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### Energy and the Environment HNRT 228 A Recap Spring 2014 Prof. Geller Concepts For Understanding Energy Work Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Conservation of Energy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy and the Environment

1
Energy and the Environment
• HNRT 228 A Recap
• Spring 2014
• Prof. Geller

2
Concepts For Understanding Energy
• Work
• Potential Energy
• Kinetic Energy
• Conservation of Energy
• Types/Sources of Energy

3
Work is Force times distance
• Definition of work
• work is equal to the force that is exerted times
the distance over which it is exerted
• work in Joules
• force in Newtons distance in meters
• W f d

4
Question for Thought
• A spring clamp exerts a force on a stack of
papers it is holding together. Is the spring
clamp doing work on the papers?
• A Yes
• B No
• If the spring clamp does not cause the paper to
move, it is not acting through a distance and no
work is done.

5
Power - Work per unit time
• Power defined
• power is the amount of work done divided by the
time it takes to do that work
• power in Watts work in Joules / time in seconds
• P W / t

6
Question for Thought
• A kWhr is
• A a unit of work
• B a unit of energy
• C a unit of power
• D More than one of the above is true.
• A kWhr is a unit of work, and since energy is the
ability to do work, it is also a unit of energy.
In terms of units, a watt is a joule per second,
and an hour, as a second, is a unit of time. The
time units cancel, leaving a unit of a joule,
which can be used to measure either work or
energy.

7
Kinetic Energy
• Definition
• Kinetic energy equals the mass of the moving
object times the square of that objects speed,
times the constant 1/2.
• kinetic energy in Joules 0.5 mass in
kilograms speed in meters per second speed in
meters per second
• K.E. 0.5 m v2

8
Question for Thought
• Does a person standing motionless in the aisle of
a moving bus have kinetic energy?
• A Yes
• B No
• Relative to the bus, the person has no kinetic
energy because the person is at rest relative to
the bus. Relative to the ground, however, the
person does have kinetic energy because the
person is moving with the same speed as the bus.

9
Potential Energy
• Definition
• gravitational potential energy of any object
equals its weight times its height above the
ground
• gravitational potential energy in Joules mass
in kilograms acceleration due to gravity
height in meters
• P.E. m g h

10
Question for Thought
• What happens to the kinetic energy of a falling
book when the book hits the floor?
• A The kinetic energy is destroyed.
• B The kinetic energy is converted to heat
only.
• C The kinetic energy is converted to heat and
sound.

11
Mass as Energy
• Definition
• every object at rest contains potential energy
equivalent to the product of its mass times the
speed of light squared
• energy in joules mass in kilograms speed of
light in meters per second speed of light in
meters per second
• E m c2

12
History of Energy Use
• Early civilizations used human muscle power as
their primary energy source.
• Energy provided by burning wood enabled people to
cook food, heat living areas, and develop
primitive metallurgy.
• Dense, rapidly growing settlements outstripped
wood production, thus new fuel sources had to be
utilized.
• 1890, coal replaced wood - primary energy source

13
Fossil Fuels
• Carboniferous period, (286-362 Mya)
• large deposits of plants, animals, and
microorganisms.
• Led to the formation of fossil fuel deposits.

14
Industrial Revolution - 1875
• Industrial Revolution - Machines replaced human
and animal labor in the manufacture and
transportation of goods.
• Steam engines converting heat energy into forward
motion was central to this transformation.
• Countries or regions without large coal deposits
were consequently left behind.

15
Industrial Revolution
• Prior to the Industrial Revolution, goods were
manufactured on a small scale in private homes
master craftsman
• Expanding factories larger labor pools, move
to city
• 200 years, energy consumption increased 8X
• Increased levels of air pollution.

16
iClicker Question
• Fossil fuels are derived from biological material
produced
• A at the time of the industrial revolution
• B about 300 million years ago
• C about 1 million years ago
• D about 1 billion years ago
• E at the turn of the previous century

17
Changes in Energy Sources to 2000
18
iClicker Question
• At the turn of this century (2000) most energy
was derived from
• A Coal
• B Wood
• C Natural Gas
• D Oil
• E Nuclear Power

19
Role of The Automobile
• Growth of automobile industry led to roadway
construction
• Better roads - Higher speeds
• Higher speeds - Bigger faster cars Bigger
• Convenience of two-car families
• Job growth in automobile-related industries
• Major role in development of industrialized
nations.
• Cars altered peoples lifestyle
• Greater Distance Travel
• Sprawling Cities
• Suburbs
• Vacations

20
Growth in the Use of Natural Gas
• Initially, natural gas was burned as a waste
product at oil wells.
• Before 1940, accounted for less than 10 of
energy consumption in United States.
• By 1970, accounted for about 30 of energy needs.
• In 2003 accounted for 25 of U.S. consumption.
• Primarily used for home heating and industrial
purposes.

