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The Reformation

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The Reformation Basics Where did the Reformation begin? Germany and Switzerland What previous events contributed to the Reformation? Babylonian Captivity (Avignon ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Reformation


1
(No Transcript)
2
The Reformation
3
Basics
  • Where did the Reformation begin?
  • Germany and Switzerland
  • What previous events contributed to the
    Reformation?
  • Babylonian Captivity (Avignon), Great Schism,
    Renaissance, regional identity (nationalism)
  • Who was the founder of the Reformation
  • Martin Luther (1483 0 1546) educated, priest

4
Martin Luther
  • Excellent education, became a priest in 1505
  • 1510 he traveled to Rome and witnessed personally
    many of the church abuses he had heard about

5
  • What was Luthers basis for getting to heaven?
  • Justification by Faith alone
  • What were indulgences?
  • Cash payments for the remittance of sins
  • John Tetzel, indulgence preacher
  • Money for St Peters Basilica
  • Ninety-five theses
  • October 31, 1517 against indulgences and other
    church indiscretions
  • Charles V
  • Holy Roman Emperor 1519

6
  • What was the Diet of Worms?
  • Only two sacraments were biblical (Luther)
  • April 1521 Luther Excommunicated
  • Charles V (HRE) presided
  • Went into exile and translated New Testament
  • What was the Peasants Revolt Luthers role?
  • 1524-1525 peasants revolts against local
    princes Luther advised princes to crush
    rebellion, called revolt unchristian 70,000
    100,000 died

7
Swiss Reformation
  • Switzerland, like Germany was confederation of
    autonomous cantons
  • Some became Protestant, some remained Catholic
  • Ulrich Zwingli (1484 1531)
  • Protestant reformer in Zurich
  • Humanistic education
  • Influenced by Erasmus

8
HRE
HRE
Reformation under Zwingli
9
Zwingli
  • 1519 competition for position as peoples
    priest negative campaign fornication
  • First act as reformer was to end clerical
    celibacy right of clergy to marry
  • Whatever lacked literal support in scripture was
    to be neither believed or practiced

10
Zwingli vs. Luther
  • Throw down over transubstantiation
  • Zwingli (spirit) Luther (body)
  • 1529 at Marburg, debate issues NOT resolved
    Luther called Zwingli a dangerous fanatic

11
Swiss Civil Wars
  • Civil Wars began between Protestant and Catholic
    cantons
  • Mostly skirmishes, but there were two major
    battles June 1529 and October 1531
  • Zwingli wounded in second battle executed on
    field, remains scattered to the four winds so his
    followers would have no relics to console and
    inspire them
  • Eventual treaty confirmed the right of each
    canton to establish its own religion

12
Anabaptism
  • Important radical group that broke form
    Protestant reform movement
  • 16th century ancestors of modern Mennonites and
    Amish
  • From the Greek meaning to rebaptize

13
Others
  • Spiritualists
  • Isolated individuals distinguished by their
    distain for institutions
  • Only authority was Gods spirit spoke to
    individuals
  • Antitrinitarians
  • Common sense, rational, ethical
  • Rejected original sin and predestination
  • Religious toleration

14
Calvinism
  • In the second half of the 16th century Calvinism
    replaced Lutheranism as the dominant Protestant
    force in Europe
  • Prevalent in France, Netherlands and Scotland
  • Calvinism Predestination AND individual
    responsibility to reorder society according to
    Gods plan

15
John Calvin
  • John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • Money from Catholic church provided Calvin with
    great education
  • 1534 Joined the Reformation
  • Geneva, Switzerland adopted Reformation in 1536
    Calvin arrived in Geneva right after this,
    fleeing persecution of Protestants in France

16
HRE
HRE
Reformation under Calvin
17
  • Calvin gradually came to lead the Reformation
    church in Geneva
  • Calvins philosophy and theology led him to
    dictate and control every aspect of society
  • The elect should force vision of Gods will on
    everyone
  • 1553, capture and execution of Michael Servetus,
    a Spanish doctor
  • Geneva became home to religious zealots and
    refugees form France, England and Scotland

18
Diet of Augsburg
  • Directed by Charles V (HRE)
  • Protestant and Catholic representatives
  • They left with orders for everyone to return to
    Catholic church
  • TOO LATE
  • 1531 formation of the Schmalkaldic League
    (defensive alliance)

19
  • Augsburg Confession expression of Protestant
    beliefs
  • Emperor was unable to enforce edict of the Diet
    of Augsburg other distractions (Turks)

20
Expansion and Resistance
  • Denmark Christian II, Frederick I, Christian
    III
  • Sweden King Gustavus Vasa
  • Poland politically splintered no resistance
    to Lutherans, Calvinists, Anabaptists, etc.

21
  • 1547 imperial armies crushed the Schmalkaldic
    League
  • Reformation was too entrenched to be ended by
    force
  • 1552, Protestant victory in battle

22
Peace of Augsburg
  • September 1555
  • Peace of Augsburg made division of Christendom
    permanent
  • Cuius regio, eius religio
  • Ruler of the land would determine the religion of
    the land
  • Religion of the land would match the owner/ruler
    of the land
  • Applied to Catholics and Lutherans NOT
    Calvinists

23
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24
People, Places, Vocab
  • Martin Luther
  • John Tetzel
  • Vernacular
  • Justification by faith alone
  • Purgatory
  • Indulgences
  • Charles V
  • Leo X
  • Ninety-five theses
  • Diet of Worms
  • Cantons
  • Ulrich Zwingli
  • Transubstantiation
  • Anabaptists
  • John Calvin
  • Predestination
  • Schmalkaldic League
  • Peace of Augsburg (1555)
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