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Researching language learning and teaching beyond the classroom

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Researching language learning and teaching beyond the classroom Phil Benson Dept. of Linguistics Macquarie University How important is learning beyond classroom? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Researching language learning and teaching beyond the classroom


1
Researching language learning and teaching beyond
the classroom
  • Phil Benson
  • Dept. of Linguistics
  • Macquarie University

2
How important is learning beyond classroom?
  • Think about a foreign language that you know
    well.
  • What percentage of your knowledge and ability
    would you attribute to
  • learning and using the language in class
    ___
  • learning and using the language outside class
    ___

3
Why is language learning beyond the classroom
important?
  • Deconstruction of traditional classroom
    instruction self-access centres, distance
    learning, workplace learning, learning for
    practical purposes, etc.
  • Globalization and the shrinking world media
    technologies and mobility access to authentic
    language (Kramsch 2014)
  • Learners often begin in the classroom and
    continue elsewhere
  • Pickard (1995) learners attribute high levels
    of proficiency to learning beyond the classroom

4
How much research is carried out in classrooms?
  • Research articles on language teaching and
    learning published in MLJ 2013
  • Classroom-based 30
  • Not classroom-based 7
  • Total 37

5
Classroom research
  • Second language classroom research investigates
    what happens in second language classrooms.
  • van Lier, L. (1990 174)
  • a cover term for a whole range of research
    studies on classroom language learning and
    teaching. The obvious unifying factor is that the
    emphasis is solidly on trying to understand what
    goes on in the classroom setting.
  • Allwright, D. Bailey, K. M. (1991 2)

6
Classroom-based studies of language teaching and learning processes 9 9
Measurement of language learning variables participants enrolled in language programmes 21 23
Measurement of language learning variables participants not enrolled in language programmes 2 23
Studies of language learning beyond the classroom 5 5
7
Measurement studies
  • Focus on variables (e.g., strategy use, anxiety,
    language or discourse competencies) sometimes
    with experimental treatment
  • Participants are enrolled in language classes at
    the time of the research
  • Typically the researchers own class or a class
    in the researchers institution.
  • How does this influence findings?

8
Studies of language learning beyond the classroom
(MLJ 2014)

Kääntä, et al. (2013) Finnish reality TV contestants talking about language and language learning Social interaction
Back (2013) Symbolic competence of Spanish-Quichua bilingual musicians in Quichua community Language socialization
Rampton (2013) Discourse of adult migrant language learner in UK Discursive stylization
Trentman (2013) Use of Arabic in study abroad in Egypt (n18) Language contact profile
Moore and MacDonald (2013) Intergenerational language learning in a native Canadian community Literacy as social practice
9
Spinning the classroom norm around
10
If language learning beyond the classroom were
the norm
  • What kind of models of language learning would we
    need?
  • Where would the classroom fit in?
  • Where would measurement studies fit in?
  • What kinds of research would fill our journals?

11
A descriptive model
Dimension Refers to Terms
Location Where the learning takes place (setting) out-of-class lt-gt out-of-class
Formality Degree of structure role of qualifications informal lt-gt formal
Pedagogy The senses in which teaching is involved non-instructed lt-gt instructed
Locus of control Who makes the major decisions about learning self-directed lt-gt other-directed (Benson 2011)
12
Other dimensions?
  • Mediation texts, materials, technologies,
    resources used
  • Modality form-focused, reading-based,
    interactional, etc
  • Socialty alone or with others (social networks
    Palfreyman 2011)
  • Linguistic what kinds of language are involved
    creativity, complexity, etc.
  • Trajectory development over time (Chik 2014)

13
Where does the classroom fit in?
  • Any setting can be described in terms of
    formality, pedagogy, etc, etc
  • The classroom is one setting among many that are
    likely to be available as affordances for
    learning
  • Horizontally - within a spatial environment
    (e.g., a town or city, a school or university)
  • Vertically within a temporal environment (e.g.,
    for an individual over a period of years)

14
Where would measurement studies fit in?
  • Two aptitude studies (MLJ 2013)
  • Schools and classrooms as affordances for
    measurement of variables
  • Variables in learning beyond the classroom

15
Language aptitude studies
  • Thompson (2013)
  • 79 Brazilian language learners attending classes
    at a university-affiliated English language
    program foreign language aptitude test
    (CANAL-FT) interviews on language experience.