21
How is Energy Used?
• Industrialized nations use energy for
• Residential / Commercial uses
• Industrial uses
• Transportation
• Less developed countries use most energy for
residential purposes.
• Cooking and Heating
• Developing countries use much of their energy to
develop industry.

22
US use of oil to 2002
23
iClicker Question
• Oil use in the U.S. has always risen since 1960.
• A True
• B False

24
How does the US compare to others in overall
energy use through 2002?
25
Gasoline Taxes and Fuel Cost
26
iClicker Question
• Which of the following countries has the lowest
gas taxes?
• A France
• B Germany
• C Spain
• D Japan
• E USA

27
The Importance of OPEC
• Oil Producing and Exporting Countries
• Twelve members
• Control over 78 of worlds estimated oil
reserves.
• 1,000 billion barrels

28
Overview of Energy Production/Consumption
29
iClicker Question
• The United States imports more energy than it
produces?
• A True
• B False

30
Energy Flow from Source to Use (USA 2008)
Note Changes from 2003, page 17 of textbook
31
TYPES OF ENERGY and their Transformation
Mechanical, Electromagnetic, Electrical,
Chemical and Thermal
32
iClicker Time!
• Electrical energy is transported to your house
through power lines.
• When you plug an electric fan to a power outlet,
electrical energy is transformed into what type
of energy?
• A Mechanical
• B Electromagnetic
• C Electrical
• D Chemical
• E Thermal

33
• Energy come from Energy Resources, that are
converted into energy that we can easily use.
• Electricity is the main form of energy that we
use and can power or charge what we need energy
for.

34
To generate electricity
1. You need an energy source, e.g. coal
2. This is burnt to produce heat or steam
3. The heat or steam then drives a turbine
4. The turbine then can drive a generator
5. The generator then produces electricity
6. The electricity is then transported in cables to
where it is needed

35
Energy Resources can be divided into 2 categories
• 1. Non-Renewable Resources
• For example coal, oil, gas, uranium or lignite
• Once used these resources CANNOT be used again
• 2. Renewable Resources
• For example wind, water or solar
• These resources can be used over and over again

36
Non-Renewable Resources COAL
• What is it?
• Formed underground from decaying plant material
• How much left in the world?
• Plenty left
• Mining is getting more efficient
• Pollution CO2 emissions (linked to global
warming), SO2 (linked to acid rain)
• Heavy bulky to transport

37
Non-Renewable Resources OIL
• What is it?
• Formed underground from decaying animal and
plant material
• How much left in the world?
• Estimates vary, but average about 40 years
• Quite easy to transport
• Efficient in producing energy
• Less pollution than coal
• Not much left
• Pollution air and danger of water pollution
through spills

38
Non-Renewable Resources NATURAL GAS
• What is it?
• Formed underground from decaying animal and plant
material
• How much left in the world?
• Estimates vary from 60-100 years
• Clean, least polluting of all non-renewables
• Easy to transport
• Some air pollution
• Danger of explosions

39
Non-Renewable Resources NUCLEAR
• What is it?
• Uses uranium, naturally found in some rocks
• How much left in the world?
• Not known
• Not much waste and few CO2 emissions released, as
well as, few other greenhouse gases
• High cost to build and close down power stations.
• Waste is radioactive. Problem with getting rid of
waste safely

40
Why is the term, FOSSIL FUEL used for coal, oil,
gas and lignite? A Because they all contain
fossils. B Because they were once food sources
for things that are now fossils. C Because they
are derived from living matter of a previous
geological age. D Because of their energy per
unit of mass. E Because Prof. Geller said so.
41
Renewable Resources WIND
• What is it? It the movement of air from high to
low pressure
• How much left? Lots
• Disadvantages? Winds change all the
• time, not predictable

42
Renewable Resources SOLAR
• What is it? Energy from the sun
• How much left? Lots
• Advantages? No pollution, can be used in remote
areas
• Disadvantages? Can be expensive, needs sunlight
• At night it doesnt work

43
Renewable Resources BIO-ENERGY
• What is it? Biomass and Biogas
• fermented animal or plant waste
• vegetation from sustainable sources
• How much left? Lots
• Disadvantages? Can be expensive to set up

44
Renewable Resources HYDRO
• What is it? Movement of water drives a turbine
• How much left? Lots
• Advantages? No CO2 emissions, can control
flooding and provide a good water supply to an
area
• Disadvantages? Large areas maybe flooded. Visual
and water pollution

45
Renewable Resources GEOTHERMAL
• What is it? Heat from the ground often used to
heat water
• How much left? Lots
• Disadvantages? Expensive and can only be used in
certain parts of the world

46
Renewable Resources WATER TIDAL
• What is it? Movement of sea drives turbines
• How much left? Lots
• Advantages? Can produce a lot of electricity, no
CO2 emissions
• Disadvantages? Not many suitable sites

