunization is effective in preventing the
    disease. These immunizations last
    approximately________.
  • Severe tetanus has a_____________________.
  • _______________, symptoms in surviving patients
    disappear with no aftereffects.

41
The End
  • Any Questions???
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