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Reformation and Counter-Reformation

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Reformation and Counter-Reformation The Reformation- Another great development at the end of the Middle Ages/Beginning of Early modern period. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reformation and Counter-Reformation


1
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
2
  • The Reformation- Another great development at the
    end of the Middle Ages/Beginning of Early modern
    period.
  • Religion united both the intellectual elite and
    the people.
  • Overall pre-occupation was with God and
    especially Salvation (getting to heaven).
  • Split Europe into two ideological camps.
  • It allowed new ideas to develop and have a chance
    to become widespread.

3
Causes of the Reformation
  • Primary Causes 
  • Corruption in the Catholic Church
  • Simony (sale of church offices),
  • Pluralism (official holding more than one
    office),
  • Absenteeism (official not participating in
    benefices),
  • Sale of indulgences,
  • Nepotism (favoring family members e.g. Medicis),
  • Moral decline of the papacy,
  • Clerical ignorance
  • Secondary Causes
  • Renaissance Humanism de-emphasis on religion,
    secularism, individualism
  • Declining prestige of the papacy
  • Babylonian Captivity
  • Great Schism
  • Conciliar Movement

4
Reformation Era -Catholic Doctrine
  • Salvation faith and good deeds sins must be
    atoned for by good works (prayer) or time in
    purgatory
  • Reservoir of good deeds from the lives of saints
  • Church could bestow that grace upon anyone it in
    place of their time in purgatory
  • Clergy was essential to help guide people to
    heaven
  • Transubstantiation

5
Critics of the Church
  • Emphasized a personal relationship with God as
    primary
  • John Wyclif (1329-1384), England, Lollards
  •   John Hus (1369-1415), Czech
  • The Brethren of the Common Life Thomas à Kempis,
    The Imitation of Christ

6
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
  • Began challenge to Rome in 1517.
  • His main concern was with personal salvation
    comes from faith in God
  • Justification (setting right before God), was the
    most important thing for him.
  • Johann Tetzel (1465-1519) authorized by Pope Leo
    X to sell indulgences  As soon as a coin in the
    coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.
  • ?Tetzel was leading the purchasers to believe
    that the Letter of Indulgence was freeing them
    from all responsibility for their actions.

7
95 Theses Criticized sale of indulgences
  • As a response Luther wrote his 95 Theses (formal
    statements) and posted them on the door of the
    local church.
  • The 95 Theses were copied and then printed and
    widely distributed.
  • The ideas expressed in the 95 Theses include
  • Salvation by faith alone
  • ?No need for sacraments
  • ?Bible is the only authority
  • ?Consubstantiation (specifics in communion)
  • ?Challenged the concept of monastic life
  • Everyone has an equal relationship with God
  • Dont need priests

8
Luther on Trial
  • John Eck (1486-1543) debated Luther at Leipzig
    in 1520
  • Luther denied both the authority of the pope and
    the infallibility of a general council 
  • Excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1520
  • Luther is put on trial by Charles V at the Diet
    of Worms (1521)
  • Tribunal of the HRE with power to outlaw and
    sentence execution through stake-burning

9
Luthers Struggle
  • Edict of Worms Luther outlawed by the HRE
  • Charles declared Luther an outlaw, but was
    unable to enforce his decision
  • Luther was supported by influential (and
    relatively independent) German princes
  • Political struggle between Pope Leo X and Charles
  • Pressure from Ottoman Empire
  • Conflict with France

10
Luthers Supporters
  • Princes
  •      -  Deep religious convictions
  •      -  Helped them centralize their control,
  • - Kept tax money from going to Rome
  •      -  Confiscate church lands (monastic)
  • Saw a chance to protest against the pope
  • Eventually became known as the Protestants
  • Free Towns
  •      -  Clearly separate church and civil powers
  •      -  Urban priests embraced Protestantism,
    increased personal power
  • Women
  •      -  Mainly noble women
  •      -  Gave equal spiritual footing to women
  •      -  Increased the emphasis on the family as
    the primary societal unit

11
Common People
  • Luthers Ideas spread
  • Translated Bible into German
  • Followers of Luther became known as Lutherans
  • Mass held in German language
  • No priests

12
Confessions of Augsburg, 1530
  • Written by Luthers friend Philip Melanchthon
  • Attempted compromise of religious faith to unite
    Lutheran and Catholic princes of the HRE
  • Rejected by Catholic princes
  • Became traditional statement of Lutheran
    beliefs 
  • Salvation through faith alone 
  • Bible is the sole authority 
  • Church consists of entire Christian community
  • Impact on Women
  • Stressed marriage and the Christian home
  • Marriage was a womans career, 
  • Women should be educated schools for girls
    (Philip Melanchthon

