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The Civil Rights Movement

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The Civil Rights Movement January 8, 2014 The Beginnings While we think of the modern civil rights movement as taking place during the 1960s, in reality, it ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Civil Rights Movement


1
The Civil Rights Movement
  • January 8, 2014

2
The Beginnings
  • While we think of the modern civil rights
    movement as taking place during the 1960s, in
    reality, it started much earlier
  • In Georgia, and other places in the United
    States, African-Americans had been making strides
    towards equality since right after World War II

3
Benjamin Mays
  • Dr. Benjamin Mays was born in 1895 to parents who
    were former slaves
  • He became a teacher, working in South Carolina
    and Georgia
  • He taught at Morehouse College, becoming
    president of the college in 1940
  • He served as the Atlanta School Boards first
    African-American president
  • He became an advisor to Martin Luther King, Jr.
    during Kings freshman year at Morehouse
  • He retired in 1981
  • A street and a high school in Atlanta are named
    after him

4
The End of the White Primary
  • Primary elections determine who is nominated to
    be on the ballot for the general election
  • Although the 15th Amendment gave African-American
    men the right to vote, legislators in Georgia
    twisted it to mean only in the general election
  • So, only whites voted in the primaries,
    guaranteeing that their candidates would be
    nominated
  • In 1946, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that white
    primaries were unconstitutional and from then on,
    African-American voters could take part in all
    elections

5
1946 Governors Race
  • Democrats Eugene Talmadge, Eurith Rivers, and
    James Carmichael were running
  • Talmadge became the party candidate due to the
    county unit system
  • He ran unopposed, and was elected, but was in
    very poor health
  • His advisors didnt think he would live long
    enough to finish his term, so they came up with a
    plan
  • They had a few hundred supporters write in
    Talmadges son Herman on the ballot as their
    second choice

6
Government in Chaos
  • Before being sworn in, Eugene Talmadge died
  • The legislature chose Herman Talmadge as governor
    based on the number of write-in votes he had
    received
  • Technically, the lieutenant governor, Melvin
    Thompson should have taken Eugene Talmadges
    place
  • However, a group of Talmadges supporters broke
    in to the governors office, changed the locks,
    and prepared to run the state

7
Finallya governor!
  • Ellis Arnall, the outgoing governor, was locked
    out of his own office, so he set up a new one and
    officially resigned the governorship 3 days later
  • Lieutenant Governor Thompson also set up an
    office and began proceedings to become governor
  • Since no one was officially governor, there was
    no one running the state
  • Finally in March, the state Supreme Court ruled
    that Thompson was the rightful governor until a
    special election could be held in 1948
  • In that election, Herman Talmadge was legally
    elected governor of the state

8
Herman Talmadge
  • Talmadge, who was re-elected in 1950, was a
    strict segregationist and refused to integrate
    Georgias schools
  • He tried to bring back the white primary, but
    failed
  • He did improve education, even while keeping it
    segregated
  • He expanded schools to include grades 1-12 and
    lengthened the school year to 9 months
  • He raised standards for school buildings,
    transportation, and curriculum

9
Integration of schools
  • In 1950, a black student, Linda Brown tried to
    enroll at a white school in Kansas
  • She was denied, so her dad sued the school board
  • The case, Brown v. the Board of Education,
    reached the U.S. Supreme Court
  • In 1954, the court ruled that separate-but-equal
    schools were unconstitutional
  • It ordered integration of schools
  • This ruling overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson
    ruling that had allowed separate-but-equal

10
Sibley Commission
  • In Georgia, most schools refused to integrate
  • In 1955, the Georgia legislature voted to cut off
    funding to any system that integrated
  • A commission, headed by John Sibley, was
    appointed to study the problem
  • They found that most Georgians would rather close
    the schools than integrate them
  • The commission recommended that school systems be
    allowed to decide on their own what they should do

11
Integration of Colleges
  • On January 6, 1961, the University of Georgia,
    backed by the Governor Vandiver, allowed its
    first two black students, Hamilton Holmes and
    Charlayne Hunter, into the school
  • Holmes later graduated with honors and went on to
    become an orthopedic surgeon
  • Hunter would become a nationally known newspaper
    and public television reporter
  • Governor Vandiver would go on to ask the
    legislature to repeal segregation laws in
    Georgia, paving the way for smoother integration
    than in other states

12
The 1956 Georgia state flag
  • In 1956, the state flag was changed to
    incorporate the Confederate battle emblem
  • African-Americans were offended as they felt this
    referenced slavery in the states past
  • Georgia lost millions as the reference to
    old-fashioned southern traditions damaged the
    tourist industry
  • It wasnt changed until 2001, then again in 2003

13
Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • MLK, Jr. was born in Atlanta in 1929
  • He attended Morehouse College and obtained a
    Ph.D.
  • He believed in a 4-pronged approach to gaining
    civil rights direct, nonviolent action legal
    remedies ballots economic boycotts
  • He helped organize huge protests in Birmingham,
    AL that led to the writing of the civil rights
    laws by President John F. Kennedy
  • He also spoke at the 1963 March on Washington
  • He was assassinated in Memphis, TN in 1968

14
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
  • Following Dr. Kings lead in non-violence, a new
    era of protest was started by black college
    students with a sit-in at a lunch counter in
    North Carolina in 1960
  • A sit-in occurs when people enter a public
    building and refuse to leave until they are
    served or their demands are met
  • Even though they were refused service, the idea
    spread around the South
  • Later that year, the SNCC (pronounced snick)
    was created
  • Their first president was Georgian John Lewis
  • They helped register African-Americans to vote,
    led protests, organized sit-ins, and boycotted
    businesses that wouldnt serve African-Americans