16
Language aptitude studies
  • Dahlen, K., and Caldwell-Harris, C. (2013)
  • 88 students taking Psychology at Boston
    University (56 never mastered an L2 25 early
    bilingual 7 learned an L2 for everyday
    interaction) aptitude test (MLAT) initial
    vocab learning under 4 conditions recognition
    and recall tests

17
Language aptitude studies
  • Thompson (2013)
  • Previous language experience has an effect on
    aptitude suggests that aptitude is dynamic.
  • Dahlen, K., and Caldwell-Harris, C. (2013) 
  • Monolinguals scored higher than bilinguals on
    aptitude test
  • Authors speculate that, the MLAT measures
    cognitive abilities that help learn a FL in a
    classroom setting and thus may be most valid for
    monolingual Englishspeakers (910)

18
Location and research findings
  • Location influences sample composition of the
    sample influences findings
  • Inclusion of out-of-class learners reveals
    instrument bias towards classroom learning
  • Context in which research is conducted also
    influences findings

19
The importance of context
  • Time and time again when researchers conduct
    experiments, they find that childrens abilities
    differ from one experiment to another. People
    often show dissociations in their behavior,
    seeming to know things when they are tested in
    one way, while seemingly unaware of the same
    information when they are tested in another way.
  • Larsen-Freeman and Cameron (2008 131).

20
Schools and classrooms
  • Measurement studies rely on samples gt30
  • Where do we easily find such samples?
  • MLJ 21 studies of intact classes or year groups
    (one study of school district, 2 unenrolled
    samples)
  • Ou-of-class studies tend to be ethnographic,
    individual or collective case studies (though
    some are classroom-based!)

21
Variables in learning beyond the classroom
  • Standard instruments designed for classroom
    implementation
  • Motivation, strategy use, anxiety, etc. tend to
    present differently.
  • Specific variables e.g., persistence in use
    of broadcast materials (Umino 2005)

22
What kinds of studies will we find in journals?
  • Fewer measurement studies / more qualitative,
    descriptive studies
  • Studies of learning in specific settings
  • Murray, Fujishima, Uzuku 2014 (space and place)
  • Gao 2007 2009
  • Horizontal, ecological studies
  • Palfreyman 2014 Menezes, 2011
  • Lamb, 2007 Lai 2014

23
What kinds of studies will we find in journals?
  • Vertical, narrative studies of language
    learning histories and experiences
  • Barkhuizen et al 2013
  • Benson Nunan 2005 Chik 2014
  • Learning in interaction studies
  • Zimmermann 2011 Tudini 2007
  • The roles of teachers and classroom teaching
  • Ryan 1997 Chern Dooley 2014

24
References
  • Back, M. (2013). La Orquesta Symbolic
    Performance in a Multilingual Community of
    Practice. The Modern Language Journal, 97 (2),
    pp. 383-396.
  • Barkhuizen, G., Benson, P., and Chik, A. (2013)
    Narrative inquiry in language teaching and
    learning research. London Routledge.
  • Benson, P. and Nunan, D. (Eds.), (2005).
    Learners stories Difference and diversity in
    language learning. Cambridge Cambridge
    University Press.
  • Benson, P. and Reinders, H. (Eds.). (2011).
    Beyond the language classroom. Basingstoke
    Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Chern, C-L., and Dooley, K. (2014). Learning
    English by walking down the street. ELT Journal,
    68 (2), 113-123.
  • Chik, A. (2014). Digital gaming and language
    learning Autonomy and community. Language
    Learning and Techonology, 18 (2), 85-100.
  • Dahlen, K., and Caldwell-Harris, C. (2013). The
    Modern Language Journal, 97 (4), pp. 902-916.
  • Gao, X. (2007). A tale of Blue Rain Café A study
    on the online narrative construction about a
    community of English learners on the Chinese
    mainland. System, 35(2), 259-270.
  • Gao, X. (2009). English corner as an
    out-of-class learning activity. English Language
    Teaching Journal, 63(1), 60-67.