13
Spread of Protestantism
  • Charles V seeks to stop Protestantism and
    preserve unity of Catholicism
  • Habsburg-Valois Wars five wars between 1521 and
    1555
  • France tried to keep Germany divided (although
    France was Catholic)
  • Political impact of Lutheranism in Germany
    division lasts until late 19th century.
  •          
  •  

14
Northern Germany
  •  League of Schmalkalden, 1531 formed by newly
    Protestant (Lutheran) princes to defend
    themselves against the Emperors drive to
    re-Catholicize Germany.
  • Francis I of France allied with League (despite
    being Catholic)
  • Peasants War (1524-1525) (also known as Swabian
    Peasant uprising)
  •  Twelve Articles,1525 peasants demanded end of
    manorialism (feudalism)
  • Inspired by Luther Luther opposed to violence
    and peasant movement.
  • As many as 100,000 peasants killed
  • Anabaptists, John of Leyden (1509-1536)
    voluntary association of believers with no
    connection to any state
  • Munster became Anabaptist stronghold tragedy at
    MunsterProtestant and Catholic forces captured
    the city and executed Anabaptist leaders 
  • Mennonites founded by Menno Simmons became
    descendants of Anabaptists

15
  •   Millenarians sect that expected imminent
    return of Christ
  • Unitarianism
  • Denied deity of Christ but believed in Christian
    principles. Michael Servetus (1511-1553) burned
    at stake
  • Luthers views on new sects and the peasantry
  • Did not believe in violent protest nor legitimacy
    of any other faith except mainstream
    Protestantism

16
Switzerland
  • Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531),  established
    leadership in Zurich
  • Colloquy of Marburg (1529) Zwingli splits with
    Luther over issue of Eucharist (communion)
  • Zwinglianism
  • Abolish relics, images, pilgrimages and other
    traditions
  • Abolish mass in favor of services
  • Did not believe in consecration of Eucharist
    (symbolic only)
  • Abolish popes authority

17
John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • Believed in salvation by faith and predestination
  • Advanced the Reformation in French speaking
    areas.
  • Ended up in Geneva
  • Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion
    (1536)
  • Introduced the concept of the Puritan or
    Protestant work ethic.
  • Most militant and uncompromising of all
    Protestants
  • Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva

18
Calvinism
  • Emphasized the absolute power of God
  • Dont need structure of the Church, power rests
    with God
  • Salvation at the mercy of God
  • Predestination meant that you were selected by
    god and should do Gods work on earth (Elect)
  • - Calvinists felt able to reject the state - led
    to religious wars in short term.  Calvinists
    often felt themselves to be justified - gave
    confidence to Calvinist entrepreneurs.
  • Believed that they should spread their faith to
    others
  • Create govt. in Geneva
  • Consistory would punish crimes
  • Dancing, singing, swearing
  • Elect should rule
  • How do you know you are one of the elect?
  • Live right, wealth / success
  • Spread of Calvinism far greater impact on future
    generations than Lutheranism

19
Calvinist Offshoots
  •  Presbyterianism in Scotland, John Knox
    (1505-1572) presbyters (church elders) governed
    church
  • Huguenots French Calvinists brutally
    suppressed in France
  • Dutch Reformed United Provinces of the
    Netherlands.
  • Puritans and Pilgrims (a separatist minority)
    Marian exiles brought Calvinism to England
    (puritans) in England established colonies in
    America
  • Countries where Calvinism did not spread
    Ireland, Spain, Italy

20
3. Reformation in England
  • Early attempt- John Wycliffe (1329-1384)
    Lollards

21
Henry VIII
  • 1509 - Henry became King (18 years old)
  • 2nd of Tudor kingsconsidered a New Monarch
  • Initially strong ally of Pope Defense of Seven
    Sacraments
  • Defender of the Faith
  • Wife 1  Catherine of Aragon (Hapsburg), wife of
    Henrys Brother Arthur
  •             -1516 daughter  Mary
  •             -1527 Henry decided Catherine could
    not have a male child
  • -Needed male child to prevent civil war over
    succession (War of the Roses)
  • Wanted a new wife, but could not get a divorce
  • Asked the Pope to declare the marriage illegal
  • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey failed to get Henrys
    divorce
  • Pope Clement VII says nothing
  • -Charles V (Hapsburg) would not let the Clement
    end the marriage of his Aunt (Catherine of
    Aragon)