47
Energy Transfer
Sound (mechanical)
Electrical
Thermal
Mechanical
Electrical
Chemical
Electrical
Light (Electromagnetic)
48
Oil Exploration and Extraction
• Oil is a fossil fuel
• formed from the remains of plants and animals
• died in ancient seas around 300 million years ago
• Biota such as plankton fall to the bottom of the
sea and decay
• form sedimentary layers
• little or no oxygen present
• microorganisms break down the remains into
carbon-rich compounds
• organic material mixes with the sediments to form
fine-grained shale, or source rock
• sedimentary rocks layer generate heat and
pressure
• distilled organic material forms crude oil and
natural gas
• oil flows from the source rock and accumulates in
thicker, more porous limestone or sandstone known
as reservoir rock.
• When the Earths crust moves, the oil and natural
gas is trapped in reservoir rocks, which are
between layers of impermeable rock (cap rock
usually granite or marble)

http//www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html
49
iClicker Question
• Oxygen is required in the formation of oil in the
sedimentary layers
• A True
• B False

50
• The Search for Oil
• Oil companies usually contract out the search for
oil to exploration geophysicists
• Exploration geophysicists utilize
• surface features
• surface rock
• reservoir rock
• entrapment
• satellite images
• gravity meters
• magnetometers
• hydrocarbon sniffers sometimes called electronic
noses
• seismometers most common technique used
• shock waves developed
• reflections interpreted
• Oil exploration methods are still only about 10
percent successful in producing useful well

http//science.howstuffworks.com/oil-drilling2.htm
http//science.howstuffworks.com/oil-drilling1.htm
51
iClicker Question
• What is the name of a scientist who explores for
oil?
• A oil geologist
• B exploration geophysicist
• C petroleum physicist

52
Setting Up the Rig
• Once the land is ready, several holes are dug to
make way for the rig and main hole. A rectangular
pit, called a cellar, is dug around the location
of the actual drilling hole. The cellar provides
a workspace around the hole. The crew then drills
a main hole. The following diagram shows how a
rig is set.

http//science.howstuffworks.com/oil-drilling2.htm
53
Crude oil to Refineries
• Oil fields and offshore oil rigs generally have
hundreds of wells with flow lines that carry
crude oil to the lease tanks. The crude oil flows
from the wells to the unseen lease tanks via the
flow lines, where it is accumulated, sampled and
measured prior to further transportation via
other connecting pipelines. Oil pipelines are
considered to be a closed system since the
chemicals theoretically dont touch the
environment, however leaks in the system do
occur. Also, oil tankers bring oil to refineries
and as was the case in the Exxon Valdez disaster,
the environment suffers tremendously from oil
production.

Photo Courtesy http//response.restoration.noaa.go
v/photos/exxon/exxon.html
54
Environmental Disasters
Statistic courtesy of http//www.itopf.com/stats.h
tml
55
iClicker Question
• The process by which components in a chemical
mixture are separated according to their
different boiling points, is called
• A Distillationism
• B Fractionation
• C Fractioning
• D Fractional distillation
• E Fractional fractionating

56
iClicker Question
• Which of the following are not petroleum derived
products?
• A gasoline
• B kerosene
• C jet fuel
• D plastics
• E None of the above

57
World Oil Consumption
http//people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch5en
58
Oil Exploration Summary
• Oil is trapped in rare geological structures
• Most of the oil in the world comes from a few
large wells
• About one in ten exploratory drillings strike oil

59
Overview of Natural Gas
• Supply of recoverable natural gas available at
affordable costs has greatly increased over past
10 years
• Industrys ability to produce natural gas from
shales has gone from almost 0 to gt 20 of U.S.
needs in just 10 years
• Natural gas demand is at 22-23 Tcf/year in the
U.S. (historic highs). Increased availability of
gas will allow demand to continue to grow over
next several years