25
References
  • Gao, X. (2010). Autonomous language learning
    against all odds. System, 38, 580-590.
  • Kääntä, L., et al. (2013). Learning English
    Through Social Interaction The Case of ?Big
    Brother 2006, Finland. The Modern Language
    Journal, 97 (2), pp. 340-349.
  • Kramsch, C. (2014). Teaching foreign languages in
    an era of globalization An introduction. The
    Modern Language Journal, 98 (1), 296-311.
  • Lai, C. (2014). Perceiving and traversing
    in-class and out-of-class learning accounts from
    foreign language learners in Hong Kong.
    Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching,
  • Lamb, M. (2004). It depends on the students
    themselves Independent language learning at an
    Indonesian state school. Language, Culture and
    Curriculum, 17(3), 229-245.
  • Larsen-Freeman, D., and Cameron, L. (2008).
    Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford
    Oxford University Press.
  • Menezes, V. (2011). Affordances for language
    learning beyond the classroom. In P. Benson and
    H. Reinders (Eds.), Beyond the language classroom
    (pp. 59-71). Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Moore, D., and MacDonald, M. (2013). Language
    and Literacy Development in a Canadian Native
    Community Halqémylem Revitalization in a Stólo
    Head Start Program in British Columbia. The
    Modern Language Journal, 97 (3), pp. 702-719.

26
References
  • Murray, G. (Ed.) (2014). Social Dimensions of
    Autonomy in Language Learning. Basingstoke
    Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Murray, G., Fujishima, N., and Uzuku, M. (2014).
    The semiotics of place Autonomy and space. In G.
    Murray (Ed.), Social Dimensions of Autonomy in
    Language Learning (pp. 81-99). Basingstoke
    Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Palfreyman, D. M. (2011). Family, friends, and
    learning beyond the classroom Social networks
    and social capital in language learning. In P.
    Benson and H. Reinders (Eds.), Beyond the
    language classroom (pp. 17-34). Basingstoke
    Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Palfreyman, D. M. (2014). The ecology of learner
    autonomy. In G. Murray (Ed.), Social Dimensions
    of Autonomy in Language Learning (pp. 175-192).
    Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Pickard, N. (1995). Out-of-class language
    learning strategies Three case studies. Language
    Learning Journal, 12, 35-37.
  • Rampton, B. (2013). Styling in a Language
    Learned Later in Life. The Modern Language
    Journal, 97 (2), pp. 361-382.
  • Ryan, S. (1997). Preparing learners for
    independence Resources beyond the classroom. In
    P. Benson and P. Voller (Eds.), Autonomy and
    independence in language learning (pp. 215-224).
    London Longman.

27
References
  • Thompson, A. S. (2013). The Interface of
    Language Aptitude and Multilingualism
    Reconsidering the Bilingual/Multilingual
    Dichotomy. The Modern Language Journal, 97 (3),
    pp. 685-701.
  • Trentman, E. (2013). Arabic and English During
    Study Abroad in Cairo, Egypt Issues of Access
    and Use. The Modern Language Journal, 97 (2), pp.
    457-473.
  • Tudini, V. (2007). Negotiation and intercultural
    learning in Italian native speaker chat rooms.
    The Modern Language Journal, 91 (4), 577-61.
  • Umino, T. (2005). Learning a second language with
    broadcast materials at home Japanese students
    long-term experiences. In P. Benson and D. Nunan
    (Eds.), Learners stories Difference and
    diversity in language learning (pp. 134-149).
    Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
  • van Lier, L. (1990). Classroom research in second
    language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied
    Linguistics, 10, 173-186.
  • Zimmerman, E. (2011). Talk about language use I
    know a little about your language. In P. Benson
    and H. Reinders (Eds.), Beyond the language
    classroom (pp. 88-105). Basingstoke Palgrave
    Macmillan.
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