22
  • Henry called together Parliament
  • Reformation Parliament
  • Legalized Henrys divorce
  • Declared Henry to be the leader of the church
    (not the Pope)
  • Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, 42 Articles of
    Religion grants Henry his divorce
  • Wife 2  Anne Boleyn (1527)
  • Daughter  Elizabeth
  •  1534  Parliament approved the Act of Supremacy
  • Declared that the king was the head of the church
    of England
  • Henry seized all church property and sold it to
    the nobles
  • If the Catholic Church returned to England then
    the nobles would lose this property
  •   1536 still no male child, Anne Boleyn beheaded

23
  • 1539, Statute of the Six Articles Henry attempts
    to maintain certain Catholic sacraments
  • Wife 3  Jane Seymour
  •             -1536 Edward was born (Jane dies in
    birth)
  • Wife 4 Ann of Cleves
  • -          German princess who did not look like
    her portrait
  • Wife 5  Catherine Howard
  • -          Committed adultery and was beheaded
  • Wife 6  Catherine Parr
  •             -  More of a nurse than a wife, out
    lives Henry
  • -1548  Henry died, Edward becomes king at the age
    of 12

24
  • -Mary became queen after Edwards death
  • Catholic - tried to restore the Catholic religion
    in England
  • Resulted in persecution of Protestants and the
    Marian Exiles

25
Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603)
  • The Virgin Queen
  • Effectively oversaw the development of
    Protestantism in England
  • Had to deal with the return of radical
    Protestants and Catholics
  • Marian exiles Protestant sympathizers flee and
    come back to support Elizabeth
  • 39 Articles created a compromise between the
    radicals and conservatives defined creed of
    Anglican Church
  •  Puritans and Pilgrims (Separatists) sought to
    reform the church Pilgrims left for Holland and
    then America
  • Anabaptists  Adult Baptism, church only for the
    saved 
  • Seen as radical and attacked

26
THE CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATION
  • Catholic Church reformed itself
  • Council of Trent (1545-63) 18 YearsThis
    re-established Catholic norms.It even cleared up
    previously undefined areas.It was very
    anti-Protestant.
  • The Jesuits - Shock troops of the Church.
    Insisted on intellectual rigor.
  • The Index of Forbidden Books.
  • It allowed the church to control what books could
    be published in some Catholic countries.
  •  
  • Pope Paul III Most important pope in reforming
    the Church and challenging Protestantism

27
New Religious Orders
  • Ursuline order of nuns (1544) Sought to combat
    heresy through Christian education
  •             

28
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
  •  (1540) 3 goalsreform church through education,
    preach Gospel to pagan peoples, fight
    Protestantism
  • Spiritual Exercises contained ideas used to
    train Jesuits
  • Ignatious Loyala (1491-1556) founder organized
    in military fashion
  • Beginning in 1542, oversaw Spanish and Italian
    Inquisitions  Spain persecution of Mariscos
    (Christian Moors) Marranos (Christian Jews)
  • Succeeded in bringing southern German and eastern
    Europe back to Catholicism
  •  Sacred Congregation of the Holy Order, 1542, in
    papal states Roman Inquisition
  • Index of Prohibited Books catalogue of forbidden
    readingEnded heresy in Papal States rest of
    Italy not affected significantly

29
Council of Trent
  • (3 sessions 1545-1563) established Catholic
    dogma four next 4 centuries
  • Equal validity of Scripture, Church traditions,
    and writings of Church fathers
  • Salvation by both good works and faith
  • 7 sacraments valid transubstantiation reaffirmed
  • Monasticism, celibacy of clergy, and purgatory
    reaffirmed
  • Approved Index of Forbidden Books
  • Church reforms
  • Abuses in sale of indulgences curtailed
  • Sale of church offices curtailed,
  • Bishops given greater control over clergy
  • Seminaries established to train priests

30
Peace of Augsburg,
  • 1555 Cuius regio,eius religiowhose the region,
    his the religion.
  • Princes in Germany can choose Protestantism or
    Catholicism
  • Resulted in permanent religious division of
    Germany

31
Results of Reformation
  • The Counter Reformation made Catholic countries
    firm in their Catholicism - and made it very
    hard, for non-believers to live there.
  • Much harder to express new opinions and ideas in
    Catholic Countries
  • Most of the new ideas that made modern world grew
    up in Protestant countries and France (Value of
    diversity of states in Europe?).
  • Unity of Western Christianity was shattered
    Northern Europe (Scandinavia, England, much of
    Germany, parts of France, Switzerland, Scotland)
    adopted Protestantism.
  • Religious enthusiasm was rekindled
  • Abuses remedied
  • Religious wars broke out in Europe for well over
    a century.
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