60
U.S. Reserve Base Trends Before and After Shale
Gas Production
Significant increase in gas reserves and
production from shales starts in 1999
Source EIA
61
U.S. Natural Gas Production
3.7/yr
-1.9/yr
1.1/yr
U.S. natural gas production is at its highest
level ever in 2008
Source EIA
62
Offshore Gulf of Mexico in Steep Decline
Production is down by almost 50 from 2001-07
Source EIA
63
Fracd (Fracturing) Wells
Shale is very hard, and it was virtually
impossible to produce gas in commercial
quantities from this formation until recent
improvements were made in hydraulic fracturing
technology and horizontal drilling, and there was
an upturn in the natural gas price.
64
Conventional Well vs. Shale Gas Well Production
Curves
65
Basins Where Additional Gas Will Be Produced From
Shales
Marcellus
Woodford
Haynesville
Barnett
Estimated Gas In-Place in these Shales is 2000
Tcf
66
Todays Relative Share of Energy Market by Fuel
Source EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2009
67
U.S. Energy Demand by Fuel
History
Projections
Renewables
Biofuels
Liquids
Natural Gas
Nuclear
Coal
Source EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2009
68
Natural Gas Use by Sector in 2008
29 Electricity Generation
21 Residential
Electricity generation from natural gas has grown
at rate of 4/year since 1990
14 Commercial
3 Transportation
33 Industrial
Industrial usage of natural gas has fallen at
rate of 2/year since 1998
Source EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2009
69
Todays Relative Share of Electricity Generation
by Fuel
Other Renewables 3
Hydro 6
Nuclear 20
Coal 49
Natural Gas 21
Oil 1
Source EIA Electric Power Monthly, April 2009
70
Natural Gas Supply thru 2030
Source EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2009
71
History U.S. Natural Gas Production
Consumption
Source EIA
72
Supply vs. Demand thru 2015
Available supply Assume 1.8 growth / year in
production capacity (starting in 2010) and net
imports at 3 Tcf/yr vs. 3.3-4.0 Tcf/yr seen since
01
Demand (dashed curve) Assume 4 growth in use of
gas for electricity generation after 1 year, 3
reduction in overall demand for 2009
73
Natural Gas is Cleaner
Relative Level of NOx Emissions
Source South Coast Air Quality Management
District 2007 Air Quality Management Plan Summit
Panel
74
Natural Gas is a Low Carbon Fuel
Pounds of Carbon per Billion BTU
Source EIA, Natural Gas Issues Trends, 1998
75
Economics of fuels
/KWh
Source SDI research team analysis
76
Distribution of natural gas
• Impractical to ship must route by pipe
• 1.3 million miles of pipe (250,000 miles of
mains)

77
How much do we have left?
• Estimated recoverable amount 871 tcf
• 40 years at current rate
• Estimates like this do account for future
discoveries
• present proven reserves provide only 8 years
worth

78
Recollecting Chemistry
kJ per gram
• All fossil fuels are essentially hydrocarbons,
except coal, which is mostly just carbon
• Natural Gas is composed of the lighter
hydrocarbons (methane through pentane)
• Gasoline is hexane (C6) through C12
• Lubricants are C16 and up

55
48
48
51
50
48
46
48
48
48
79
Coal
• Coal is a fuel that we have a lot of
• Primarily carbon, but some volatiles (CO, CH4)
• Reaction is essentially C O2 ? CO2 energy
• Energy content varies depending on quality of
coal, ranging from 47 Cal/g
• Highly undesirable because of large amounts of
ash, sulphur dioxide, arsenic, and other
pollutants

80
Coal types and composition
kJ/g
Natural Graphite
fixed carbon
34
ash
Anthracite
29
Bituminous
35
Bituminous
31
sub- bituminous
27
Lignite
25
moisture content
Peat
21
volatile matter
Wood
20
81
Use of Coal
• 88 of the coal used in the U.S. makes steam for
electricity generation
• 7.7 is used for industry and transportation
• 3.5 used in steel production
• 0.6 used for residential and commercial purposes
• 0.1 used on Halloween for trick-or-treaters
ltchucklegt

82
Estimated Worldwide Coal Reserves
Country Amount (109 tonne) Percentage of Total
United States 250 25
Russia 230 23
Europe 138 14
China 115 12
Australia 82 8.3
Africa 55 5.6
South America 22 2.2
North America 7.7 0.8
Total 984 100
1st edition of book had U.S. at 1500 billion
tons. What happened to all that coal? 1st
edition of book had Russian coal at 4300 billion
tons. Gross overestimates?
83
U.S. Coal Production History
84
When will coal run out?
• We use 109 tonnes of coal per year, so the U.S.
supply alone could last as long as 250 (1500)
years at current rate
• Using variable rate model, more like 75100
(400600) years
• especially relevant if oil, gas are gone
• This assumes global warming doesnt end up
banning the use of coal
• Environmental concerns over extraction also
relevant

85
Shale Oil
• Possibly 6002000 billion barrels of oil in U.S.
shale deposits
• compare to total U.S. oil supply of 230 billion
bbl
• Economically viable portion may only be 80
billion bbl
• 8 times less energy density than coal
• lots of waste rock large-scale disposal problem
• Maximum rate of extraction may be only 5 of our
current rate of oil consumption
• limited by water availability

86
Tar Sands
• Sand impregnated with viscous tar-like sludge
• Huge deposit in Alberta, Canada
• 300 billion bbl possibly economically recoverable
• It takes two tons of sands to create one barrel
of oil
• energy density similar to that of shale oil
• In 2003, 1 million bbl/day produced
• grand hopes for 5 Mbbl/day or 6 of world oil
production
• 2002 production cost was 20 per barrel, so
economically competitive