15
Albany Movement
  • Following the example of SNCC, a sit-in was
    organized in Albany, GA in the whites-only
    waiting room at the bus station
  • The protestors were arrested, which led the
    African-American community to form the Albany
    Movement
  • More protestors arrived, and were arrested,
    including high school students
  • Dr. King, who had traveled to Albany, was
    arrested for protesting
  • All of this led to a biracial committee being
    formed to study the concerns of African-Americans
    in Albany

16
March on Washington - 1963
  • President Kennedy sent the strongest civil rights
    bill in history to Congress in June 1963
  • Congress took their time with it, leading to over
    250,000 people representing all races and
    nationalities to gather at the Washington
    Monument to demonstrate for its passage
  • Dr. King gave the most famous speech of his
    career, the I Have a Dream speech here on
    August 28, 1963

17
The 1964 Civil Rights Act
  • The bravery of civil rights demonstrators and the
    March on Washington caught the nation by storm
  • Even though President Kennedy was assassinated in
    Nov. 1963, the new president, Lyndon Johnson,
    continued to urge Congress to pass the civil
    rights laws
  • It was eventually passed into law, and became the
    most far-reaching civil rights legislation in
    American history
  • It made segregation of public places illegal
  • It prohibited discrimination in businesses
  • It withheld funds from public school systems that
    refused to integrate

18
Changes in Georgias government
  • In the 1960s, two rulings by the federal court
    brought dramatic change to the political
    structure in Georgia
  • The end of the county unit system
  • reapportionment
  • The 1970s saw the election of African-Americans
    as Atlantas mayor and to the U.S. House of
    Representatives

19
The End of the County Unit System
  • This system had been in place since 1917 to give
    power to Georgias rural areas
  • In 1962, the Georgia federal court ruled the
    county unit system violated the 14th Amendment
  • This caused a shift in political power to the
    urban areas, and gave predominantly black
    populations an equal opportunity to elect
    representatives
  • As a result, Leroy Johnson was elected in 1962 as
    the first African-American state senator since
    Reconstruction

20
Reapportionment
  • When the county unit system decision was appealed
    to the U.S. Supreme Court, they handed down the
    one person, one vote decision
  • This is the concept that every citizens vote
    should be equal to every other citizens vote no
    matter where they live
  • In 1964, the federal court ruled that Georgia
    violated the one-person, one-vote concept by
    distributing one legislative seat to each county
  • The court said that legislative seats should be
    based on population rather than county boundary
    lines
  • Georgia had to reapportion (redraw) its voting
    districts so they were of equal population size
  • This also shifted political power to urban areas

21
Lester Maddox
  • Lester Maddox was elected governor in 1967
  • Although Maddox was a famous segregationist, he
    surprised Georgians by appointing more
    African-Americans to state boards and commissions
  • He integrated the Georgia State Patrol
  • He also reformed state prisons and increased
    spending on teacher salaries and higher education

22
Maynard Jackson
  • Jackson became Atlantas first African-American
    mayor in 1974
  • He helped the city progress by reorganizing the
    police and fire departments, as well as city
    government
  • He led the development of MARTA and expanded the
    airport into one of the busiest in the world
  • He helped lead the efforts to bring the 1996
    Olympics to Atlanta
  • When he died in 2003, the airport was renamed
    Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport
    in his honor

23
Andrew Young
  • Young, who is from Thomasville, GA, was a trusted
    aide to Dr. King and was in Memphis when he was
    assassinated
  • He was elected to the U.S House of
    Representatives in 1972
  • He was twice re-elected to the House
  • He was appointed as U.S. Ambassador to the United
    Nations in 1977
  • He returned to Georgia in 1981, where he was
    elected mayor of Atlanta twice
  • He helped bring the 1996 Olympics to Atlanta and
    is currently a professor at Georgia State
    University

24
Questions
  • 1) How is Benjamin Mays connected to Dr. King?
  • 2) When did the white primary end?
  • 3) Who was elected governor in the 1946 election?
  • 4) Why did the legislature choose Herman Talmadge
    as governor after Eugene Talmadges death?
  • 5) Who was eventually appointed governor by the
    Supreme Court?
  • 6) What did Herman Talmadge refuse to do while
    Georgias governor?
  • 7) How did Talmadge improve education?
  • 8) What did the Brown v. Board of Education
    decision say?
  • 9) What ruling did Brown overturn?
  • 10) What did the Sibley Commission recommend?
  • 11) Who were the first African-Americans to
    integrate UGA?
  • 12) Why did the 1956 state flag offend many
    African-Americans?

25
More Questions
  • 13) What famous civil rights leader was born in
    Atlanta in 1929?
  • 14) What was Dr. Kings approach to gaining civil
    rights?
  • 15) What did the SNCC do?
  • 16) What was the Albany Movement protesting?
  • 17) Why was the March on Washington organized?
  • 18) What famous speech was delivered at the March
    on Washington in 1963?
  • 19) What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 do?
  • 20) What amendment did the county unit system
    violate?
  • 21) How did the end of the county unit system
    affect elections?
  • 22) What is the one-person, one-vote concept?
  • 23) How did Georgia have to reapportion its
    voting districts?
  • 24) How did Lester Maddox surprise Georgians?
  • 25) What political positions did Andrew Young
    hold?
  • 26) Who was Atlantas first African-American
    mayor?
  • 27) What were Jacksons accomplishments as mayor?
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